Type XIV "Milchkühe" U-Boats

Germany (1941-42): 10 U-boats

Maintaining Wolf Packs at sea

One aspect of the Battle of the Atlantic was to maintain operating U-Boats at sea as long as possible. It mostly concerned the standard Type VII, which had a limited autonomy. In the massive expanses of the Atlantic, locating convoys was one thing, but reaching them was another, and the Type VII, which had a radius of action limited to the mid-atlantic, often misses convoys, being too far away or requiring too much fuel consumption to get there. The few possible "unsinkable" supply bases that existed in the mid-Atlantic were the Azores, and they were not under German control, despite Hitler desperatly begging for Franco to lease them.

In early 1941, despite successes against slower convoys, many U-Boats came home after running out of fuel in fruitless chases. Others, later in the war, had to escape multiple times and consumed also their fuel supply with little results to show for. Food could be rationed, torpedoes were rarely all fired, so the chief problem to maintain U-Boats at sea was the supply of diesel fuel, as the latter also fed the eletrical systems on board.

Like in WWI, the German Navy planned even before the hostilities commenced a network or supply vessels located in strategic points around the globe for their merchant raiders operations. One such vessel was the famous Altmark, captured in Norway, but there were many more. Although they were disguised as civilian vessels, an enquiry could have them tracked by the allies navies. In 1939-40 many chases against blockade runners and Merchant cruisers ended with the capture or destruction or supply ships. Having at least one such ship in the port of Vigo (Spain), in Galicia, northern coast on the bay of Biscaye, and in the Baleares was always a blessing, but imposed to U-Boat crews a long, and potentially dangerous trip to get there, arriving by night.

Dangerous indeed, as the Bay of Biscaye was the launching spot for U-Boats operating from the six French coastal bases, like Brest and Lorient, or Bordeaux later. Fleet air arm patrols and others surface gunboats and corvettes of the Royal Navy roamed the area day and night. So having U-Boats kept in the middle of the atlantic, ready to pounce on any incoming convoy, was the ideal solution. However, sending there supply ships alone was risky.

The Kriegsmarine's U-Boat tenders

The Kriegsmarine had several U-Boat tenders in 1941: KMS Saar (1934), and the larger and more modern KMS Wilhelm Bauer, W. Kophamel and Otto Wünsche, which were proper, well armed military ships built in Kiel: They were nearly 6,000 tonnes vessels, armed with four 105 mm guns and a powerful AA. With 20 kts it was however hard for them to escape allied destroyers. The Kriegsmarine also operated civilian auxiliaries, KMS Donau, Weichel, Isar, lech and Erwin Wassner. In addition from late 1942, the radical influx of air cover for the allies in the Atlantic, made likely these ships would be discovered en route to their supply point in the Atlantic.

By early 1940 already, Admiral Karl Dönitz recoignised that on the long run, allied air power it would be more difficult to send supply ships out on the open. So he ordered a study to built "submarine tankers", dedicated for the purpose of supplying his U-Boats at sea, the latter having the advantage contrary to ship, to escape detection easier, and in all cases, escape its threats.

Despite an obvious smaller capacity, it still would be less risky to send them rather than surface ships. Without the hindsight of the US entry into the war and British war production to keep watch on the Atlantic by late 1942, this was a bold move.

Development History

The search for an alternative solution to supply surface vessel came in a 1934 with a design proposal for a modified type IV U-boat, modified as an undersea tanker. It was submitted to te Kriegsmarine's HQ, and called for a 2500 ton submersible tanker project, as a highly modified version of the type IXD attack type on paper at that time as a long range model. To make room there was to be no attack capability and in addition to fuel, in the double hull tanks, there was to be enough storage in the freed torpedo tubes rooms for food, torpedoes and medical aid.

These boats soon earned internally the nickname “Milk Cows” could prolongayte operations of a wolfpack to two weeks. However the limits of the Anglo-German Naval Treaty had the Naval Staff sidelining submarine tanker construction in 1935 and preferred optimizing the existing fleet, with a coastal force and ocean-going boats, in particular the promising Type VII. The subject of "U-Tankers" remained dormant until Admiral Karl Donitz resurrected the concept in a 1939 letter to Naval headquarters. He proposed construction of three supply boats, displacing 2000 tons. Donitz's master argument was reaching the American coast for possible operations that far , based on the limitations of the type VIIC U-boat, carried only 114 tons diesel fuel (6500 miles), and they needed 2500 miles to arrive on station alone.

