Imperial Japanese Battleships of WW1

Japan (1890-1919) About 30 capital ships


Japan was introduced the the idea of an ironclad very soon: Its spectacular defeats in face of Image result for korean admiral Yi Sun-sin, the Korean Admiral which deployed a few Geobukseon or "turtle boats" to win against a far superior force, was probably still not forgotten when Admiral Perry entered the bay of Yokohama and imposed, by gunpower, the opening of Japan to the exterior world in 1853. Introduction of ironclads in the burgeoning Imperial navy came during the Boshin war (1868-69), see the ships and events related to this era. The former CSS Sphynx, later CSS Stonewall, ordered in France, Arman Bros Shipyards in Bordeaux by the Confederate government in North America (American Civil war) was completed and already sailing on the other side of the Atlantic when news arrived of the Capitulation at Appomatox. On arrival, she ship was therefore seized by the Union and later put on sale, as the fleet did not needed any ironclad, going back to Monroe isolationist policy.

At the same time in 1865, the Boshin war was just started and the opposing forces of the Shogunate and Emperor ordered ships of their own. The Shogun had the recently available ironclad purchased in the US, and commissioned in 1867, but upon arrival, Imperial forces seized the ship. Its name was Kotetsu, or "iron covered ship". (See later for the complete records of Adzuma). Also the history repeated when the Scottish shipyard of Aberdeen built an armoured corvette speculatively, given the international context.

And soon, the Confederates showed interest, but ultimately they failed to produce the budget for it, and the war ended, leaving the vessel, launched in 1864, to the Yard. Sold on the open market, she was loaned eventually in 1869 by the Prince Hizen for the Emperor's fleet (see later). The Kotetsu however was already in needs of maintenance and repairs upon arrival and her artillery was soon found obsolete. She was a bit too complex to operate for the Japanese in the 1860s and ended in reserve.

In 1874, the Japanese launched an expedition against Formosa pirates. It became evident a new navy was needed, and soon orders were secured after ratification by the parliament as situation also degenerated with Korea. These ships were all designed by Sir Edward Reed in UK, the Fuso, Kongo and Hiei. The first was a broadside ironclad, the others were armoured corvettes (see the boshin war and meiji era fleet).

Ironclads of the Boshin and Sino-Japanese war

We could distinguish two periods over which the Japanese acquired their capital ships: First one, Before the Russo-Japanese war (Part I), and after this war (part II). In the first case, these were "clones" of British Capital ships, and built in British yards, with British equipment and armaments, while crews and officers spent years of training with the Royal Navy. No wonder reports of the Russo-Japanese war were eagerly awaited by the top brass in the the Royal Navy and had huge consequence in warshiop design at the time. Both the ships and tactics had been put to good use by Admiral Togo definitively installing Japan as the regional superpower.

Not only the event surprised the world, shaking certitudes of the Westerners, but it also confirmed Japan in her ambitions in the Asian sphere and the Pacific. The confrontation of 1941 was already born from this confidence. But its also proved to the British Admiralty that her ships, training and tactics would have defeated the Russians in this proxy war, confirming their own confidence until it was shaken again by the battleship race with Imperial Germany.

Meanwhile, the bond between the two navies lasted until Japan’s dreadnought race and the post-Tsushima approach of capital ship design and construction. Japan took time to pause (no capital ship was ordered before 1904), resuming work on two battleships leaning already towards the dreadnought with a powerful secondary battery, and the first proper dreadnought, Kawachi class. However Japan paused again mainly for economic reasons, before launching the ambitious 8-8 program FY1912 with four battlecruisers and a year after first battleship the Fuso class, a considerable leap forward in terms of armament and speed, leaning to the British “super-dradnoughts” of the time.

IJN Adzuma (1864)

The "Kotetsu" as named upon arrival, became the flagship of the first Imperial Naval squadron, and her major battle was on 20 April 1869 when she sailed to attack with the fleet of the Shogunate Navy blockading Hakodate. This victory sealed the fate of the Shogunate and accelerated the end of the civil war.

Kotetsu, launched in June 1864 and completed in October of the same year, was an ironclad ram. Her main weapon was its reinforced ram, with a heavy gun installed above, of 300 pdr SB. It was from the Armstrong yard, just as the two secondary 70 rifled pdr guns installed aft, in a casemate located abaft the rear mast, fixed. The ship was indeed rigged as a brick. The ship had a composite hull protected by 3-1/2 inches iron plates bolted to 3 inches teak planes (75 mm thick), backed again by 1-1/4 inches iron plates again, a sandwich in which the wood absorbed the energy of any projectile, up to 15-inches.

The ram projected some 20 feets in front of the stern, but the hull had a draught limitation of 14 feets for the Mississippi, making for a poor seaboat. She was top heavy and tended to plow through waves in a moderate sea. In 1871 she was renamed IJN Adzuma, ans was rearmed with more modern guns: A 9 inches Armstrong MLR by December, plus four Parrot 6.5 inches MLR which took place in the aft casemate, presumably in new mounts with some traverse. She was placed in reserved and stricken in 1888 and survived until 1908 as an utility hulk.

IJN Ryujo (1864)

IJN Ryujo

This broadside armoured corvette was eventually purchased by the Prince and presented to the Emperor as the war ended, in 1870. IJN Ryujo was larger than the Adzuma and better armed, but had no ram. Soon after her new commission she was rearmed with Krupp guns. Her original armament came from Armstrong, two 6.5 inches on traversible mounts and ten 5.5 inches on the broadside. Her new guns were 6.7 in Krupp BL. In 1894 she became a training ship, and rearmed with a 6-in Krupp and five 6.3 inches guns, discarded in 1898. So although she was available in 1894, she did not participated in the war.

IJN Kongo class (1877)

Two others were design by Reed and builder from 1875 at Earle's Sb Co of Hull and Milfored Heaven of Pembroke. They were largely seen as British replicas to the Russian General Admiral, perhaps the first armoured cruiser, mixed with elements of HMS Gem. Kongo had a composite hull and Hiei, all iron. Both were rearmed, partially modernized and served at Yalu in 1894, the first Sino-Japanese war. Kongo also took part in the Hawaiian revolution of 1898, but both were reclassed as survey vessels and scrapped, after years as being used as utility hulks, in 1909 and 1911.

