WW2 American Cruisers (1921-47)

US Navy ww2 USA, 1921-1947 - 62 cruisers
From Omaha to Worcester, two decades of conventional cruiser development (1918-47)
The term of 'conventional cruiser' appeared in the late 1950s when the first missile cruisers were developed, notably in the US the "three T*" carrying ships, to describe a gun-armed vessel as primary armament. The USN had about ten cruiser classes, many sub-classes and two new one under construction during the war, for a total of about 60 cruisers. This was, by all margins, the largest cruiser force that ever roamed the oceans. *Name given to the USN missile systems developed in the 1950-60s: Talos, Terrier, Tartar.

uss trenton

Even the Royal Navy, which inherited a large proportion of WW1 era cruisers, could not compete in terms of modern cruisers. The gargantuan Cleveland and Baltimore classes alone, by tonnage and armament, were made to outclass both in terms of quantity and quality, all the IJN could throw at the pacific fleet. The industrial steamroller so feared by admiral Yamamoto was unleashed in 1942. And this force was to be also present in the Atlantic north and south and the Mediterranean, or the northern sea to Murmansk.

Cruiser types and designations

Like all naval powers, USN cruiser design was framed by the successive treaties, starting with Washington in 1922, which fixed a standard for heavy cruisers, London I (1930) and London II (1935) which redefined the notion of cruiser and pushed for a new generation armed with 6-in guns with an heavy cruiser tonnage. During this period, the USN tested and operated no less than six cruiser types: The scout cruiser (Omaha class), the AA cruiser (Atlanta class, 5-in DP guns), the light cruiser (up to the Worcester, arguably "heavy-light", but with 6-in guns), the heavy cruiser (from Pensacola to Des Moines, 8-in guns), and even the "large cruiser" (Alaska class, 12-in guns).

USS Oakland

This was translated, but simplified into USN designators such as CL (light cruisers), CA (heavy cruisers), and CB (Large cruisers). The CL category was fairly diverse, since it contained the AA cruisers of the Atlanta class, up to the 14,000 tons (fully loaded) Cleveland and 18,000 tons for the Worcester class. The term "CA" was a fairly ancient one, dating back to the first USN protected and armoured cruisers, before WW1. The 'A' meant 'armored'. Indeed, the Pensacola class in the 1925 started with CA24 and 25. The serie ended with the CL 147 USS Gary, last conventional cruiser laid down by the USN (cancelled in 1945).

USN Cruisers ww2 poster
Poster of the WW2 USN Cruisers of WW2, extract from the upcoming "The Real Thing" about ww2 USN fleet.

A long vacancy: From Chester to Omaha

The USN present us to a radical, unusual fact: There has been a total 'vacancy', a gap in naval programs concerning cruisers. Indeed the last ones, the three Chesters, were launched in 1907. Before that, the USN had experimented with fleet armoured cruisers, built alongside pre-dreadnoughts, down to small unprotected cruisers not much larger than gunboats (and reclassified as such in WW1). This cruiser fleet had its moments of glory in 1989 but was largely discarded in 1930. For costs reasons after the wall street crash, tonnage limitations, and simply age. The CA2 USS Rochester was indeed going back to 1891. The case of France was not much different though. Her last cruisers dated back also from 1906. Main reasons behind this choice were:
1- Concentrating budgets on the new, promising but costly dreadnoughts
2- The apparition of 1,500 tons fleet destroyers that can act as scouts
3- Gunboats that can fill the role of cruisers for distant stations
4- Battlecruisers that can take on the tasks of former fleet cruisers.

uss indianapolis colorized
USS Indianapolis (CA35), colorized by Irootoko Jr.

These factors above are all verified in the case of the USN. The new dreadnought in particular, in a Navy deeply shaped by Alfred Thayer Mahan ideas, was to concentrate all the attention and credits. This was the perfect deterrent force of its day after all. So when the need emerged of a true scout cruiser, better armed than destroyers, and with a better range, usable as destroyer leaders, work started on a new design in 1917. Engineers could already take some inspiration on foreign designs, but also have a look on the Chester class.

The latter were very lightly built, yet large cruisers, displacing only 3,750 tons standard, armed with just two 5 in (127 mm)/50 caliber Mark 6 guns and an array of 3-in guns, good only for annoying torpedo boats. Speed was just 24 kn (27.6 mph; 44.4 km/h), which was at the time better than most older cruisers. Of course in 1917 they had been rearmed and refitted. The Omaha class were designed in observance of the tasks as the Chester (and a replacement), but upgraded to the new 6-in gun caliber to give an edge on any destroyer in service, and a speed to match the same destroyers, including those to be led as squadron leader.

uss savannah CL 42 Algiers 1942
USS Savannah in Algiers, near a burning Liberty ship, fall 1942.