Donitz wanted floating fuel depots beyond the reach of the Allies capabilities, and his request was eventually given the go-ahead in 1940. Design specifications were drawn up and quickly, and approved as the type XIV, these U-Tankers being rated at 1,932 tons for a gross capacity of 430 tons of fuel.


The final design displaced 1,688 t (1,661 long tons) surfaced, 1,932 t (1,901 long tons) submerged for an overall lenght of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in) overall, and 48.51 m (159 ft 2 in) for the inner pressure hull. Ther beam was larger than usual to accomodate the tanks, 9.35 m (30 ft 8 in) overall and 4.90 m (16 ft 1 in) for the pressure hull. Total height of the hull was 11.70 m (38 ft 5 in), to the tip of the CT, and a rather massive draught of 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in). The strength of their construction led their builder to give them the standard 240 m (790 ft) test depth figure, but some boats certaonly were able to dive well below this figure. Their pressure hulls still indeed were 1-in thick so they could safety dive well over 500 feet, which in effect was deeper than the type VIIC/IX.

Internal accomodations for storage included upper decks designed to be large clear storage areas in order to handle pelletised bulk stores. Designers made the IXD shorter but wider and deeper for a much greater internal volume, and double deck essentially. The flat main deck in practice proved more of a detriment than an aid to the crew. The boat made a wider target for aviation and was slow to dive compared to standard boats.


Since the design borrowed heavily on the Type IX, nearly all components which could be reused were utilised and this included also parts from Type VIIC such as their anchors, winches, hatches and other items. The powerplant comprised a set of two propeller shafts, mated to two MAN diesel engines which developed 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) when surfaced, and two Siemens electric motors with an output of 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) underwater. This produced a top speed, surfaced, of 14.4–14.9 knots (26.7–27.6 km/h; 16.6–17.1 mph) and 6.2 knots (11.5 km/h; 7.1 mph) submerged. These were not stellar figures, but since they were not attack boats and only needed to get to a point, their major asset was still a range of 12,350 nmi (22,870 km; 14,210 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, and still 55 nmi (102 km; 63 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged to escape their pursuers.


These non-combatants carried 12 torpedoes but had no tubes to launch them. The type XIV in basic form had two light 37mm FLAK 38 located on deck, either side of the conning tower, and a single 20mm AA gun in the tower's aft platform. Configuration differed and some boats had a raised platform aft of the conning tower to raise the aft 37 mm. In all cases, this combination proved deadly in mission, helping these U-Tankers surviving and even in some case repelling attacks of allied bombers and patrol planes.

Other specifics

They had in addition of fuel tanks, enough space to carry 12 spare torpedoes, up to 15-20 tons of parts, ammunition, food & medical supplies. There was evcen enough space onboard to create a small, yet full-blown bakery, able to produce fresh bread every day. There was also a small medical facility for a medical doctor, able to treat injured sailors. Discipline-wise, no prison aboard but a tiny two-man “brig” to carry punished U-boat crewmen for serious crimes back to Germany.

To transfer fuel lines and provisions, a single 20-ft inflatable work boat was stored under the deck to be deployed. it was also used to transfer boxed goods and mail, plus they possessed folded-down light-weight portable cranes, rigged to high-line priority cargo, also usable to carry people between boats in a high-line fashion.


The choice to gain time of the Type IXB as the base helped to have all blueprints ready by October 1940. The initial program specified a first batch of 25, with possibly more to come. However they were not prioritized, and construction dragged on until 1944, when the whole program was cancelled by Speer. By the time the axe fell, Three (U-491, U-492, U-493) were about 75% complete while the other eleven boats had not even been laid down when cancelled on 27 May 1944, Karl Dönitz also stopping construction on the Type XX U-boats hich were even larger transport boats as they would not have been completed before mid-1945. Heavy losses in 1943 (almost all were sunk, including four in July alone) and Speer's condition to greenlight the new and promising Type XXI was in effect to cancel the program.

U-459 was the first laid down (lead boat) at Deutsche Werke, Kiel, Yard number 290, on 22 November 1940. Ten more would followed, although the program comprised 25 of them total, now receving the designation of Type XIV. She was followed by U-459, commissioned on 15 November 1941, U-460, commissioned on 24 December 1941, U-461, commissioned on 30 January 1942, U-462, commissioned on 5 March 1942, U-463, commissioned on 2 April 1942, U-464, commissioned on 30 April 1942, U-487, commissioned on 21 December 1942, U-488, commissioned on 1 February 1943, U-489, commissioned on 8 March 1943, and U-490, commissioned on 27 March 1943, sunk on 12 June 1944. Construction was stopped for a time and only resumed for the next three in early 1944.