IJN Fuso (1877)

The first true ironclad of the Imperial Japanese Navy was IJN Fuso. She was ordered to prepare for a future war with China and Korea, at Samuda Bros. Poplar in UK, on a design prepared by Sir Edward Reed, as a smaller Iron Duke. She still displaced 3717 tonnes, barque-rigged with a machinery from Penn & Son of Greenwich, two pairs of CHSCT engines, 2 shafts reciprocating, 3932 ihp for 13 knots and 360 tonnes of coal carried, enough for a range of 4500 nm at 10 knots. Again, the Japanese ordered their guns to Krupp, in a layout which looked like on the French Redoutable. Four 4.9 inches, two 6.7 in, six 3-in, and one Nordenfelt 6-barrel QF MG. Her protection consisted in a 4 to 9 inches main belt, 8-in battery and 7-in bulkheads.

In 1894 as the war with China was coming, IJN Fuso was completely rebuilt and modernized. Her rigging was deleted and she kept military masts with tops of the fore and mizzen, mainmast removed; She received two new 6.7 in and two 6 in/50 guns, eleven 3-pdr QF guns and two 18-in TTs. Fuso participated in the battle of Yalu. She was damaged in 1897 during a collision with Matsushima, running aground on Shikoku, but was towed to Kure for repairs. She emerged in 1899 with her old 9.4 in BL removed and two 6-in QF, and one more 3-pdr. She became a coast defense ship in 1903 with just two 6-in/50 and four 4.7 in/40 QF, discarded in 1908 and scrapped.

IJN Fuso, as modernized;

IJN pre-dreadnoughts of the Russo-Japanese war (1905)

Chin Yen (1882)

chin yen
The Sino-Japanese war bring to the Japanese Navy its first modern ironclad, the German-built (Vulcan) Chin Yuen, captured at Wei-Hai-Wei in February 1895. This history has been well covered already in the dedicated post about the Dingyuan class battleships. Refitted and rearmed, Chin Yen was recommissioned as a flagship and did took part in the Russo-Japanese war, shelling port arthur, but was absent due to her speed at the battle of the Yellow sea. She was discarded in 1910, a training ship for pilots until scrapped in 1914.

Hei(Ping) Yen (1890)

The second one was more modest, IJN Hei Yen. She was a Chinese built 1890 coast defence ironclad built at Foo Chou, displacing 2150 tonnes, 60.95 m long by 12.2 by 4.15 in draught, captured at Wei Hai wei. Her Krupp guns were removed and Armstrong guns installed instead, one 10.2-in (260 mm), two 6-in (152 mm) QF, eight 3-pdr (37 mm) and four 18-in TTs; She took part in the Russo-Japanese war as a coastal bombardment vessel, but was lost during the war, hitting a mine off Pigeon bay, Port Arthur.

But the real fulcrum of the IJN when war broke out in 1904 were two series of modern Battleships, British-built, the Fuji and Shikishima classes, Asahi and Mikasa. The later was brand new, completed in 1902. This war showed how much the deep partnership with the Royal Navy benefited the IJN, with tactics, training standards, doctrine modelled after th British cousin, and ships to match. The odds were even, ship to ship, but Togo prevailed by better tactics, including "crossing the T", which became such a classic of modern naval warfare.

Nomenclature of Japanese Battleships in WW1

The Japanese battleline, IJN Shikishima in firing exercizes, colorized by irootoko Jr.

Ironclad IJN Chin Yen (1882)
Fuji class battleships (1896)
Shikishima class battleships (1898)
IJN Mikasa, battleship (1900)
Kashima class battleships (1905)
Satsuma class Battleships (1906)
Settsu class battleships (1910)
Fusō class Battleships (19125)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class battleships (1919)
Kaga class battleships (1921)
Kii class battleships (planned)
Tsukuba class Battlecruisers (1905)
Ibuki class battlecruisers (1907)
Kongō class Battlecruisers (1912)
Akagi class battlecruisers (planned)
N°13 class battlecruisers (planned)

---Captured Ships-----
-IJN Iwami (ex-Orel)
-Sagami class (ex-Peresviet class: Sagami, Suwo, Hizen)
-IJN Tango (ex-Poltava)
-IJN Iki (ex-Nikolai I)

Fuji class (1896)

IJN Fuji

Fuji and Yashima were ordered under the 1893 program to counter the Chinese fleet, notably its two German-built 1880s ironclads. However, they were completed far too late for this war, but were ready as tensions amounted with the Russians. These battleships were designed by G C Macrow, as an improved version of the Royal Sovereign. They had more poerful guns, but of smaller caliber, the classic 12-inches. This choice freed some weight to protect the turret better. Four of the secondary guns were in casemates in the hull, the rest above in open sponsons. Both the Fuji and Yahima differed by their turning circle as shown in trials, Yashima being the most agile of the two.

Indeed, IJN Yashima was built at Armstrong Withworth, Elswick and Fuji at Thames Iron Works, Poplar. Fuji was launched one month later but completed first, in August 1897, her sister ship in September. Yashima experimentally had her keel cut away towards the rudder to save weight, and it was a good find as water moved more freely there. This became rapidly a trademark innovation of the yard and was adopted for subsequent designs. Both ships had two reciprocal steam engines with vertical tubes (VTE) fed by ten or fourteen (Fuji) cylindrical boilers, single-ended, working at 155 ib/inch2, for a radius of 4000 nm at 10 knots. Both ships were refitted in 1901, the 3-pdr, less those of the fighting tops being deposed, as sixteen 16-pdr were installed instead. This proved a very wise move as shown by the closeer range engagement during the war.

IJN Fuji fired the last shell at Tsushima, sinking Borodino, but IJN Yashima hit a mine at Port Arthur and capsize, before Tsushima. Fuji was re-boilered after the war, her 12-in guns replaced by Japanese models in 1910. She became a coast defence ship. After 1922 she was completely disarmed to respect the Washington's treaty limitation, used as a training ship. Her propellers were removed, as she was permanently anchored and her tonnage was reduced to 9170 tonnes, draught toon down to 21 feet 9 in, but sh saw WW2 as well, capsizing in 1945, her hulk BU soon after.