As a result the ships displaced twice as much, top speed rose to 33 knots, while artillery configuration showed the transitional state of artillery at that time, with twin turrets and casemate guns. These ten vessels came from Todd Dry Dock & Construction Co., Tacoma, Bethlehem Shipbuilding at Fore River Shipyard, Quincy and William Cramp & Sons in Philadelphia to lead destroyer squadrons for the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. However they were seen soon as displaying excessive top weight and being extremely wet.

Development of USN light cruisers

Soon the USN focused like many other navies on 8-in cruisers and will only return to "light" cruisers with the 6-in gun armed Brooklyn class nearly ten years after, hardly comparable to the Omaha. They were a new league in themselves. The latter were of a new standard which lasted for ten more years until 1947, through the Cleveland and sub-classes Fargo and later the revolutionary Worcester.

USSS Brooklyn in the Hudson River

Meanwhile there was also the treaty 'London II' which imposed a vacancy on heavy cruisers. The Baltimore class were indeed designed and laid down from mid-1941, six years after the USS Wichita, inaugurating a new hull in complete departure from the last "classic" washington cruisers, the New Orleans.

The London treaty and Brooklyn class

The Brooklyn class opened a new entry in American cruiser design in general: The main change was the use of a roomier flush deck hull, to fill a niche in the unlimited number of cruisers that can fill the 143,500 long tons allocation. Therefore 10,000 tons cruisers armed with 6-in guns were now, if not desirable, realistic. Lighter designs such as the Omaha and Atlanta later proved they were quickly overweight and rolled badly.

Brooklyn class 1944

So there was definitively a specification profiling for a stable, large hull, to be a stable gun platform, especially to house numerous, faster firing lighter guns. And indeed it was possible to cram five lighter turrets on such hull, triple ones, making for volleys in quick successions of twelve shells. HE shells in this configuration aimed at the superstructures raised interest in the admiralty.

The base design was the New Orleans, but in the end there were many changes. The class will comprise nine vessels, including a later sub-class called the St. Louis with improved engine protection. The hull in particular was retained for all subsequent cruisers, heavy or light.

The Omaha class AA cruisers

USS Atlanta

While the USS Helena, the last Brooklyn class cruiser was just being commissioned on 18 September 1939, replacement for the 20-years old Omaha class has been studied and plans settled that year. The program called for a fast scout cruiser or flotilla leader able to perform the same missions, on the same displacement, taking advantage of the tonnage limitations, but armed with a completely new battery.

Instead of the slower 6-in guns in barbettes, casemate and turrets, concerned about aviation and the need for specialized escort moved the design towards the brand new 5-inch/38 mounts in developments. These ships were able to bring to bear eight 5-inch/38 mounts, making for a sixteen shells with a rate of fire of 15 rpm, making for 17,600 pounds (8,000 kg) each minute. This was impressive in itself, but the system was way more efficient with radar-fuzed "VT" shells and Mk 37 fire control system and by 1943 the improved Mk 12/Mk 22 radar combination.

USS San Juan

The USS Atlanta was laid down on 22 April 1940, followed by three more, and four more of the modified Oakland design. In this one, emphasis was put on lighter AA cover, sacrificing two 5-inch/38 mounts for 40 mm Bofors at the start, when it was made available. Indeed the first five ships had no 20 mm Oerlikon either at the start but a set of less popular 1.1-inch/75 (28 mm) quad "Chicago Piano" mounts.

This measure also save some top weight, making the ships more stable. Indeed in surface action near Guadalcanal, USS Atlanta and Juneau were lost. The concept was reminiscent (and partly inspired by) the British Dido class. The last one, USS Tucson was only completed by 3 February 1945, to be discarded in 1949.

The wartime standard light cruisers: Cleveland

There was a gap between the Cleveland class and the Brooklyn, which left time to perfect the design. The Cleveland class, together with its late sub-class Fargo (1945), was the most numerous cruiser class in recorded history so far. A record which was due to the need of mass-producing cruisers to make it for the losses, notably around Guadalcanal on the infamous 'ironbottom sound'. They were closely modelled on the Brooklyns but improved in all directions, range, AA armament, torpedo protection, electronics, etc.

Cleveland class cruisers

At the same time, simplifications in design were made, just like other classes like the Fletcher-class destroyers to reduce the delivery rate. No less than fifty two keels laid down, this was quite an achievement. Many cancellations followed however towards the end of the war and in total only twenty-one of these cruisers were completed during wartime.