Author's depiction of the Type XIV U-Boat

⚙ Type XIV class specifications

Dimensions67.10 x 9.40 x 6.50 m (220 ft x 30ft x 21ft 4in)
Displacement1661/1900 tons standard/underwater
Propulsion2 shafts Germania diesels, 2 electric motors, 1400/375 bhp.
Speed surface/underwater14.4/6.3 knots (xx km/h)
Armament2x 37/83 FLAK C30, 1x 20mm FLAK C30
Capacity432 tonnes of fuel oil

General Assessment

These XIV boats were generally successful early on, while operating out of US coast at about 1000 km out of New York. Well before the "happy time" at the start of the war, there was the "mid-atlantic gap" cause by the absence of air cover 300-400 miles off the North American Mainland. This allowed the the smaller VIIC to operate in US waters, which they could not in normal conditions. This also allowed them to operate in the Caribbean in 1942 but due to better allied radar and air coverage the year 1943 (and enexplained losses - see below) completely hampered their operations and conducted to cancel the 14 remaining orders. The "Milch Cows" as soon as they were known for allied intel became a priority target for all Allied forces, and both USN and Fleet Air Arm/Coastal Command hunted them down with bombers and long-range patrollers.

Outside the precise Wolfpacks which they supported, indicated in the their career logs below, the Type XIV the precise number of U-Boats they suppied was registered, allowing us to spot the arguably most successful U-Boats of that class. According to this, the most successful of the class was arguably U-460, which supplied 86 U-Boats. In all, the ten boats supplied 437 U-Boats, or an average of 43 per U-Boat. Was it cost-effective ? For this, we should know how much tonnage was sunk by the U-Boats that could continue their mission. 289 men were killed while serving on the Type XIV for a grand total of 530-576 men for a total of 35 patrols, an average of 3,5 per boats, and three sunk on a maiden patrol plus two after just two weeks at sea. However there was a topic on which these boats proved their designed armament was worth it: With a powerful FLAK they shot down about four planes and damaged and repelled others. Their tally included a Whitley, a Sunderland, a Wellington and a Wildcat.

In the Allied Naval Headquarters in London order was issued of “Get the Milk Cows at any cost!” from prime minister Winston Churchill himself, informed of their existence in early 1942. Their very existence had them targeted as the highest priority in the Atlantic War since any of these U-Boat Tankers could keep twelve U-boats at sea for weeks. In fact this went directly to a redefintion of Allied hunter-killer groups's priorities in turn.

U-459 commissioned on November 15 1941 and patrolling in March 1942 perhaps had one of the most successful career, supplying boats close to US waters all along 1942. The last U-490 sunk on June 11. 1944 was sent out to support the "Monsun boats", the Type IX operating in the far east and Indian Ocean. She never get there, being sunk at her first sortie. The concept was dead fo all intent and purposes in 1944, although in 1942-43 there were parallel program of tankers and cargo subs (see below).

Serious issues

Sea trials quickly revealed the limits of the U-Tanker design: They appeared Ponderous, "pregnant", lacking agility, and especially when loaded to the brim with fuel and provisions. This extra bulk prevented them to submerge as quickly as a regulat Type VII/IX, which proved fatal at least in three cases of air attacks. Captains feared the moment to “pull the plug”, diving deep in a hurry. To off set this massive shortcoming specific tactics were devised: If caught while refueling, the type XIV was to cut all lines and dive first, leaving the more agile attack U-boats to deal with the attackers by combine FLAK power alone, and dive in turn.

Another noted issue was their deck layout. Due to their low freeboard, transfer of bulk supplies was very hazardous in the North Atlantic (a reason why later boats were sent to the South Atlantic and African coast). The decks continually awash precluded the use of regular cargo hatches and davits so supplies had to be hand-lifted through conning tower hatches only. This made the whole proces painfully slow, but the whole crew took part in it. Given the sea state, this operation could be more or less dangerous and long to complete, often leading to crewmen washed overboard, drowning. With time, both the small rubber dinghy and high line ("tyrolian") were used at the same time, the crew making a human chain from inside the boat, though the CT and on deck.

