Cadorna class cruisers (1931)

Luigi Cadorna, Armando Diaz.

The first six ships of the "Condotierri" large group, among which the Luigi Cadorna class, were also the first postwar Italian cruisers to see service. Both classes were different in some points but also shared many similarities, like a 5000+ tons displacement, whereas the following D'Aosta group would almost double that, looking for the best compromise between speed and protection.

Surely, these classes are remembered as the infamous "tin-clad cruisers". Despite having a full 6-in broadside, they were only designed to take care of French large destroyers. It's always dangerous to design too specialized ships, history showed it time and again, rather than a good all-around design. In the end, the six "destroyers-hunters" of the 1st and 2nd series were all sunk but one, by luck, as she served as a training ship and minelayer during WW2. Fortunately the navy went to a more conventional, larger, more stable design, better all-around for the following groups.

Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice
Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice

The earlier Giussano class: The Guissano

The four cruisers of the Giussano class were the first in the Condottieri serie. These were Albercio da Barbiano, Amberto di Giussano, Bartolomeo Colleoni and Giovanni delle Bande Nere. All four light cruisers were originally designed to catch and destroy the new heavy French destroyers of the Aigle, Jaguar and Lion classes.

They sacrificed everything to reach the greatest speed possible. They indeed broke records on trials, from 39 to 42 knots (Barbiano) earning the title of fastest cruisers worlwide. A gift for Mussolini's propaganda office, but this masked a woefully inadequate, down to non-existent protection; They were the provierbial "tin-clad cruisers". Added to this, their tall bridge and low hull compensation made a tall metacentric height, making stability particularly poor. Not only this prevented to keep an effective speed, as they lost it by turning more slowly to avoid capsizing, but this also made them heavy rollers, and bad firing platforms. The main artillery could however deliver on target on these French destroyers, 5 salvoes per minute.

These compromised could be understood for their specialized role, but since France was liminated soon from the game, these defect became detrimental. Tolerated in peacetime, they shown in operations, as in addition the ships were uncomfortable, with poorly designed internal arrangements and a severely limited autonomy. In fact none survived the war. The Bande Nere was sunk by the submarine HMS Urge near Stromboli, the Colleoni in July 1940 by the cruiser Sydney, the Barbiano and Giussano by destroyers HMS Legion, Maori, Sikh and the Dutch destroyer Isaac Swers during the battle of the cape Bon in December 13, 1941. Already their trials revealed a poor stability and the next two of the same class were modified to try to correct these defects. But the philosophy behind the Cadorna was the same: Catching French heavy destroyers.

launch cadorna
Launch of the Cadorna in Trieste, alongside the liner Conte di Savoia.

Design of the Luigi Cadorna class

The second group Condottieri was very close to the previous Giussano. However they corrected one of the essential defects, the lack of stability. This was done by fitting them with lateral "bulges", and by lowering superstructures, as well as playing on the distribution of armament. This were however marked by a slight increased displacement, their dimensions remaining the same. They also roomier turrets and were equipped to lay mines, up to 138 taking place of the on rails, but of the smaller Regia Marine model. The Cadorna was displaced 5,323 t (5,239 long tons) standard and 7,113 t (7,001 long tons) full load, so more than the Guissano (6,954 tonnes fully loaded). Their dimensions were similar, at 169.3 m (555 ft 5 in) in overall lenght, a beam of 15.5 m (50 ft 10 in) and a draught of 5.2 m (17 ft 1 in), apparently lower than the Guissano (5.3 m or 17 ft). Coming from different yards, both ships diverged after completion. Diaz was slightly heavier at 5,406 t (5,321 long tons) standard.

Powerplant

Both ships were fitted with two Parsons geared turbines fed by six Yarrow boilers, delivering a total output of 95,000 hp (70,841 kW), the same as the previous Guissano class. The Cadorna was specified to reach 37 knots (43 mph; 69 km/h) as specified, but she managed to reach 39.7 knots on trials. Diaz performed less well at 36.5 knots (42.0 mph; 67.6 km/h). Range was 2,930 nmi (5,430 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h) for Cadorna and better at 3,088 nmi (5,719 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h) for Diaz.

