Charlemagne class Battleships (1899)

France (1894-1900)
Charlemagne, Saint Louis, Gaulois
The Charlemagne class Battleships were three French "pre-dreadnoughts" ordered in 1894 over a new design, in an attempt to rationalize and standardize capital ships in France. Charlemagne, Saint Louis, Gaulois were originally intended for the Atlantic but were soon in service in the Mediterranean, taking part notably during WWI in the Dardanelles Campaign, one being sunk by an U-Boat.

First step out of the Young School

One of the crucial change for the French Navy at the end of the century, was to start seeing some of the Young School (jeune école) theories with growing suspicion. France after the 1870 defeat and regime change, decided to reaffect budget towards its army, cutting down massively on naval spendings, and concentrating on coastal defence and armored cruisers, to wage an asymetric warfare on the global stage, mostly looking at the Royal Navy.

However after 1895, emerging Navies like those of Italy, Germany or Japan were contesting the old rivalry and forcing France started to look at a more conventional path, if war was to break out with these.

One point always brought forward in 1893 already was the great diversity of designs tested by the French Navy, lack of homogeneity and long contruction time. This plagued all previous battleships, obsolete when commissioned, like those of the Charles Martel, as well as some constestation on odd design choices, like single turrets and wings guns, or the typical pear-shape hull design (tumblehome) which proved not so ideal in rough seas as it was discovered.

Some of these complaints made their way into a new design ordered in 1894 of three Battleships based on the same, more advanced design, two of which were built in Brest and one in Lorient, with a strict specification and timetable respect.


Charlemagne, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

In the end, this procured three sister-ships that were a more coherent class, with general better characteristics, more conventional approach for artillery, hull construction, better armour scheme, and better speed. Intended at first for the Atlantic, they did not fare well in heavy weather and made their career in the Mediterranean instead, being quite active in WWI in this theater in which all three took part to the Gallipoli campaign, Gaulois being sunk by UB 47 in December 1916.

Despite they were faster built, and more coherent, these new battleships still entered service in 1900, being obsolete as their general design went back to 1893. They were followed by the single Iéna and Suffren, spin-off of their class in 1902-1904, before the old design ways were completely abandoned, leading to the brand new République-class battleships and the great fleet reforms that preceded WWI.


Charlemagne's class predecessor, the Charles Martel class, showing all what was wrong with French capital ships under the Young School doctrine (colorized by Irootoko Jr).

Design in Details

Brasseys diagram
Brasseys diagram of the class in 1896

The Charlemagne were an interesting mix between old and new habits. The "old" was paradoxically an inheritance of the young school experiments, but toned down: They were still characterized by a massive tumblehome, ram bow, and heavy military masts. But at the same time they opted for the more standard fore & aft twin turrets approach. Secondary armament was a bit weak, with just five 14 cm (5.5 in) guns in casemates per side, speed was the same as before and not impressive compared to Italian designs of the time, and armor had a weak spot where the tumblehome slope was located. The struct enforcement of specifications to the yards and avoidance to revise the design also helped a faster construction, of six years (Charlemagne) to four (Gaulois), and the choice of Atlantic coast yards played its part.


Original plans cutouts profile and deck




Decks plans elevations Original




original plans cutout profile

Hull construction


Symonds and Co Collection, Q22279 Gaulois

The Charlemagne-class battleships were small in 1900 standards: They measured 117.7 metres (386 ft 2 in) long overall, for 20.3 metres (66 ft 7 in) in beam, and deeply loaded, reached 7.4 metres (24 ft 3 in) in draught forward, up to 8.4 metres (27 ft 7 in) aft for a displacement of 11,275 tonnes (11,097 long tons) deeply loaded, which was also weak. The contemporary Majestic class (1895) reached 16,000 tonnes and the Italian Sardegna class (capable of 20.3 kts also) 15,000 tons FL.