The refuelling operation was also difficult. First, the U-tanker had to take in tow its boat to resupply, the fueling line was floated in between as well as a telephone cable. Once piping connections were operatons, with the two boats maintaning a close distance at a constant 3-4 kts, fuel was transferred. And it could go up to five hours for a full refill. All at the surface, exposed to allied spotter planes.

Lastly, resupplying torpedoes, due to their size and weight was also understandably a gruelling process: Manhandling these in heavy seas required brute strength and skills, leading sometimes to crushed limbs, broken bones among handlers, for which the onboard doctor was a godsend. In calm seas in included the fitting to any torpedo, extracted on a ramp to the deck, flotation collars around the torpedo body. It was just floated to the receiving U-boat, hauled aboard via the standard folded deck torpedo loading apparatus of any U-Boat of that time.

The end (1943 black month)

The coup de grâce, what really basically eliminated all chances for the U-Tankers to be a viable solution was first and foremost the cracking of the Enigma code. If it was a blessing and game-changing event in order to win the battle of the Atlantic, it was decided to take all measures to prevent the Germans knowing the allies had cracked it. Which included painful decisions to allow some known U-Boat attacks to occur, and prevent careflly picked others attacks.

Given their priority status, all known resupply spots in the Atlantic, and planned rendez-vous in mid-ocean of a Type XIV boat with the rest of the fleet was a prime target on the list and always greenlight for attack, despite the risks in the grand scheme of things. Indeed, the Type XIV relied on high-frequency long-range radio communications to arrange these RDV points, which of course were intercepted and decoded.

Having their position known however presupposed having also the required a dedicated ASW task force, a -"rapid reaction force" in modern parlance- of escort ships in close coordination with coastal command and allied dedicated long range bombers. The result, combined with the slow-diving Type XIV was a slaughter in May-October 1943, with seven boats, 2/3 of the total, being sunk in succession. Mid-Atlantic waters were no longer a sanctuary. It must be however stated how courage was needed by these allied airmen to engage these U-Boats groups while refuelling, as the combined AA barrage was fierce.

In any case, the appealing losses conducted Dönitz to renounce the Atlantic in the end, sending U-490 to the Indian Ocean for "operation Monsoon" ro refuel the few IXC U-boats with an innovative experimental underwater refuelling apparatus. U-490 was sent to Penang, Sumatra, the Kriegsmarine's easternmost operating base. Caught northwest of the Azores on 10 June 1944 by an ASW hunter-killer group based around USS Croatan (CVE-25), the boat was hedgehoged when spotted, and then mercilessly depth-charged while diving and deep underwater, about 1000 ft. Badly shaken for hours with too much flooding to survive much longer, captain Gerlach decided to save his crew and surface to surrender.

Type XIV alternatives and planned successors

The never built Type XV and XVI

Author's modification of a Type X to attempt a rendition of the Type XV (1/750)

Both types were closely related as they shared the same designed hull with different internal arrangement, same powerplant and general features. The 5,000-ton Type XV was left in Initial designs only and listed on official documentation as "Long Range Transport Boat" but never developed and past the stage of first sketches.

U-Boats were to have been ocean going submarines designed for resupply of Frontboots in the open ocean. They would carry additional bunker fuel, torpedoes, stores, medical personnel and a workshop aboard for limited repairs of combat damage to the Frontboots. They were designed with a triple pressure hull design set three abreast, the displacement would have been in the area of 2,500 tons. Conventional diesel and electric propulsion was planned with 2,800 hp on the diesels and 750 hp on the e-motors. It was determined that this Type of submarine would make an easy target for ASW forces if caught on the surface, tending to another submarine and the project was abandoned. There were no Type XV U-Boats contracted for or built.

The Type XVI was intended as a very large repair boat variant (3,000-ton) intended to carry torpedoes, food, and oil as cargo. The engine layout was inspired by the Type VIIC. They could have been a larger version of the Type XV, to about 5,000 tons. Again, due to the fact that a submarine of this type, if caught on the surface tending to other submarines, would have made an easy target, the project was dropped, as for the Type XIV continuation. No Type XVI U-Boats were contracted for or built. It was never developed further and like the XV, no detailed specs exist.