Artists impression of IJN Fuji in 1905

Displacement: 14,850 tonnes standard 15,450 FL
Dimensions: 125.5 x 22.4 x 8 m
Propulsion 2 shafts 10/14 cyl. boilers, 14,000 ihp, 1200 tonnes coal, 18 Knots
Armor: Deck 50mm (2-1/2 in), casemate 152mm (2-6 in), belt 457 mm (18 in), barbettes 356 mm (14 in)
Crew: 637
Armament: 4 x 305 (12 in), 10 x 152 (6 in), 20 x 47 mm (3 pdr), 4 x 47 mm (2-1/2 pdr), 5 x 457mm (18 in) TTs sides.

Shikishima class (1898)


The Shikishima and the Hatsuse were built in two British shipyards on plans derived from the Majestic. They were heavier versions of the previous Fuji and differed in their three chimneys. The later Asahi and Mikasa derive from it so closely that they are sometimes placed within a single class. They were also distinguished by improved armor, comprising no less than 261 watertight compartments. Both ships bombarded Port Athur on February 9, 1904 and actively participated in the blockade that followed. It was in this capacity that the Hatsuse jumped on a Russian mine and could have been saved, being towed by Asahi had it not hit a second mine, exploding in an ammunition store. He sank in seconds with most of his crew. The Shikishima participated in the Battle of the Yellow Sea and in Tsushima. She was in operation during the great war and was decommissioned in 1923. She became a training ship and was not scrapped until 1947.

Author's illustration of the Shikishima class

Displacement: 14,850 T standard - 15,450 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 133.5 x 23 x 8.3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 cylinders VTE 14,500 hp 18 Knots.
Armor: Deck 50, Casemate 356, belt 229, barbettes 356
Crew: 836
Armament: 4 x 305, 14 x 152, 20 x 76 mm, 6 x 47, 6 x 45, 5 x 457mm TTs sides.

IJN Mikasa (1900)

Mikasa was named after Mount Mikasa in Nara. Her design was a modified version of the Formidable-class battleships, but with two more 6-inch (152 mm) guns. Her main battery consisted of the same four Elswick Ordnance Company 40-calibre twelve-inch guns used in all of the preceding Japanese battleships. These had hydraulically powered mountings with a +13.5° possible loading elevation. She was protected by Krupp cemented armour that had a maximum thickness of 9 inches (229 mm). Laid down at www on 24 January 1899, she was launched on 8 November 1900 and commissioned on 1 March 1902. Like previous ships, there was a four stage artillery, with 12 in, 6 in, 3 in and 2.5/3 pdr guns (47 mm). She also was capable of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph).

She famously was the flagship of Vice Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō during the Russo-Japanese War, in action at the Battles of Port Arthur, Yellow Sea and Tsushima. Just days after war ended, the battleship's magazine accidentally exploded. As she sank in shallow water, she was salvaged and repaired over two years, but to serve as a coast-defence ship during WWI and the Siberian Intervention in 1920. Two years later, she was decommissioned but preserved as a museum ship at Yokosuka and after years of neglected, refurbishing in the late 1950s; now she is the centerpiece of Mikasa Park in Yokosuka, the last pre-dreadnought in existence worldwide.

IJN Mikasa at Mikasa Park, Yokosuka. In front, a statue of admiral Togo.

Displacement: 15,140 standard - 16,000 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 133.5 x 23 x 8.3 m - 432 x 76 x 27 feet.
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 25 cyl Belleville boilers 15,000 hp. 18 Knots
Armor: Deck 50, casemate 356, belt 229, barbettes 356
Crew: 836
Armament: 4 x 305, 14 x 152, 20 x 76 mm, 6 x 47, 6 x 45, 5 x 457mm TTs sides.

IJN Asahi (1899)

IJN Asahi

This ship was built at the John Brown shipyards in Great Britain. It was completed in 1900. It was virtually a carbon copy of the Shikishima. Its tests began with problems of profitability of its boilers, consuming excessively coal. this defect was rectified, and it participated in the Russo-Japanese War, hitting a mine on October 26, 1904, it was repaired in time to take part in the Battle of Tsushima, being hit several times. She was demoted to reserve and training in 1914 and was decommissioned in 1923. However, she was converted at Kure to a submarine rescue ship and was put in reserve again in 1938. Reactivated as a workshop ship, she was torpedoed and sunk by the USS Salmon in 1942 off the Indochinese coast.

Author's illustration of the IJN Asahi

Displacement: 15,200 tonnes - 15,370 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 129.6 x 23 x 8.3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts 14 cyl boilers 15,000 ihp 18 Knots.
Armor: Deck 50, casemate 356, belt 229, barbettes 356
Crew: 836
Armament: 4 x 305, 14 x152, 20 x 76 mm, 6 x 47, 6 x 45, 4 x 457mm TTs.

IJN Tango (1894)

Tango was the former Poltava, of the Petropavlovsk-class, battered by field artillery and later captured at Port Arthur after the siege ended. She was refloated by the IJN, comprehensively repaired and modernized, and renamed Tango. During WWI she participated in the siege of Tsingtao but was sold back to Russia in 1916, renamed Chesma passed to the Bolsheviks in October 1917 and was scrapped in 1924. She she served only twelve years under the Japanese flag.

Sagami class (1903)

IJN Suwo

Sagami and Suwo were Peresvet-class battleships, named originally Peresvet and Pobeda, somewhat inspired by the Centurion class, created to defeat the Russian large commerce-raiding armored cruisers and the fast but lightly protected Peresvet class were designed to bring support to the cruisers.

Both were sunk during the Siege of Port Arthur, salvaged by the IJN but after renaming, they were rated as coastal-defense ships. During WWI IJN Suwo was the flagship of the Japanese squadron at Tsingtao, and of the 2nd Fleet. In 1916 she was a gunnery-training ship. She was disarmed in 1922 and scrapped afterward. Sagami was sold to the Russians in 1916, put back into service in Vladivostok under her old name and sent to the Black Sea, then to the Mediterranean. She hit a U73 mine off Port Said in January 1917. Suwo remained in service under the Japanese flag until 1922 when she was broken up.