Each one of the these displaced more than the Washington and London treaty allowed, automatically lifted in wartime: 11,744 long tons standard and 14,131 long tons (14,358 t). This left room for many improvements indeed. Compared to the Brooklyns, these cruisers came back to a more manageable four triple turrets (twelve guns), in favor of the new dual 5 in (130 mm)/38 caliber turrets.

They also had 40 mm Bofors and Oerlikon since the beginning. Superstructures were purely utilitarian, narrow to free more space abreast. The squared stern and rear aviation facilities were inherited from the Brooklyn design. The first two, Cleveland and Columbia, were laid down in the summer of 1940, while the last commissioned one of the proper Cleveland class was the USS Portsmouth (CL-102) in June 1945, however ten hulls were completed as fast light fleet aircraft carriers (CVL, Independence class), and many other converted after the war as hybrid missile cruisers.

Oerlikon Gun 20 mm

Armament of USN Cruisers

A big chunk has been treated already in sections such as the generic WW2 USN page and the WW2 Battleship section, notably for the 5-in (and dual 3-in/38), 3-in guns and light AA artillery. So we will focus here on the main caliber of USN Cruisers since the Omaha.

6"/53 caliber gun

USS Cincinatti 6 in guns

These purely surface guns were equivalent to 152 mm in the metric system. Each weighted ten tons. They were developed fro 1920 into the models Mk 12, Mk 14, Mk 15, Mk 18 on Mountings Mk 13, Mk 16, and Mk 17. 47 were forged, but the only ships they equipped eventually were the ten Omaha class cruisers. Others were planned for the Lexington class battlecruisers and South Dakota class super dreadnoughts, both cancelled. They fired a 105 pounds (48 kg) shell at 900 meters per second (2,950 ft/s) and up to 23,130 meters (25,295 yd) in maximal elevation.

6"/47 caliber gun

6 in guns USS Brooklyn firing Sicily

This was the model fitted on the triple turrets of the USS Brooklyn and the eight other ships of the class. Despite the shorter barrel, the Mark 16 fired a 130-pound (59 kg) AP projectile instead of 105 pds. The Mark 35 was considered a super heavy armor-piercing ammunition. The Mark 16 rate of fire was about 8-10 rounds per minute, improved on the Mark 16DP to 12 rounds per minute. The first model was used by the Brooklyns and sub-class St Louis, Cleveland and Fargo.

The 16DP was only use in the reconstructed USS Mississippi (AG-128) in the shape of a single twin turret, and the Worcester class in tailored automated dual-purpose turrets. The weaker version was the Mark 17, only capable of 5-8 rounds per minute and installed on the Erie class gunboats in single mounts. The Mark 35 round exited the barrel at 2,500 ft/s (760 m/s). Effective range was 20,000-yard (18,288 m) at 22.3° elevation (130 lb AP shell), and in maximal range, 26,118-yard (23,882 m) at 47.5° elevation, again with the super-heavy Mark 35 shell. But dispersion was considerable at this distance.

8"/55 caliber gun

USS St Paul firing in 1966
The guns of USS St Paul blazing out off the Vietnam coast in 1966

These guns, declined into many variants were the staple of USN heavy cruiser design, from the Pensacola class and Lexington class aircraft carriers to the Des Moines. The last version even made it on a cold war Forrest Sherman destroyer, the USS Hull, for testing purposes, called the 8 in/55 Mark 71 gun mount. The first 8-in caliber developed for modern USN cruisers was a 55 caliber, developed into the Mk 9, Mk 12, Mk 14, Mk 15 and Mk 16 variants.

They fired a 335 pounds (152 kg) A.P. shell or a 260 pounds (118 kg) H.E. shell. Muzzle velocity was 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s) and maximum range was 30,050 yards (27,480 m). -The basic mark 9 gun unit weighted 30 tonnes, including a liner, tube, jacket, five hoops and its down-swing Welin breech block. Two 45 pounds (20 kg) silk bags of smokeless powder were loaded each time. It was similar to the mark 14 with the exception of an increased rifling twist.
-The Mark 12 eliminated hoops to reduce weight to 17 tons. The rate of fire rose to four rounds per minute.
-The Mark 15 was a Mark 12 using the smaller chamber of the Mark 14 gun
-The Mark 16 introduced a lined monobloc construction, vertical sliding breech blocks, and still a semi-fixed ammunition.