The general design was still very much in line with previous French pre-dreadnoughts, with the typical tumblehome, still pronounced, a tall, rounded hull, small usable deck surface, conning tower and small bridge forward, towering above the forward main turret, flying bridge running along the amidship section to the aft bridge (with service boats under davits alongside), two heavy military masts with three levels, where the light guns and projectors were located, and the artillery spotters lookouts. As previous designs also, the very long ram bow was substracted from the utility deck lenght, so that the forward and aft turrets were very close to both deck ens of the ship, with little buoyancy reserve. Due to this, both this and their metacentric height resulted in poor behaviour at sea:

The Charlemagne-class ships indeed were poor seaboats in heavy seas, as shown by initial tests in stormy weather in the Bay of Biscay, in 1900. The Gaulois's captain reported that his ship's forward gun turret and casemates were flooded out, while his vessel was ploughing heavily, raisiong so much spray it even washed over the bridge, and the deck was flooded at each wave, water systematically going over the bow. However he also observed when the weather was good, his hip made for a steady gunnery platform, manoeuvering well and having a predictable roll. He however was very critical of the armour layout, not being high enough above the waterline, rightfully so. The crew of all three ships consisted of 727 officers and enlisted men, but they were also outfitted as flagship and in that case, carried 41 officers and 744 sailors.

Protection

The armour scheme was seemed at the time as an improvement over previous experiments, but left much to be desired: They carried 820.7 tonnes (807.7 long tons) of Harvey armour, quality compensating for quantity, but it was a bit light. By thickness figures, the main belt and turrets were well protected, but the general scheme left the entire section above the armor deck and up to the casemate deck unprotected. The sloped section was not sufficient to stop modern AP shells.

As for ASW compartimentation, no special care has been made to adequately separate the machinery room VTE and boilers, but a single layer of compartimented sections behind the belt, and no longitudinal bulkhead. There was no particular innovation in this field compared to previous designs, which was paid dearly by a submarine kill in 1916. Details were as follows:

Powerplant


Saint Louis underway

The three vessels had construction specification quite strict between them, all equipped with 4-cylinder vertical triple-expansion steam engines (VTE), driving each a 4.3-metre (14 ft 1 in) propeller. Steam was provided by 20 Belleville water-tube boilers working at 17 kg/cm2 (1,667 kPa; 242 psi). Total output was rated to 14,500 metric horsepower (10,700 kW). On sea trials they produced with forced heating up to 14,220–15,295 metric horsepower (10,459–11,249 kW). Top speed was 18 knots as designed, but up to 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h or 21.3 mph) was reached on trials. 1,050 tonnes (1,030 long tons) of coal was stored onboard, enabling a range of 4,200 miles (3,600 nmi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

Armament

Main: 2x2 12-in/40 Modèle 1893/96 guns

The Charlemagne class made quite a rupture with previous designs (Charles Martel class) by having a more uniform armament in twin turrets fore and aft while earlier ships spread two 305 mm/45 Modèle 1893 guns in single turrets fore and aft, and two 274 mm/45 Modèle 1893 guns on the wings.

The four 40-calibre "Canon de 305 mm" Modèle 1893 were a first in the French Navy in this configuration, but forcing to adopt a common, solidary mount. The latter was rotated by electric motors while the guns were still hand-cranked for elevate and depression, respectively of -5° to +15°.

Loading position was fully depressed only. They had a ready rack with 10 shells before a new call to the magazine was necessary, helping for a "greater" rate of fire (1.3 minutes). They fired a 349.4-kilogram (770 lb) armour-piercing shell at at 815 m/s (2,670 ft/s), with a range of 12,900 metres (14,100 yd). 45 shells were provided for each gun, 180 total on board.

Secondary: 10x 4.5-in/45 Modèle 1893 casemate guns

From eight to ten 45-calibre Canon de 138.6 mm (5.5 in) for the previous vessels, was explained by having eight (four per side) in individual casemates along the amidship battery and two in shielded mounts, on the forecastle deck. Depression/Elevation was -5°30" and +19°30". They fired a 35 kgs (77 lb) armour-piercing shell at 4 rpm and 730 m/s (2,400 ft/s), with a range of 11,000 metres (12,000 yd) at maximum elevation. Total storage onboard amounted to 2316 rounds.