IJN Hizen (1903)

Hizen was the ex-Retvizan, built in America before the Russo-Japanese War. She was torpedoed during the Battle of Port Arthur, repaired to be at the Battle of the Yellow Sea, lightly damaged but sunk at Port Arthur by field artillery and later salvaged by the IJN. During WWI she Hizen was sent to reinforce the British squadron off British Columbia and patrolled around Hawaii in search of a German gunboat, intervened in the Russian Civil War in 1919-1920 and was disarmed in 1922, sunk as target. The Irony was she became the first and only US-built battleship.

IJN Iwami (1902)

Iwami was the former russian Oryol of the Borodino-class. She participated in the Battle of Tsushima, was moderately damaged and surrendered to the IJN. She was completely rebuilt from 1905 until 1907, assigned to the 1st Fleet but reclassified as coast defense ship in 1912. She was at the Siege of Tsingtao in 1914, and became a guardship afterwards, flagship of the 5th Division, 3rd Fleet in 1918. She took part the Japanese intervention in the Russian Civil War. Briefly a training ship she was disarmed in 1922, sunk as target.

Kashima class (1903)

The Kashima and Katori built respectively at Armstrong and Vickers, were inspired by King Edward VII. These were the last Japanese battleships built abroad. The Kashima was a bit bigger and heavier than the Katori. Completed in April 1906, they took part only in the great war, their armament being reinforced with two pieces of 78 mm AA. They were both disarmed at Maizuru in 1924.

Author's illustration of the Kashima class

Displacement: 16,400 - 17,950 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 144 x 23.80 x 8.1 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 20 Niclausse boilers, 15,800 hp. 18.5 Knots
Armor: Deck 50, casemate 228, belt 229, turrets, 229-203, barbettes 152 mm
Crew: 864
Armament: 4 x 305, 4 x 254, 12 x 152, 14 x 78 mm, 5 x 457mm TTs.

Satsuma class (1906)

IJN Satsuma

These large battleships are difficult to classify due to the fact that they carry secondary artillery almost as powerful as the main artillery, making them the first Japanese Dradnoughts. Indeed, they certainly carry four pieces of 305 mm but also 12 of 254 mm, logical evolution of the previous Kashima. Like the latter, they diverge somewhat in general terms, except as regards their main artillery: The Satsuma is 146 meters long, 25.4 meters wide and displaces 19,700 tonnes PC - to be compared with the Aki.

One has two fireplaces and the other three. The Satsuma was built in Kure and equipped with 20 Myrabaia boilers, for 17,300 hp and 18.25 knots against 24,000 hp and 20 knots for the Aki, built in Yokosuka. The latter therefore foreshadowed the Settsu to come. These two ships also differed slightly in terms of secondary artillery, the Satsuma having 12 pieces of 120 and 4 of 78 mm. They received two 78 mm AA guns as reinforcements during the conflict. Both served in 14-18 and were decommissioned in 1924, to be used as targets for fire by the battleships Nagato, Hyuga and Mutsu and the battle cruiser Kongo.

Author's illustration of the Satsuma class

Displacement: 20,100 - 21,800 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 144 x 25.50 x 8.4 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Curtis turbines, 15 Myrabaia boilers, 20,000 hp. 20 Knots
Armor: Deck 50, blockhouse 228, belt 229, turrets, 229 and 203, barbettes 152
Crew: 864
Armament: 4 x 305, 12 x 254, 8 x 152, 12 x 78 mm, 5 x 457mm sub TTs

IJN dreadnoughts of the Great War (1905)

Tadasu_Hayashi In 1902 was signed the first Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 日英同盟 or Nichi-Ei Dōmei. This very important act only confirmed the already strong relation with British yards and artillery manufacturing. The alliance was already thought after since 1895, during the triple intervention of France, Russia and Germany in the Liandong province. Just one year prior, was signed the 1894 Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation. Later it was justified to intensify the country's modernization as a source of new customers of manufactured goods and machine tooling on the British point of view, as at the same time helping putting down the Boxer rebellion. The press also advocated for such alliance, like the Times and The Telegraph. In Japan the cause was pushed ahead by Ōkuma Shigenobu, also relayed by newspapers.

Before the war of 1905, relations with the Russian Empire, expansionist in the east, started to threaten British presence and relations became tense. Japan was seen as a proxy of the Empire to check the Russian's ambitions in the area. In the end, going above resistance on the matter, Tadasu Hayashi, for Japan, and Lord Lansdowne for the British Empire, started discussions in 1901 over disputes with Korea but pushed reconciliation with Russia, and ultimately discussions were relaunched at the end of the year, it was signed in a hurry, as a peace-time military alliance, between equal partners, a first between west and east.

Punch caricature of the treaty
Punch caricature of the treaty

One of the consequences was of course stronger bonds with the Royal Navy. The IJN became the "most anglophile navy on earth" from ships to armament, to academy, doctrine and tactics. The treaty was renewed and extended in 1905 and 1911. In 1905, this perhaps gave Japan access to the knowledge of the construction of HMS dreadnought, ar at least a glimpse of it (it is still debated). Indeed, because of a sever economical depression, the Kawachi-class, first Japanese dreadnoughts, were only ordered in june 1907, as part of the 1907 Warship Supplement Program, and by that time, only Germany was early in this, laying down the keel of her first Nassau class in July 1907, which design was modified by the release of the Nelson class (1905), last pre-dreadnought and considered as "semi-dreadnoughts". Nevertheless, the Settsu and Kawachi, commissioned in 1912, were still a bit transitional in nature with their early artillery configuration, 12-in turrets on the broadside. The next Kongo class (1913) were already much more modern with their axial artillery and 15-in guns (see later).

Kawachi class (1910)


The first real Japanese monocaliber, or dreadnought-type battleships, the Settsu and kawachi, were launched in 1910 and 1911 and completed in 1912. Much heavier and this time equipped with powerful turbines, built under license by Kawasaki. They were armed with 12 pieces of 305 in double turrets (four lateral, one front and one rear), and pieces of different range: The two front and rear were caliber 50 and 45 for the others. These two ships differed only slightly in their displacement (21,443 tonnes for the Settsu and 20,823 for the Kawachi.). They could reach 20 knots and participated in the great war, but the kawachi was lost in 1918 following a catastrophic accidental explosion of an ammunition storage in Tokuyama Bay. IJN Settsu was decommissioned in 1922 and used as a radio controlled target for light bombing. She was modified several times, losing her armour in part, boilers, and had a very different appearance in 1941. She was sunk by American aviation in July 1945.