The partly built Type XX

Rendition of the Type XX

These massive transport subs were designed in 1943 by AG Weser and the OKM (German Navy High Command). They were to be long-range transport U-boats, notably to carry material from the Far East and conversely, German plans and prototypes to Japan as it happened in late 1944 and 1945, a mission fulfilled by Italian submarines. For the borad design, the type XB minelayer was chosen to be adapted. In its final form, the design could accomodate some 800 tons of material, had no torpedo tubes, no deck gun but AA armament as the Type XIV. They were caracterized by a shorter hull than the Type XB, but greater beam and draft to accomodate for the storage areas.

They were to planned to be manned by 6 officers and 52 men. 30 contracts granted in all, including 15 to Deutsche Werft, Hamburg (U-1601 to U-1615) plus fifteen to Bremen-Vegesack yard (U-1701 to U-1715). Only 3 (U-1701 to U-1703) were eventually advanced when the war ended.

The Type XX as a project for a transport U-boat based on the Type XB could have be or better help to carry additional precious resources to Japan to continue the war, but of the thirty Type XX U-boats laid down in 1943, construction stopped in 1944 and the project was cancelled. On 15 August 1944, construction on three most advanced Type XX U-boats, U-1701, U-1702, and 1703 was restarted nevertheless, but stopped again in early 1945 and never resumed.

Planned specs: Displacement 2,708 tons surfaced/ 2,962 tons submerged; Dimensions 255' x 30' 3" x 21' 9"; Engines Diesel and electric 2,800hp/940hp, surface speed 12½ knots, submerged 5.75 knots. 471 tons of diesel fuel for a 13,000 miles @ 12 knots radius and 40 miles @ 4½ knots underwater. Payload 800 tons of cargo, armament 1x 37mm, 2x2 20mm FLAK AA, crew 58.

Type XIV U-Boat records

U-459 (1941-43)

Type XIV, U-459 sinking
U-459 crippled, turning in circles, hit by a Vickers Wellington.

U-459 conducted six patrols, starting training with the 4th U-boat Flotilla and the 10th in April 1942, then 12th flotillas in November for operations. Her First and second patrols started from Kiel to Helgoland, the St. Nazaire on 15 May 1942, unter command of von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, aged 48, a skipper veteran of WW1.

Her second patrol from 6 June 1942, her captain being promoted to Korvettenkapitän. It was an uneventful sorties from St Nazaire to mid-Atlantic where she operated with Wolfpack Eisbär (25 August – 1 September 1942). The third patrol was a foray into the south Atlantic and African coast down to Namibia from St. Nazaire on 18 August 1942, back on 4 November. Her fourth patrol started from the same port on 20 December 1942, to 7 March 1943, 78 days, but she headed for Bordeaux. She she went south to Cameroon (18 January 1943).

Her fifth patrol started from Bordeaux on 20 April 1943 and back on 30 May. In between, she was surfaced when spotted and attacked, but shot down by FLAK a lone CAC Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. The same day however she was attacked by a RAF Liberator dropping ten depth charges on her, also while surfaced. FLAK damaged the Liberator. Her last patrol started from Bordeaux on 22 July 1943, and while en route off near Cape Ortegal, Spain, on 24 July 1943, she was spotted and atacked by two British Wellington of No. 172 Squadron RAF. One was shot down, but 18 crewmen were killed on her deck, while near-misses had her badly damaged. Unable to dive and slowed down to a crewl her captain knew there was little chance now her position was known. He ordered her scuttled. 41 of her crew survived however and became POW. A famous photo show her turning circle, already hit, to escape the Wellingtons.

U-460 (1941-43)

U-460's first patrol from Kiel on 7 June 1942 started through the Faeroe Islands, between these islands and Iceland. She went to mid-atlantic, and made a routine supply mision, being back to St. Nazaire, occupied France, on 31 July. Her second started from there on 27 August 1942, pass the Bay of Biscay, turned south and pass Cape Verde Islands, to the South Atlantic. This was uneventful and she was back to St.Nazaire, departing again from St. Nazaire heading west and staying for 39 days before going home. Her 4th sortie was the same and ended in Bordeaux.

Her fifth patrol started on 24 April 1943, lasted for 63 days bringing her in an area mid-way between South American and African coasts, to be back to Bordeaux on 25 June. Her sixth patrol started at Bordeaux, and she was underway 30 August 1943, supplying on 4 October U-264, U-422, and U-455 in the North Atlantic, north of the Azores. There, a Avenger and Wildcat of VC-9, USS Card, spotted the group, a "juicy target" which caused panic: All but U-460 submerged in time. Heir tanker was sunk by depth charges, with only two crewmen surviving.