Tertiary: 8x 4-in/45 Modèle 1893 shielded guns

Complementary, eight "Canon de 100 mm (3.9 in) Modèle 1893" were all placed in shielded mounts on the superstructure. Depression/elevation was -10° to +20°, they fired a 16 kgs. (35 lb) shell at 5 rpm, 710 m/s (2,300 ft/s) and 10,000 metres (11,000 yd) range. Provision was 2288 rounds (286 per gun)

Light artillery: 20x 47 mm/40 Hotchkiss

To deal with torpedo boats, they also had twenty "Canon de 47 mm (1.9 in) Modèle 1885" Hotchkiss, eight located on fighting tops on both masts, four in the superstructure, and the rest in hull casemates. Depressio/elevation was -21° +24°. They fired a 1.5 kgs (3.3 lb) shell at 650 m/s (2,100 ft/s), with 12 rpm, and max range of 4,000 metres (4,400 yd). In total, the battleships carried 10,500 rounds.

Torpedo armament: 4x 450 mm

Four 450-millimetre (17.7 in) torpedo tubes were mounted in the broadside, two submerged and angled 20° from axis the others above the waterline, 90°. The ships carried for them twelve Modèle 1892 torpedoes, sporting a 75 kgs (165 lb) warhead, max range of just 800 metres (870 yd) at 27.5 knots (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph). In 1906 the above water tubes were removed adnd plated over.


Old author's illustration of the Charlemagne in 1914.


Old author's illustration of the Gaulois in 1915.

Charlemagne class Specifications

Dimensions117.81 x 21.39 x 8.38 m (386.5 ft x 70.2 ft x 27.5 ft)
Displacement12,007 t (11,817 long, 13,235 short tons)
Crew710 wartime
Propulsion 3 TE steam engines, 32 Belleville boilers for 15,000 ihp (11,000 kW)
Speed18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Range 8,870 nmi (16,430 km, 10,210 mi) 19 knots (35 km/h, 22 mph)
Armament 2 × 305 mm/45, 2 × 274mm/45, 8 × 138mm/45, 8 × 100 mm, 12 × 3-pdr, 2 × 450 mm (18 in) TTs
Armor Belt: 460 mm (18 in), Turrets: 380 mm (15 in), Conning tower: 305 mm (12.0 in)

Sources/Read More


Books

d'Ausson, Enseigne de Vaisseau de la Loge (1978). "French Battleship St. Louis". F. P. D. S. Newsletter. VI
Caresse, Philippe (2012). "The Battleship Gaulois". In Jordan, John (ed.). Warship 2012. Conway.
Chesneau, Roger & Kolesnik, Eugene M., eds. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905.
Corbett, Julian (1997). Naval Operations. History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents. Vol. II
Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations
Gille, Eric (1999). Cent ans de cuirassés français [A Century of French Battleships] (in French). Marines édition.
Jordan, John & Caresse, Philippe (2017). French Battleships of World War One. Naval Institute Press.
Silverstone, Paul H. (1984). Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books.

Links


Cuirassé Charlemagne (photo marius bar)

On navypedia.org
Last campaign of Gaulois on JSTOR
Gaulois Dardanelles forum.pages14-18.com
memorial-national-des-marins.fr/
On laroyale-modelisme.net
On avions-bateaux.com
On forum.pages14-18.com
On fr-academic.com
On le.fantasque.free.fr
wiki

Model Kits

1/1250 model worthpoint
On modeliste27.com
Cratchbuilt model
Armo 1/700 700-32 Gaulois Charlemagne-class

Charlemagne


Charlemagne in 1914-15 (in grey camouflage)

Charlemagne (after the first Holy Roman Emperor), was authorised on 30 September 1895 as lead ship ship of class, laid down at the Arsenal de Brest, on 2 August 1894 launched on 17 October 1895, completed on 12 September 1899, which was still six years, but this was much improved for the second laid down two years after her, Gaulois, completed earlier actually, in January.

Charlemagne was assigned at first to the Northern Squadron base din Brest with Gaulois, but due to their problems with heavy weather, they were transferred to the 1st Battleship Division, Mediterranean Squadron, in January 1900. On 18 July 1900 she took part in combined manoeuvres with the Northern Squadron and a naval review hosted by the President of France, Émile Loubet in Cherbourg, Atlantic coast. She escorted the Minister of War and Minister of Marine on a tour of Corsica and Tunisia in October 1900 and took part in 1901 in an international naval review in Toulon, with ships from Spain, Italy and Russia.

