rwd-table

Imperatritsa Mariya class (1913)

Imperatritsa Mariya, Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya, Imperator Aleksander III

The revised Gangut: 2ns gen. Dreadnoughts

Russia's second and last class of dreadnoughts was not a simple "repeat" of the Ganguts. Constrained by a depleted budget, they were reduced, slower, but better protected versions made for the Black Sea fleet, while the Gangut were all based in the Baltic, facing the might of the Hochseeflotte. Due to the war breaking out, completion was delayed and the ships were soon caught in the Russian Revolution, changing hands before disappearing in the civil war maelstrom.

Design of the of the Imperatritsa Mariya class

Imperator Aleksandr III in 1916
Imperator Aleksandr III in 1916

This second class of Russian dreadnoughts was, in order to gain time, closely derived from the Gangut. That way, a number of previous defects were avoided. For a time (early 1911) a type of battleship capable of 22 knots and armed with 355 mm guns were designed in order to deal with the Resadiye class Turkish battleships then ordered from UK. But the Admiralty rejected this proposal to concentrate on a type of ship closer to the Gangut, with an artillery of a higher caliber, and better protection. The hybrid design of the Gangut was abandoned and the solution, to contain the tonnage, was to restrict dimensions. Obukhov arsenal was unable to develop in time the expected 355 mm guns, so it fall back to the tested 305 mm. But as a result, even with a generous battery of 12 guns, the broadside was less effective and out of reach of most contemporary dreadnoughts.

As expected, the armor was strengthened considerably. The belt was doubled, the turrets, blockhouse, barbettes, main deck received from 20 to 100 mm of additional armor. In the end, the three Mariya, planned for the Black Sea fleet and built in Nikolayev (Russud sponsored and supported by John Brown), displaced 22,600 tons standard versus 23,360 for the Gangut, thanks to their lenght reduced, although their width was increased a tad. The hydrodynamic qualities of the hull were however less impressive and because of this top speed was lower at 21 knots versus 23. This was also due to a smaller machinery space, therefore much lower output (26,500-27,000 hp versus 42,000 hp).




The disposition of the secondary artillery and composition had changed to face criticism faced by the Gangut class. A 130 mm/55 in well protected casemates were adopted rather than the previous 120 mm of the Gangut judged to be too weak against standard 6-in of the time. Finally, it was thought for a moment to fit lattice poles, but the idea was abandoned very quickly. In general, budgets allocated to the Gangut had severely depleted further spending, and restricted the Admiralty's possibilities. The Mariya have been "cheap dreadnoughts" for the black sea fleet based in Sevastopol and this sacrifice was balanced by the weak capabilities of an aging Turkish navy by then.

The short, doomed career of the "Imperators"

colorized photo - Imperatritsa Mariya
Same photo, not colorized
Colorized photo by Hirootoko JR and the original - Imp. Mariya in Sevastopol, 1916.

These three ships were started on October 30, 1911, launched in November 1913 (Imperatritza Mariya), April 1914 (Volya, ex-Imperator Alexander III), and June 1914 for Imperatritsa Ekterina II Velikaya (Ex-Ekaterina II). They were completed respectively in July and October 1915 (Mariya and Ekaterina) and June 1917 for the Volya. The latter was renamed while in completion because of the February revolution. The first two gave the Black Sea Fleet a clear edge over to the Turkish fleet. They sortied for shelling operations of the Turks and Bulgarian coastal forts while preventing any Turkish fleet incursion from the Yavuz and Midilli in particular.

The Imperatritsa Mariya was very badly damaged by the explosion of a magazine on 20 October 1916. She sank in the harbor and considered irretrievable. Her hull was later refloated only to be scrapped in 1922.
Ekaterina Velikaya was renamed on 29 April 1917 Svobodania Rossiya. Later, she fell into the hands of the Bolsheviks and left Sevastopol threatened by German forces, sailing towards Novorossiysk in April 1918. When the latter city fell in turn, the destroyer Kerch torpedoed the battleship to avoid her capture.


Ex-Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya, as Volya

Volya (Freedom)

The Volya, on the other hand, soon raised the Ukrainian flag, but the Bolsheviks forced her to leave Sevastopol for Novorrossisk. She returned two weeks later, only to be seized by German troops. The Volya was back into service and made only one sortie in the Bosphorus before being captured after the capitulation, by the British. The latter then transferred the dreadnought to Izmid to avoid capture by the "Reds". Se joined De Facto the "white" fleet of Admiral Wrangel in October 1919, renamed General Alekseev. She was very active until the capture of Crimea. She was broken up under French control in 1936 after being sold in 1924.

Imperatrista Mariya 1914
Imperatrista Mariya, Sevastopol 1914

Paper project: The Imperator Nikolai I class (1915)

A fourth ship was ordered for the Black Sea fleet at Nikolayev's Russud shipyards on January 28, 1915. It was the Imperator Nikolai I. It was derived from the Mariya class, but much larger (188 meters long overall by 28.9 wide and 27 300 tonnes light) and has a revised protection up again, increasing by almost 50% on many key points. Named falsely Ivan Grozniy, He was well launched on October 18, 1916, but never completed. Its construction was delayed when the announcement was made of the cancellation of the order of a battleship by Turkey in Brazil. After the revolution of February she became the Demokratiya, and in 1918 she was captured by the Germans in drydock. Later it was the British who seized the hull, and blew it up to prevent it from falling to the hands of the Reds at the end of 1919. The wreck was dismantled in 1923.

Battleship Imperatritsa Mariya
Battleship Imperatritsa Mariya in 1915, author's illustration

Specifications

Displacement: 22,600 t standard, 24,000 t. FL
Dimensions: 167.8 x 27.3 x 8.4 m
Propulsion: 4 shaft Parsons turbines, 20 Yarrow boilers, 26,500 hp. 21 knots.
Armour: Blockhaus 305, Belt 267, Turrets 305 mm, Bridges 76 mm, Barbettes 203 mm;
Crew: 1220 men.
Armament: 12 x 305 (4x3) (12 in), 20 x 130 mm (4.5 in), 8 x 75 mm (3 in), 4 of 47 mm (2 in), 4 x 457 mm (18 in) TTs (sub)

Read More:

Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1906-1921
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperatritsa_Mariya-class_battleship
http://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/1ere-guerre-mondiale/marine-russe1914.php#cuirasses

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Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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