U-461 (1941-43)

U-461 made six wartime patrols, the first from Kiel to St. Nazaire and then to the Atlantic via the Faeroe Islands gap. She operated with the wolfpack "Wolf" (26 July – 1 August 1942). Her second patrol hd her reacing the most westerly point in the Atlantic on 30 September 1942. She operated with Wolfpack "Vorwärts" (16 – 20 September 1942).

Her third sortie from St. Nazaire on 19 November 1942 had her reaching a point south between South America and Africa, staying two days before heading west on 11 December 1942 and back to Bordeaux on 3 January 1943. She arrived west of the Canary Islands (2 March 1943) and went back to St. Nazaire. She departed on on 13 February, and stayed with the Wolfpack "Rochen" (26 February – 1 March 1943) until back on 22 March.
For her fifth patrol she departed St.Nazaire on 20 April 1943, but attacked when back 23 April, by a Canadian Wellington (172 sqn RAF) with a Leigh Light. The bombs made near hits and damaged the boat, leaving a trail of oil behind. She went back to Bordeaux for repairs.

Her sixth and last patrol started from Bordeaux on 27 July 1943, but she was caught underway in the Bay of Biscay, north-west of Cape Ortegal in Spain on 30 July: An Australian Sunderland from No. 461 Sqn RAAF (Flight Lieutenant Dudley Marrows) spotted and attacked. The U-Boat was crippled by bombs but the Australian crew agreed to drop an inflatable dinghy to allow 15of her crew surviving, the other 53 going with the boat.

U-462 (1941-43)

U-462 conducted eight patrols, the first from Kiel on 23 July 1942, via St. Nazaire on 21 September and then making it through the Faeroe gap with Iceland. After her mission she came back past the Azores to St Nazaire. She operated with the Wolfpack 'Lohs' from 29 August to 2 September 1942.

Her second patrol had her stationed to a point west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands from 9 November 1942 to be reached by U-Boats in supply needs. She was back in St. Nazaire on 7 December 1942.

Third sortie was from Bordeaux on 20 January 1943,but after an incident she was back on the 22nd. Her 4th sortie had her reaching her westernmost suply point, on 27 February 1943. She was back to Bordeaux on 11 March. He fifth patrol was routine, and shorter. Her sixth patrol was in the Bay of Biscay, whe she was attacked by Mosquitoes of 151 and 156 sqn RAF, on 21 June 1943. Matrosengefreiter Ferdinand Brunnbaur was killed by strafing, four wounded. Her AA fire did not hit the Mosquitoes, way too fast. She was back to Bordeaux for repairs and gathering replacement crewment on the 23rd.

Her Seventh patrol was also short. As soon as she headed northwest of the Spanish coast, British B-24 Liberator (224 sqn RAF) fell on her. Near hits cause enough damage to return to Bordeaux on 6 July. Her last patrol, the 8th, started also in the bay of Biscaye, and on 30 July 1943 while underway, U-462 was spotted and sunk by a British Halifax bomber (502 Squadron RAF) plus gunfire from Black Swan-class HMS Wren, Kite, Woodpecker, Wild Goose and Woodcock which arrived after her position was communicated. HMS Kite's gunner hit her at 13,050 yd (11,930 m). As she was surfaced fortunately, only one crewman was killed but the rest of the crew survived.

U-463 (1941-43)

U-463 conducted five patrols. For her first one from Kiel on 11 July 1942, she reached St. Nazaire on 3 September and took the northern Faeroe Islands gap, arrived in the mid-Atlantic toward the Caribbean. She went home without hassle.

Her second sortie had her reaming the mid-Atlantic on 28 September 1942-11 November. He third sortie saw her passing the Azores, north and south when back. She was based in St. Nazaire, operating for a time with the wolfpack 'Delphin' (11 – 14 January 1943). Next was a patrol on 4 March 1943, but when back to France 17 April, she was order to move into Bordeaux, better protected against allied raids.

Her fifth patrol was also her last: U-463's started from Le Verdon, north of Bordeaux and while underway in the Bay of Biscay, when she spotted, attacked and sunk on 16 May 1943 by a British Halifax from 58 Squadron RAF (Coastal Command, Wing Commander Wilfrid Oulton). Depht charges were on targer and she sank with all hands.