In October 1901, the 1st Battleship Division (Rear Admiral Leonce Caillard) sailed to Mytilene, landing two companies of marines to occupy the island on 7 November in retaliation of Sultan Abdul Hamid II failing to honoroung contracts made with French companies and French banks loans. The 1st Division departed Lesbos afterwards for Toulon. In January–March 1902, Charlemagne wasn sent to Morocco to participate to the summer fleet exercises and allegedly collided with Gaulois on 2 March 1903, with little damage.

In April 1904, she took part in the escort of President Loubet in a state visit to Italy, followed after her return to the annual fleet manoeuvers of the summer. During a gunnery drill, a 100 mm cartridge spontaneously ignited in a magazine, in January 1905, but damage was well controlled. She sailed with the destroyer Dard, in an international squadron occupying Mytilene in November–December 1905. Thos was followed by another naval review by President Armand Fallières, in September 1906, followed by the summer naval manoeuvres in 1907. In September 1908 she was transferred to the 4th division.

Charlemagne wans sent for a time in the Northern Squadron, in October 1909. Underway north, she visited Oran, Cadiz, Lisbon and Quiberon. She was overhauled in Brest in January 1910. This was followed by a large naval review hosted by President Fallières off Cap Brun, 4 September 1911. Placed in reserve in Brest (September 1912) she was due for her major overhaul. When ot was over she experienced in a gale a 34° roll during her sea trials, in May 1913. Assigned to the training squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet, she headed south, andwas there from August 1913 until August 1914.

Charlemagne escorted Allied troop convoys at first, from North Africa, until November 1914. Like the rest of the French squadron she was ordered to the Dardanelles, in order to guard against a sortie by Goeben, refugee in Istambul. She took part later in the Gallipoli campaig, firing on 25 February 1915 on the fort at Kum Kale. On 18 March with Bouvet, Suffren, and Gaulois she made a first attempt to penetrate the Dardanelles, following six British battleships, in order to destroy Turkish fortifications further north-east.

Ordered to be relieved by six other British battleships, they went through a minefield laid during the night: Bouvet struck a mine, sinking quickly, Gaulois hit two but survived, escorted by Charlemagne to Rabbit Islands, north of Tenedos. There, she was beached and Charlemagne retired too for repairs, damaged during the bombardment, to Bizerte. This went on until May 1915, after which she returned.

Back to the "escadre des Dardanelles" she was ordered to bombard Turkish positions in support of the first Allied landings. Transferred to Salonica in October 1915 they joined the French squadron there to guard againsta possible intervention of the Greeks. Charlemagne was relieved and sent for a major refit in Bizerte, in May 1916, until August. Back to Salonica she was later assigned to the Eastern Naval Division or "division navale d'Orient", until August 1917. Proceeding back to Toulon, she was placed in reserve on 17 September, disarmed on 1 November, stricken and disarmed from 21 June 1920, sold for BU in 1923.

Saint Louis


St Louis engraving, 1914, ELD coll.

Saint Louis (named after King Louis IX), was authorised on 30 September 1895, laid down at Arsenal de Lorient, 25 March 1895, launched on 2 September 1896, commissioned on 1 September 1900 after her sea trials. total cost was 26,981,000 francs. Before commission she participated in a naval review honoring President Emile Loubet at Cherbourg, July 1900.

She was soon assigned to the Mediterranean Squadron, based on Toulon from 24 September, squadron flagship on 1 October, and until 24 February 1904. She transported Louis André (Minister of War) and Jean de Lanessan (Minister of Marine) on a tour of Corsica and Tunisia and in 1905 she participated to yet another international naval review, also held by President Loubet, in Toulon.

On 25 June 1903 she hosted King Alfonso XIII of Spain during a visit to Cartagena after escorting President Loubet to Italy. Saint Louis visited Morocco in December 1906 as tensions rose in the region, and became flagship of the Second Battleship Division from 18 March, then flagship of the 4th Division, from 17 April 1908. She was a brief appareance in the Northern Squadron as flagship in October 1910, taking part in a large naval review with President Armand Fallières in attendance, off Cap Brun on 4 September 1911. However soon after she collided with the destroyer Poignard off Hyères, relieved on 11 November for repairs, which transofmed into a full overhaul at Cherbourg, complete in April 1912. She returned as squadron flagship on 15 April 1912.