Wow's rendition of the Kawachi class
Wow's rendition of the Kawachi class

Specifications Displacement: 21,400 - 22,900 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 160 x 25.70 x 8.5 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Curtis turbines, 16 Myrabaia boilers, 25,000 hp. 20 Knots
Armor: Deck 50, blockhouse 228, belt 229, turrets, 229 and 203, barbettes 152
Crew: 864
Armament: 12 x 305, 10 x 152, 8 x 120, 12 x 78 mm, 5 x 457mm sub TTs.

Fuso class dreadnoughts (1914)

IJN Fuso in 1915 IJN Fuso in 1915

The Fuso and Yamashiro, launched in 1914 and 1915 and completed in 1915 and 1917 became be the first Japanese 'super-dreadnoughts' with axial artillery, responding to the Kongo-class battle cruisers released earlier. By their dimensions, their speed and their firepower, they marked a new milestone in the escalation of resources the fleet was giving itself. These ships will have a long active career, and underwent two overhauls, a first in 1923, which saw them equipped with a pagoda-like bridge around the tripod mast and funnel covers. IJN Yamashiro tested a small flying-off platform installed on one of the turrets, and the operating three in 1925; their second overhaul saw them equipped with new machinery, a tower bridge, a powerful AA artillery among others. But this concerns the Fuso record in 1941.

IJN Yamashiro and Vice admiral Sankichi Takahashi
IJN Yamashiro and Vice admiral Sankichi Takahashi

Author's illustration of the ise class

Specifications WWI
Displacement: 30,600 tonnes standard, 35,900t FL
Dimensions: 202.70 x 28.70 x 8.7 m ()
Propulsion: 4 shafts Brown-Curtis turbines, 24 Miyabara boilers, 40,000 hp. 22.5 Knots.
Armor: Deck 76, blockhouse 305, belt 305, turrets, 305 and 204, barbettes 152
Crew: 1193
Armament: 12 x 356, 16 x 152, 4 x 78 mm AA, 6 x 533 mm TT sub

Ise class dreadnoughts (1916)

IJN Ise colorized by Irootoko Jr

The Ise and the Hyuga, launched in 1916 and 1917 and completed in 1917 and 1918 follow the Fuso in many points, but manage to combine the presence of an additional turret with a slightly extended hull (three meters). An additional space which benefits the machines, allowing a power gain of 5000 hp and a speed of 23 against 22.5 knots. In terms of armament, the choice is made to multiply the number of pieces of a lower caliber (140 mm against 152), modern and better suited to the loader gunner's size. In 1926-27 a slight overhaul saw them adopt a front chimney deflector hood while they saw their front masts being covered with gangways. They also carried three seaplanes launched from a platform installed on the roof of the fifth turret. Their second overhaul of 1934-36 saw them equipped with new machines, a reconstructed tower bridge, a substantial increase in their 356mm guns, AA artillery, and catapults. Their last overhaul will transform them in 1942-43 into aircraft carrier hybrids.

IJN Hyuga 1927
IJN Hyuga in 1927

Author's illustration of the ise class

Specifications (WWI)
Displacement: 31,260 - 36,500 tonnes
Dimensions: 205.80 x 28.70 x 8.8 m
Propulsion: 4 shafts Curtis or Parsons turbines, 24 Kampon boilers, 45,000 hp. 23 Knots.
Armor: Deck 76, blockhouse 305, belt 305, turrets, 305 and 204, barbettes 152; Crew 1360
Armament: 16 guns of 356, 20 of 140, 4 of 78 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm SM.

Nagato class (1919)

ijn nagato The last Japanese battleships actually in serive before 1941, the Nagato were the culmination of progressive improvements which were reflected in the armament, for the first time a battery entirely composed of parts of 410 mm, superior to the last American dreadnoughts (406mm) and more British Queen Elisabeth and Resolution (381mm). In addition to these aspects, the Nagato and Mutsu, her sister ship, had an all-heptapotdale pagoda (seven feet) in and around which rested numerous bridges, observation and telemetry decks. Also innovative, the design of the stern with a rounded "icebreaker" type setback, and a powerful secondary artillery barbettes divided into two battery decks.

The armor had also been revised, and the two ships had a total weight as standard of 32,700 tons, for a machine power of 80,000 hp, guaranteeing a top speed of 26 knots (48 km / h). Compromises had been found, in the armor which did not exceed 369 mm for the front blockhouse and 305 mm elsewhere. Without being true battle cruisers, the Nagato were a compromise between the two classes. Nagato and Mutsu will be in service in November 1920 and October 1921, early enough to escape the Washington moratory. They will be completely rebuilt in 1933-36 and gained a new AA artillery, then for the Nagato in 1944 radars and other equipment, with a standard weight of 39,130 ​​t.

Author's illustration of the Nagato class as modernized in WW2 (1919 illustration in preparation)

Displacement & Dimensions 23,700 - 27,900t; 215.8 x 29 x 9 m
Propulsion 4 propellers, 4 reduction turbines, 21 Myrabaia boilers, 80,000 hp. and 26 Knots max.
Armor, crew Deck 144, blockhouse 369, belt 305, turrets 305, barbettes 305
Crew 864
Armament 8 guns of 410, 20 of 140, 4 of 76 mm, 8 TLT 533 mm SM.

Tosa class (1920)

sketch of IJN Tosa

The projected Tosa in 1920 (author's rendition)

The Tosa-class battleships were dreadnoughts ordered as part of the "Eight-Eight" fleet in 1920 of the IJN. They were basically designed as larger versions of Nagato class, with the same 16.1 in (410 mm) twin turret, but one more as previously planned for the Nagato initially, and this design was retaken for the Amagi-class battlecruisers.