U-463 (1941-43)

U-464 only made a single patrol. She sailed from Kiel to Bergen, Norway, arriving on 9 August 1942. She departed on 14 August 1942. On the 20th, she was attacked SSE of Iceland, by a lone US PBY Catalina from VP-73. Two crew members were killed on the spot, but as she was surfaced, there were 52 survivors. The bombs only cause near-misses, but she was too damage to dive, and limited to eight knots. Later Captain Harms decided to scuttle his U-Boat after spotting the Icelandic trawler Skaftfellingur, allowing his crew to be rescued.

Since the 52 German submariners picked up onboard were to be made POWs by a seven-man crew, they were put in the bows, with a machine gun stand guard on the bridge and later transferred to a pair of British destroyers. That's the official allied story but Captain Harms pretended later that his crew sized the trawler by force, heading for Germany, but intercepted by the British destroyers and taken prisoner.

U-487 (1942-43)

U-487 conducted two patrols, the first from Kiel on 27 March 1943, and went back, mission accomplished, to Bordeaux, in occupied France on 12 May 1943. The second patrol started from Bordeaux on 15 June 1943. On 13 July, she was spotted surfaced and attacked by five Grumman TBF Avengers and F4F Wildcats from USS Core. The crew were caught by surprise, since there were sunbathers on deck when it happened. One Wildcat was shot down by her AA fire, but 31 men were killed neverthless between rocket hits and bombs. 33 survivors were picked up later by USS Barker.

U-488 (1942-43)

U-488 made three war patrols, the first startin when she left Kiel on 18 May 1943, clearing the British Isles in the Faroe Islands-Iceland gap, ad doing her mission in the Atlantic with a first wolfpack, "Trutz" on 6 – 12 June 1943. On the return she went NW of the Azores to Bordeaux, occupied France, arriving on 10 July 1943.

For her second patrol she was attacked on 12 October 1943 by two Avengers from USS Card. They claimed the sinking, but U-488 survived and went on, carrying out her mission. On 15 October, Maschinenmaat Karl Bergmann died of illness on board and on 25 November, Matrosenobergefreiter Heinz Heinlein fell overboard, dying later of heart failure. She was back to Bordeaux on 12 December 1943.

Her third patrol was from Bordeaux again, on 22 April 1944. On the 26th she as caught west of Cape Verde, but four escort destroyers, USS Frost, Huse, Barber and Snowden, and depth charged until she sank with all hands.

U-489 (1942-43)

U-489's only patrol started from Kiel on 22 July 1943, going through the "Faeroes Gap" north of the British Isles, and she was spotted and attacked while surfaced by a PBY Catalina from No. 190 Squadron RAF, on 3 August 1943.

Due to the serious AA fire put up by U-489, the Catalina was hit twice and withdawn, jettisoning depth charges. When home, they found that their rudder cables were almost severed by FLAK shrapnel. However the U-Boat's position was signalled to a Lockheed Hudson of 269 Squadron whih attacked her and caused damage. But she survived and her position passed on a lone Canadian Sunderland flying boat (No. 423 Squadron RCAF) which attacked her the following day south-east of Iceland.

The Sunderland however was shot down by the fierce AA fire put by U-489, but not before having taken several depht charges that wrecked her hull. She sank but surfaced when this happened, enabling 53 of her crew to escape. They were later picked up by the destroyers HMS Castleton and HMS Orwell which observed the attack, too far away to attack her.

U-490 (1942-43)

U-490's only patrol started from Kiel on 4 May 1944, making her way into the Atlantic in the "Faeroes Gap", between Iceland and the Faeroe, but was lost on 12 June when attacked in mid-ocean by the escort carrier USS Croatan and the destroyers USS Frost, Huse and Inch. It seemed she was surfaced amready and surrendered. There were 60 survivors and no casualties.

Sources & more:


Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II. Greenhill Books
Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 Mittler.
Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. Vol. 2.
Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed – German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. Arms & Armour.


Various types on www.sharkhunters.com (archive)
Milk Cows on uboat.net
Video: U-boat Tanker - Type XIV 'Milk Cow' by War & History channel
On rmhh.co.uk
Assessment detail on uboataces.net
Article on facebook.com
uboat.net U-460 logs
On weaponsandwarfare.com

Model Kits

German Type XIV Submarine U-487 1/350 Scale Diecast Metal Model (cutaway)
On flyingmule.com

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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