In June 1912 she collided yet again with the submarine Vendémiaire, rammed and sank on 8 Junen in the English Channel, off the Casquets. The submersible and crew went down without survivors. Saint Louis was transferred to the Mediterranean Squadron again in late 1912, being based in Toulon from 9 November as flagship, Second Division, Third Squadron, from 18 March 1913. Later she was part of the Supplementary Division as flagship from 10 February 1914.

As war broke out, she escorted troop convoys from North Africa to France and on 23 September 1914 sh sailed to Port Said, escorting a British convoy carrying troops from India. In November she was ordered to the Dardanelles, as part of the guarding fleet in case the battlecruiser Goeben would break out, until January 1915. After a brief refit at Bizerte she sailed for the Eastern Mediterranean, flagship of the Syrian Squadron from 9 February 1915. This unit was supposed to prey on Turkish positions and lines of communication between the Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian coast, down to the Sinai Peninsula. Saint Louis notably shelled Gaza and El Arish in April 1915, before headed to the Dardanelles in May 1915.

There, she was used to bombard Turkish positions, in support of Allied landings. She even became flagship of the French Dardanelles Squadron on 26 August. She was relieved for her wartime overhault at Lorient, departing in October 1915, and was back in May 1916, but as operations ceased in the Dardanelles, she was ordered instead to Salonica as part of the French deterrence fleet towards the Greeks, from 22 May. She was flagship of the Eastern Naval Division ("division navale d'Orient") from 26 October 1916, until refitted in Bizerte in February 1917, placed in reserve in April there and in January 1919 she headed bacl to Toulon for deactivation.

Saint Louis was decommissioned on 8 February, becoming a disarmed training ship for stokers and engineers, in Toulon. Condemned on 20 June 1920, she became an accommodation hulk, and listed for sale on 29 June 1931, purchased in May 1933 for 600,230 francs, to be scrapped.

Gaulois

Gaulois in Toulon, Agence Rol
Gaulois in Toulon, Agence Rol Coll.

Gaulois ("Gaul"), was ordered on 22 January 1895 at Brest Arsenal, her construction delayed by the completion of Charlemagne until launch, and she was laid down on 6 January 1896, launched on 6 October, commissioned on 15 January 1899, assigned to Northern Squadron, but then 1st Battleship Division, Mediterranean Squadron on 30 September.

Both her and Charlemagne were scheduled to sail from Brest on 18 January 1900, and reached Toulon later. In Hyères, Gaulois accidentally rammed the destroyer Hallebarde, which survived and reached Toulon to be repaired. No damage was reported for Gaulois, which on 18 July, after combined manoeuvres with the Northern Squadron, took part in a naval review for Émile Loubet at Cherbourg, followed by an international naval review in Toulon. In October 1901, the 1st Battleship Division (Rear-Admiral Leonce Caillard) sailed to Mytilene, Lesbos, by then possessed by the Ottoman Empire. The battleship carried and landed companies of marines occupying the island on 7 November, forcing Sultan Abdul Hamid II paying his Empire's debts to French Banks.

The 1st Division departed Lesbos in December back to Toulon and in May 1902, Gaulois became flagship, Vice-Admiral François Fournier sent in the US for her staff to assist the unveiling of a statue of Comte de Rochambeau, in Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Gaulois and her crew was invited in New York City and Boston. While back, the battlesip also paid goowill visits to Lisbon and entered Toulon harbor on 14 June 1902.

Exercises off Golfe-Juan (31 January 1903) saw Gaulois hitting Bouvet during manoeuvers. Bouvert suffered little but Gaulois had two armour plates in her bow lost. Both captains were however relieved of their commands and Pierre Le Bris took command on 20 March. By April 1904 she escorted the president Loubet to Italy. She visited also Thessaloniki, Athens, and tested a wireless telegraph in December 1905. With Iéna and Bouvet, she took upt survivors of the April 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Naples. On 16 September 19106, she took part in another international naval review held in Marseilles.

Until the war broke out she went on in her routine of exercises with the Mediterranean Squadron, visiting port in the Empire. In January 1907, she was now in the 2nd Battleship Division, then 4th Battleship Division (July 1908), on 5 January 1909, 2nd Battle Squadron. The strongpoint of her gunnery drills had been the sinking of the target ship Tempête on 18 March. On 5 January 1910 she was now in the 1st Division, 2nd Battle Squadron transferred to Brest, replacing the Northern Squadron in late February. While there, one of her torpedoes was accidentally launched and colided with the the destroyer Fanion while training.