Armando Diaz as built

Armament

Both ships were armed the same, and also like the previous Guissano class: The core was four twin turrets, in total eight 152 mm (6 in)/53 guns. These were not independent mounts, both guns were elevated to the same level. However the turrets were modified and rearranged compared to the Guissano and were more spacious. These guns were manufactured in 1926-31 by Ansaldo and OTO Melara. The Guissano had the 1926 gun model while the Cadorna class swapped to the 1929 model. In common they had a jacket with loose liner and horizontal sliding breech block but they differed by the thickness of liner, the size of their breech ring and length of the jacket.

The secondary armament comprised six twin 100 mm (4 in)/47 caliber guns under masks, placed the same way as previous cruisers, either side of the beam and on the superstructure, in front of the rear funnel. These were an Italian version of the Škoda 10 cm K10 made by OTO melara. Dating back from WW1 it was of an obsolete type, more antiship than AA in WW2. It fired a fixed QF ammunition weighting 13.75 kilograms (30.3 lb), while the gun had an horizontal sliding breech block while the mount can elevate -5° to +85°. Average rate of fire was 8-10 rpm, and muzzle velocity was 880 meters per second (2,900 ft/s). Range was 15.2 km (9.4 mi) and Ceiling 10 km (33,000 ft) at 80°.

imam ro43 idro

The tertiary armament comprised two single mounted 37 mm (1.5 in)/54 guns and eight (four twin) Breda 13.2 mm/75.5 guns. They were placed in the bridge and supertructures. This was completed by four 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes in two beam twin mounts. The Imam Ro43 seaplane installed from 1935 was also armed with 7.7 mm machine guns and posssibly light bombs, but its mission was reconnaissance.

Luigi Cadorna was rearmed in 1944, then one of the very rare Condotierri ships in service with the allies. She received four 20 mm AA on twin mounts, lost her catapult and torpedo tubes to regain more stability. As such, she survived the war, remaining in service until 1951.

Armor protection

Likle the previous ships it was still faily light and the Cadorna serie are unmistably part of the "tin-clad" generation of cruisers. Things really improved with the Vth group - Duca Degli Abruzzi class cruisers. Internal protective deck was 20 mm (0.79 in) in thickness, while it was connected to the main belt 24 mm (0.94 in) strong. Turrets were only given 23 mm (0.91 in) on the frontal arc, which stopped shrapnells, but was vulnerable to all calibers of shells, including those 140 mm of the French heavy Destroyers of the time. Only the conning tower received a more substantial protection with 40 mm walls.

Technical specifications of the Luigi Cadorna class
Displacement 5,230 t. standard; 7,000 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 169,30 m long, 15,50 m wide, 5,50 m draft (555 x 50 x 17 feets)
Machinery: 2 shaft Parsons turbines, 6 Yarrow/Ansaldo boilers, 95,000 shp.
Top speed: 36.5 knots - Range 2,930 nm at 16 knots
Protection: Belt 40, Deck 20, Turrets 23, Blockhouse 40 mm
Armament: 8 x 152mm (6 in) (4x2), 6 x 100mm (4 in) (8 x 2), 8 x 37mm AA, 8 x 13.2mm AA, 4 TLT 533 mm (2x2), 2 floatplanes
Crew size: 544-608 (wartime)

The Luigi Cadorna class in service

Although plagued by the same flimsy contruction than the previous Giussano class, the Cadorna and Diaz were very active and if one was torpedoed in 1941, the other survived the war, the only ship of the whole early Condotierre group.

Luigi Cadorna

Luigi Cadorna, camouflaged, surrendering to the allies at Malta, 9 November 1943
Luigi Cadorna, camouflaged, surrendering to the allies at Malta, 9 November 1943

The Italian light cruiser, ordered on 29 October 1929 was laid down at CRDA, Trieste (Adriatic coast) on 19 September 1930, launched one year later in 30 September 1931, but completed 11 August 1933 so roughly over a construction period of three years, which was slightly above average. She was named after Italian Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, commander in Chief of the Italian Army. Nowadays widely criticized for his conduct of operations and failures, but at that time, the honored generalissimo of the Italian Army.