For the context, the IJN believed a configuration with eight battleships and eight armoured cruisers was the best fleet combination. The plan was ratified in 1907 and became the Eight-Eight Fleet Program, later transformed into sixteen capital ships, less than eight years old, hence the name. This was quite ambitious an was half-realized before the Washington treaty, with the two Fuso, two Ise and four Kongo. Both the arrival of the HMS Dreadnought and HMS Invincible and the plan was modified in 1911, but it was rejected by the Diet. FY1916 saw only the Nagato and two battlecruisers authorized, changed when President Wilson US plans for ten additional battleships plus six battlecruisers: A second Nagato-class battleship and tw modified modified design, Tosa and Kaga.

The Nagato design was already reevaluated following lessons from the Battle of Jutland in 1916, notably round armor protection, based on knowledge on protective schemes in USN and Royal Navy capital ships. The main gun turrets and magazines had all attention, plunging to deflect plunging fire, a better deck armor, while ASW hull defense against mines and torpedoes were also revised. Eleven designs were rejected until 1917 and Captain Yuzuru Hiraga presented a completely new version of the Nagato design called A-125. IJN Mutsu was to be rebuilt using this on 12 June 1917 before laid down, but eventually the design was rejected as delaying too much the class completion as a whole by the Navy Ministry.

Model of the Akagi
Model of the Akagi

Hiraga's A-125 design incorporated also better boilers and one twin main-gun turret was added thanks to the space freed by the new, lighter and more compact twelve new boilers without loss of power or speed. The secondary armament was down to 16 guns but moved one deck higher to ensure perfect arc of fire and viability in heavy weather. Another design feature was the belt anled outwards instead of the usual practice. For pluging fire, it proved buch better effience, and was still quite resistance to horizontal fire. The lower deck armor and Torpedo bulkhead were also thickened while anti-torpedo bulges were integrated. The plans were modified to a 39,000 ton battleship named A-127, with all armor figures raised for in final having twice as much armor as the Nagatos, and keeping the same speed, and this was accepted on 27 March 1918.

The (future) Tosa-class, still unnamed was to displace fuly laden as much as 44,200 tons and up to 234.09 meters (768 ft) overall and a draught of nearly ten meters. It was to be equipped (US influence there) by brand new turbo-electric systems, for an estimated figure of 70,000-shaft-horsepower, procuring 25.25 knots. Later this system seemed too far-fetch and rejected in favor of a more conventional system with Curtis geared steam turbines and 12 mixed burning Kampon water-tube boilers, for 91,000 shp and four propeller shafts, and one knot more at 26.5 knots. No change for the main artillery, but a return to twenty secondary guns.

Construction started for IJN Tosa on 16 February 1920 at the Mitsubishi Shipyard, Nagasaki, she was launched on 18 December 1921 and was planned for completion on March 1923, as contracted while IJN Kaga was laid down at Kawasaki Shipyard, Kobe, launched on 17 November 1921 and planned for completion on 25 December 1922.

Both were launched in late 1921 but cancelled according to the Washington Treaty before completion. Tosa was used in to test the latest of armour scheme, pounded by several battleships until she was scuttled in the Bungo Channel as an artificial reef. The hull her sister ship Kaga, was later converted into an aircraft carrier according to lenient conditions in the treaty in what was seen as a fleet auxiliary. The completion of Kaga as an aircraft carrier as soon as authorized, on 13 December 1923, but the great Kanto earthquake damaged the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and work lasted from 1925 to 1928 when she was commissioned, starting her sea trials and joining the Combined Fleet or Rengō Kantai on 30 November 1929, actually after the Akagi. The rest is history, as she was sunk in 1942 at Midway.

Tosa construction
The Tosa after launch, pending completion, on 31 July 1922, still no superstructure but a small bridge to oversea the tugging.

Kii class (projects)

Rendition of the Kii Rendition of the Kii

The Kii class were more than paper project as construction was ordered and started. For the first time, four "fast battleships" were planned for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and only the first two received names. They were part of the "eight-eight fleet" approved by the diet, following announced the USN major construction of 1919, but curtailed by the Washington Naval Treaty three years later, and consequently all work was suspended and cancellation followed in November 1923 and April 1924. If delivered, these would have be the largest and fastest battleships* in Asia, but not on earth, but not armed with the new 18-in standard caliber planned by other navies.

*The USN Lexington class battlecruisers displaced on paper 45,500 tonnes FL, the South Dakota class (48,000), but the Kii class were less impressive than the British G3 battlecruisers (53-54,000 tonnes FL), or N3 Battleships (around 55,000).

IJN Designer Yuzuru hiraga Crucially these ships were designed by Captain Yuzuru Hiraga and largely repeats of the preceding Amagi-class battlecruisers derived from the Tosa-class in turn, and were basically stretched to use more powerful machinery in order to add extra armour. Still, the Amagi class were faster, and since the Kii were an in-between they were called "fast battleships" ending distinction between "battleship" and "battlecruiser" the Japanese thought superfluitous. In that, they were right as more navies will do the same after the treaty ban was lifted.

They were quite large already at 250.1 meters (820 ft 6 in) overall for 30.8 meters (101 ft 1 in) wide and 9.7 meters (31 ft 10 in) draught, but their normal displacement was 42,600 metric tons. They were at the original to be propelled by four of the new projected high-power Gijutsu-Hombu geared steam turbines, one for each propeller shaft. Fed by 19 Kampon oil-fired water-tube boilers, their total ouptut was planned to be in the order of of 131,200 shaft horsepower (97,800 kW), enough to reach 29.75 knots (55.10 km/h; 34.24 mph) which was indeed a fraction of a knot less than the Amagi. Like the Amagi and Tosa they were armed with ten 41 mm/45 (16.1 in) guns, with three aft of the superstructure including one on the battery deck at the same level as the number four superfiring turret. The secondary battery was a step-up in caliber, to the price of four guns less: Sixteen 140 mm/50 (5.5 in) guns in the hull, and not in the superstructure. The ships were still also armed by torpedo-tubes, eight of the heavy 610 mm (24 in) torpedo tubes, all above water. More importantly were their protection figures, with waterline belt 292 mm (11.5 in) thick and sloped 15° outwards, designed to defeat 16-inch (410 mm) shells up to 20,000 m. Turrets faces and and barbettes reached 280 mm (9.0–11.0 in) and 356 mm (14 in) for the CT, 120 mm for the armoured deck.