On 1 August 1911, the 2nd Battle Squadron became the 3rd Battle Squadron and she later took part in a residential naval review. She returned to the Mediterranean Squadron on 16 October 1912, and after another naval review for Pdt. Raymond Poincaré on the 10th, her unit was soon dissolved and she was reaffected to the "Complementary Division" with Bouvet and Saint Louis. In June 1914, Gaulois was to be sent to the Training Division of the Squadron but war broke out.

After escorting convoys she ws sent to Tenedos Island guarding against a possible sortie of Yavuz Sultan Selim, in place of Suffren. Gaulois was flagship, Rear-Admiral Émile Guépratte from 15 November, until 10 January 1915. On 19 February she bombarded Turkish Forts with Suffren at the mouht of the Dardanelles, notably Orhaniye Tepe. While on mission on 25 February, anchored some 6,000 metres (6,600 yd) away from the Asiatic shore, she engaged Kum Kale and Cape Helles, was replied, but moved closer to finish off the forts, down to 3,000 metres (3,300 yd) for the shore, having her secondary armament to bark too. She was hit twice with moderte damage.


Le Gaulois, battle damage in 1915

On 2 March, she shelled targets in the Gulf of Saros and went on raining steel on more positions joined with British battleships. Gaulois was hit by a 150 mm (5.9 in) shell, which failed to detonate. Guépratte's was back to the Gulf of Saros to resupply on 11 March, and returned shelling Ottoman fortifications. On 18 March British ships led the way in the entrance, the French ships passing through them to engage forts closer. Gaulois was hit agai, twice. Her quarterdeck was hit, as the waterline, starboard bow. Armour plates were torned below the waterline, with a 7 metres (23 ft) by 22 centimetres (8.7 in) gash causing flooding. It soon uncontrollable so that Captain André-Casimir Biard orderedto sail to Rabbit Islands north of Tenedos to beach her. Non-essential crewmen were ordered off, in case she sank on her trip. She eventually arrived and beached as planned.

Gaulois was patched until fully refloated, towed away on 22 March, repaired further until she could depart for Toulon, via Malta escorted by Suffren. They crossed a storm on 27 March off Cape Matapan, so that Gaulois's patches started leaking under the pressure. She setn a wireless message for assistance, answered by the armoured cruiser Jules Ferry and three torpedo boats, helping her until she reached the Bay of Navarin for furher repairs, taking spare metal from the oldMarceau.

Gaulois arrived at last at Toulon on 16 April, entering drydock and overhauled at the occasions: Her heavy military masts were removed and replaced by simple poles, the superstructure lightened, the conning tower removed a s well as the battery roof's secondary guns, two 100 mm and six 47 mm guns. She received anti-torpedo bulges, making her beamier. All these measures greatly benefited her stability. In June she was at sea again for further operations. Gaulois sailed back to the Dardanelles, arriving at lemnos on 17 June.

She dropped anchor 1,000 metres (1,100 yd) on 11 August off the coast, to pummel the Ottoman artillery battery of Achi Baba. She was hit in return, one putting fire her deck, quickly mastered; While underway back the decodedly unlucky battleship ran aground at the harbour entrance. This obliged all her ammunition and storages being unloaded before she could be towed away on 21 August. Sailing with République she covered the Allied evacuation in January 1916. Next she headed for Brest on 20 July for an overhaul, her captain insisting she needed an extra 4,000 metres artillery range to fit in a modern battleline and so the admiralty though ot disarming her entirely as a barrack ship.

Alas, after her refit, shortened, she was ordered back to the Eastern Mediterranean on 25 November, being off Crete on 27 December 1916. There, she was was torpedoed by UB-47n at 08:03. Her escorting torpedo boat Dard and two armed trawlers could do little to prevent the ambush, and chased off the submarine afterwards, before coming back to assist the sinking Gaulois. Hit abaft the mainmast, flooding became uncontrllable, killing two crewmen outright, drawing many more attempted to abandon her. She sank however slowly enough for the rest of the crew to be successfully rescued. She disappeared beneath the waves at 09:03, off Cape Maleas, where she still lays today as a war grave.

Gaulois sinking after UB-47 hit
Gaulois sinking after UB-47 hit.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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