Cadorna's early service were spent during the Spanish Civil War, patrolling maritime trade routes in concert with other nations and supporting the Italian contingent which was sent here. In April 1939 she participated in the occupation of Albania, by covering the landings. They were sent to deal with the port of Durrës, destroying the little naval forces the Albanians had and covering the landings.

When the second world war broke out, she was part of the 4th Cruiser Division. Her first mission was to lay mines on 9 June 1940 off Lampedusa island. She was part of the Italian line at the Battle of Calabria, avoiding a submarine torpedo attack, but repelling allied planes and assisting the Armando Diaz plagued by boiler problems.

In February 1941 Luigi Cadorna went into reserve as the admiralty judged the class too frail to take part in further operations. Nevertheless, pressing situation force the admiraty to recall them when the Axis supply road in North Africa was threatened. Luigi Cadorna watched over convoys heading towards North Africa. In between she made a sortie to try to intercept British convoys to Malta. In By November to December 1941 she transported herself fuel and ammunition to Libya.


Luigi Cadorna in Pola, 1940.

From January 1942 she was sent to Pola as a training ship. She received a short refit in May-June 1942 and joined the 8th Cruiser Division. Until the end of June she carried troops to Albania. On 3 July 1942 she sailed to her new base of Taranto, and from this, started a serie of five minelaying missions. The goal was create defensive minfields in the Gulf of Taranto. She was assisted by the brand new Scipione Africano, a light/cruiser also dubbed "super-destroyer", which just entered service.

The armistice came on 8 September 1943. At that time, Luigi Cadorna was still stationed at Taranto. Like the rest of the fleet, she sailed to Malta to surrender the 9, according to the surrender negociations. On 14 September however she was tranferred to Alexandria and later in October 1944 she returned to Taranto, to be used as a transport ship for the Allies, also repatriating Italian troops from various theaters of operations. According to the Peace Treaty of 10 February 1947 she as not offered as a war prize but remained in the Italian Navy, and served as a training ship until May 1951. She was subsequentely stricken and scrapped afterwards, the only early Condotierre cruiser to survive the war.

Armando Diaz

armando diaz

Armando Diaz was built by OTO, Muggiano (La Spezia), and named after an Italian Field Marshal of World War I. She served in the Mediterranean but on 1 September 1934 and until February 1935, she toured the woorls, reached the Pacific and visited Australia and New Zealand. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, she patrolled the trade lanes in the western Mediterranean, based at Palina and Melilla.

Armando Diaz prewar, stern view.
Armando Diaz prewar, stern view.

The second world war broke out, and Diaz participated in July 1940, to the Battle of Calabria (Punta Stilo). She was not hit noe hit any British ship during the action, largely inconclusive. In October 1940 she was sent to Albania, supporting landing troops here. In December 1940 she was placed under command of Supermarina (the Regia Marina supreme naval Headquarters). She was to protect traffic to Albania from January 1941 but was soon required, in January 1942, to cover an important supply convoy to Tripoli. She teamed with another 'tin-clad' cruiser for the occasions, the Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, plus some destroyers. During this operation however she was spotted, torpedoed and sunk by the British submarine HMS Upright, posted off the island of Kerkennah on 25 February. The Armando Diaz's hull ruptured in two after her magazine blew up, resulting her to sink under only six minutes, carrying with her 484 sailors and officers, the 4/5 of her entire crew.


Old Illustration of the Cadorna class by the author.


2-view drawing of the class (cc)

Read More & notes

Conway's all the world's ships 1922-47
http://www.marina.difesa.it/EN/history/Pagine/ufficiostorico.aspx
The Cadorna On navypedia
Armando Diaz - Incrociatore leggero, su marina.difesa.it.
Condottieri Class Cruisers - LCC Books
//www.world-war.co.uk/italy/luigi.php3
comandosupremo.com - condottieri-class-cruisers/
I motti delle navi italiane, Roma, Ufficio Storico della Marina Militare, 1962, pp.36.
Giorgio Giorgerini, La guerra italiana sul mare. La Marina fra vittoria e sconfitta 1940-1943, p. 172-180
Gianni Rocca, Fucilate gli ammiragli. La tragedia della Marina italiana nella seconda guerra mondiale, p.98
Giorgio Giorgerini, La guerra italiana sul mare. La Marina fra vittoria e sconfitta 1940-1943

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30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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