Both the Kii and Owari were ordered on 12 October 1921, plus two more in December. Kii was to be built respectively at Kure Naval Arsenal, (completion planned for November 1923) and Owari at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal (September 1923) while Numbers 11 and 12, were respectively given to Kawasaki (Kobe) and Mitsubishi (Nagasaki), with completion dates around 1925. The keel laying was just started, when it was stopped on 5 February as the Washington Naval Treaty was signed, notably forbidding to go further than 35,000 long tons (36,000 t) in standard displacement.

Displacement: 42,500 - 48,800t FL
Dimensions: 250 x 30 x 9.8 m
Propulsion: 4 shafts geared turbines, 19 Kampon boilers, 131,200 hp. and 29.75 Knots max.
Armor: Deck 120, CT 356, belt 292, turrets 280, barbettes 280
Crew: 1200
Armament 10 x 410, 16 x 140, 4 x 76 mm AA, 8 TLT 610 mm SM.

N°13 class battleships (project)

Rendition of project 13 class Rendition of project 13 class. This would have been the largest capital ship in the world if completed (around 1925).

The Number 13-class battleship was a planned deveooment of the Kii, and like the latter, four "fast battleships" only planned when the Washington treaty was signed. They were ordered but soon cancelled as a conquence and never received proper names. They are known as N°13–16, to be built at the NyDs of Yokosuka, Kure, Mitsubishi and Kawasaki. They were part of the 1920 finally approved "eight-eight fleet" and these ships were to be superior to any other battleships of the time, they were in effect, the Yamatos of their day.

The plan requiring the construction of eight new fast battleships to replace the Kongo, Fuso and Ise in one go were to be the Kii and the Number 13 classes. The latter were designed by Hiraga, and acted on a Japanese doctrine followed since the First Sino-Japanese War, of compensating for the quantitative by the qualitative, still valid in 1941. Because of their nature of fast battleship and heay armour, while combined with the new 18-in guns, they would have in effect outclassed any capital ship in existence if completed as planned around 1926-27. They derived in a long line of designs going back to the Nagato, through the Tosa, Amagi and Kii. The great novelty was to stretch out the kii design to absorb brand new guns of the official caliber of 457 mm (18 in) guns. For this, the hull was lenghtened to 274.4 meters (900 ft 3 in) overall, so almost ten meters more than the 1941 Yamato, which however were almost twice more heavily armoured and much heavier in displacement.

Normal displacement noted was 47,500 metric tons (46,700 long tons) which gives an estimated 59,000 to 62,000 tonnes fully laden. Both by displacement and speed, this would have made them superior to the British N3 class, and even the "battlecruisers" of the G3 class. No doubt also that the new 457 mm guns were in reality of a larger caliber, with a longer barrel for extra range. However, this made for only four twin turrets in the latter case, against three triple. The N°13 class were propelled by the same four Gijutsu-Hombu geared steam turbines but mated to more Kampon boilers (22) in order to reach 150,000 shaft horsepower and a top speed equal to the Amagi class, 30 knots. Speed at the time was a crucial factor as it allowed to outmaneouvered the enemy and "crossing his T", with devastating results.

The 18-in guns was never built, but it would have fired a 1,550-kilogram (3,420 lb) shell at 800 meters per second at a 35,000+ m range, and the secondary battlery of 140 mm (5.5 in) was moved to the superstructure like the previous Kii, while AA would be from four to eight 120 mm (4.7 in) DP guns around the funnel, plus the same eight above surface 24 in torpedo tubes. Armour figures were quite impressive, made to defeat similar caliber of 18-in: 330 millimeters (13 in) angled at 15° outwards for the waterline, and a deck armor 127 mm (5 in) thick.

Displacement: 47,500 t standard - 58,000? t FL
Dimensions: 274.4 x 30.8 x 9.8 m
Propulsion: 4 shafts geared turbines, 22 Kampon boilers, 150,000 shp, 30 Knots max.
Armor: Deck 127, CT 356, belt 330, turrets 330, barbettes 330
Crew: 1200
Armament 8 x 457, 16 x 140, 8 x 120 mm AA, 8 TLT 610 mm aw.

IJN semi-battlecruisers and battlecruisers of the Great War (1905-1920)

ijn hiei 1914

Japan had a gradual approach to the matter. Although most historians points out the first Japanese battlecruiser per se was the Kongo class in 1913, Japan built two classes of expecptionally well armed armoured cruisers, which in the light of contemporary designs, could be assimilated to "semi-battlecruisers". They had in common an exceptionally heavy armament of 12-inches main gun as most foreign designs were armed wit 10 inches at best, a formidable secondary battery and a protection to match anything that was an armoured cruiser at the time. They were intended as authentic "fleet cruiser", designed to take place in a battleline of battleships, with a better speed in order to perform the famous "crossing the T" tactic after the Russo-Japanese war. The Tsukuba class on that matter, were completely redesigned. However, the first true battlecruisers were ordered in 1911 in the UK, with two more built in Japan: This was the Kongo class.

At the time, news that four heavily armed battlecruisers based on the Britsh Lion class caused a sensation. Some speculated they were even to be resold to the Germans shortly and asked to suspend the sell. But it made sense through the recently reinforced alliance treaty between UK and Japan. These four ships brought out an amazing weight to the Japanese fleet just as the war broke out. They were comprehensivelt modernized twice during the interwar, with an icreased protection which made them fast battleships, and no longer battelecruisers. Brand new powerplant more than made up for the increased weight of the additional protection. More were planned, with pioneering concepts such as very well protected battlecruisers which were in fact, fast battleships in disguise. With 18 inches guns, 30 knots and 50,000 tonnes they were amazing ships indeed, but would have probably bled the Japanese budget white.

Tsukuba class semi-battlecruisers (1905)

IJN Tuskuba, colorized by Irorotoko Jr
IJN Tuskuba, colorized by Irorotoko Jr

The Tsukuba and the Ikoma, two battleship cruisers armed with 305 mm guns were the result of a request from the navy after the observation of long-range fire from the Russians during the Battle of the Yellow Sea, and in replacement of the Hatsuse and Yashima, having blown up mines in Port Arthur. At their completion, after a rapid construction (too much, given the defects noted later), they were too slow and above all too weakly armed to be compared to real Battlecruiser equivalents, but were all the same classified as such by the General Staff. During the great war, on January 14, 1917, IJN Tsukuba suffered a violent accidental explosion of one of its ammunition bunkers which tore its sides, killing 305 victims. She sank on the shallows of Yokosuka Bay and was later refloated and demolished. IJN Ikoma became in 1919 a training ship for gunners, being rearmed with 10 pieces of 152, 8 of 120 and 6 of 45 mm. She was struck off the lists in 1924, after only 16 years of active life.

IJN Ikoma, colorized

Author's illustration of the IJN Tuskuba class
Author's illustration of the IJN Tuskuba class

Displacement: 15,400t FL
Dimensions: 137.2 x 23 x 8 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 20 Miyabara boilers, 20,500 hp. 20.5 knots max.
Armor: 203 mm
Crew: 844
Armament: 4 x 305 (12 in), 12 x 152 (6 in), 12 x 120 (5 in), 4 x 45 mm (2 in), 2 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 457mm (18 in) TTs.

Ibuki class semi-battlecruisers (1907)

IJN Kurama IJN Kurama in Kure, 1914, colorized by irooToko Jr.

The IJN Ibuki and Kurama, built in Kure and Yokosuka respectively, were derived from previous Tsukuba. They did not differ in size but in their turbines, a first for Japanese ships, and their armament reinforced with 203 mm pieces. In addition, the two units differed between them, Ibuki having lower funnels and single masts, but also turbines bringing its power to 24,000 hp against 22,500 and 21.5 knots against 20 on the Kurama equipped with machines. standard. Both served during the Great War, the Ibuki participating in the hunt for Von Spee before sending concois Anzac (Australian troops) to the Dardanelles front via Suez. They were disarmed in 1924-25 and struck off the lists (Full article to come).

Old postcard showing the IJN Kurama
Old postcard showing the IJN Kurama

Displacement: 15,595t FL
Dimensions: 137.2 x 23 x 8 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 20 Miyabara boilers, 22,500 hp. 20.5 knots.
Armor: 203 mm
Crew: 844
Armament: 4 x 305 (12 in), 8 x 203 (8 in), 14 x 120 (5 in), 4 x 45 mm (2 in), 3 x 457mm (18 in) TTs

Kongo class battlecruisers (1912)

IJN kongo - Colorized by Irootoko Jr
IJN kongo - Colorized by Irootoko Jr

The Kongo, Haruna, Hiei and Kirishima were four formidable vessels commissioned from Great Britain in 1910, launched in 1912 and 1913 and completed just before the start of the great war. Designed a bit on the model of the Tiger, they showed that the Japanese admiralty had decided to move to a higher pace, and that it was clearly confirming its dominant place in Asia. The British certainly did not expect to find them one day in front of them. They served amply in the Pacific, demonstrating their relevance by being very effective in the role of "beaters" from the German Pacific Fleet (Graf Von Spee) to the British squadron in 1914. The front was calm, and their career was unsuccessful. stories, from assignments to assignments. In 1919, they would undergo a short overhaul and modernization, but the main one came in 1927-29, at the end of which they became fast battleships, the first of the Japanese navy.

IJN Shikishima at Sasebo in 1915
IJN Shikishima at Sasebo in 1915

Author's illustration of the IJN Kongo class
Author's illustration of the IJN Kongo class

Displacement: 27,500 tonne standard 31,000 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 204.70 x 27 x 8.2 m ()
Propulsion: 4 shaft Brown-Curtis turbines, 24 Miyabara boilers, 40,000 hp, 27 Knots.
Armor: Deck 50, blockhouse 230, belt 210, turrets, 305 and 150, barbettes 152
Crew: 1210
Armament: 8 x 356 (15 in), 16 x 152 (6 in), 4 x 78 mm AA (3.5 in), 6 x 533 mm TT SM (21 in).

Kongo after her first reconstruction in 1923
Kongo after her first major reconstruction in 1929

Amagi class battlecruisers (1920)

Author's rendition of the IJN Amagi class


The Amagi class was a series of four battlecruisers, part of the 'Eight-eight' and planned successors of the Kongo class, named Amagi, Akagi, Atago, and Takao. The design was just a lengthened version of the Tosa-class seen earlier, with thinner belt, deck, and a much more powerful propulsion for 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) while the secondary armament was rearranged, but the main battery was the same five twin turrets 41 cm (16.1 in) developed for the Nagato. The plan for one battleship construction (Nagato) was approved in 1917, along with funding for two battlecruisers, the Amagi class. By late 1917, the programme was renamed 'eight-four plan' and two more battlecruisers were approved, sister-ships of the Amagi-class. All had the same 410 mm (16 in) guns, but the effort put an immense financial strain on Japan, amounting to one third of its entire national budget. To put things in perspective, most European nations today barely spent 1% on their GDP on all three branches of defense.

The 1922 Washington Naval Treaty prevented their completion but authorization came to convert at least one of these into an aircraft carrier. At the origin, both the Amagi and Akagi were planned for conversion, but great Kanto earthquake damaged the Amagi hull in such a way there was no point on going further and she was scrapped. Meanwhile IJN Akagi reconstruction proceeded forward until 1927. She was part of the "Kido Butai", the elite IJN carrier division but was lost at Midway.

Prow of the IJN Akagi being launched in 1925, already converted. Reconstructions would go on for most of the interwar.

Displacement: 27,500 tonne standard 31,000 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 204.70 x 27 x 8.2 m ()
Propulsion: 4 shaft Brown-Curtis turbines, 24 Miyabara boilers, 40,000 hp, 27 Knots.
Armor: Deck 50, blockhouse 230, belt 210, turrets, 305 and 150, barbettes 152
Crew: 1210
Armament: 10 x 410 (16 in), 16 x 140 (5.5 in), 4 x 78 mm AA (3.5 in), 6 x 533 mm TT SM (21 in).

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Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1865-1905, 1906-1921

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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