12"/50 caliber Mark 8 gun

The Alaska "large cruisers" main caliber. These artillery pieces were designed in 1939, the prototype being tested in 1942. Unlike the previous stanxard 16"/45 caliber of the North Carolina class, manufactured at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington D.C., the Mark 8 came from Midvale and Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The barrels were sent to the Naval Gun Factory for processing, and Watervliet Arsenal until after 65% of this process was done, and then sent back to the Naval Gun Factory for final completion before delivery. The gun was first deployed in 1944 on USS Alaska. Each of the Alaska-class was given nine Mark 8 in three triple arrangements, so 18 in total for the whole class as the remainder ships were cancelled.

5"/51 caliber gun (127 mm)

twin mount 5 in
This ubiquitous secondary, dual purpose artillery was a wartime creation in its dual turret form. It was adopted by the Omaha class AA cruisers, the Cleveland, and Baltimore class cruisers, Alaska, Worcester and Des Moines. The previous generation was made of single mounts: The Pensacola had eight, the next Northampton had just four one them, the Portland eight, like the New Orleans class and USS Wichita as well as the Brooklyn class. Each time they were on the broadside, with the exception of some that were elevated to the level of the main deck.

3"/55 caliber gun (76 mm)

These were the old 3"/50 (7.62 cm) Marks 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8 types, and the more modern 3"/23.5 (7.62 cm) Marks 4 and 14 and 3"/23 (7.62 cm) Marks 7, 9, 11 and 13. They were ultimately replaced witn new twin moonts in 1945. The Des Moines had 24 × 3 inch/50 caliber guns in 12 twin mounts, and the Worcester experimented in a big way: There were five dual 3-in/50 Mk33 port, including 3-in/50s installed in early 1949, five dual 3-in/50 Mk33 starboard, and one dual 3-in/50 Mk33 on the bow plus two single 3-in/50 Mk34 on blisters fantail.

40 mm/56 Mark 1, Mark 2 and M1

Widespread since the Omaha class, either in single, dual (rare) or quad mount. They became the stable of heavy short range AA artillery on all USN Cruisers. The interwar cruisers relied on single or dual mounted 12.7 mm or 0.5 in cal. Browning HMGs, of the liquid-cooled or later M2HB air-cooled type "Ma Deuce". For example, Portland and Indianapolis were upgraded in 1944 with 24 Bofors 40 mm, in six quad mounts. They occupied some space, and therefor the superstructures of the Cleveland and Baltimore class were modelled AFTER the position of the 40 mm quad mounts were reserved, alternating with the dual 5-in turrets. These cruisers were literally crammed with these Bofors: The Cleveland class had 28 of them in seven mounts, and the Baltimore had 48 of these in all, either in twelve quad mounts or eleven twin mounts. In fact the sub-class Oregon City had comparatively far less of the smaller 20 mm Oerlikon guns: Twenty. The Des Moines had none, relying on more accurate, 3-in mounts and as well as the Worcester class.

1.1"/75 Mark 1/2 (28 mm)

The "Chicago Piano" was the standard quad AA machine gun mount in rare use on interwar USN Cruisers of the New Orleans class. They were never popular with the crews and were replaced by 40 mm mounts as soon as they were available.

20 mm/70 (0.79") Marks 2, 3 & 4

20 mm Oerlikon gun

The Oerlikon AA guns has been designed by Switzerland and intended first to serve as a main French AA light gun. France fell, and in the meantime from 1935 the USN purchased two Oerlikon 20 mm Model 1934 guns for evaluation, but rejected it for having a low muzzle velocity and rate of fire. The IJN purchase of license rights and ironically saved Oerlikon from Bankrupcy, helping to refine its model, which came close to prefection when it was largely adopted by the allied during the War.

USN BuOrd investigated in 1940 to replacing the 0.50" BMG and W.H.P. Blandy recommended the Oerlikon Mark I, approved on 9 November 1940. Manufacturing was quick and the first mount was was live tested on 8 June 1941, with 379 delivered by 7 December 1941. Until the capitulation of Japan, 124,735 Oerlikon were manufactured in the USA alone. They replaced the 0.50" (1.27 cm) BMG but were soon reinforced by the 40 mm Bofors from 1943. Until September 1944, about 32% of all Japanese aircraft downed were credited to the Oerlikon gun, and up to 48.3% from June 1942, espeically with the adption of the Mark 14 Gunsight developed by Dr. Charles Draper of MIT, using two gyros to measure vertical and lateral rate of change, integrated in the generic Mark 51 AA director. It was replaced by the much faster Mark 20 Gun Sight after the war. However in 1944 the 20 mm was found unable to stop Japanese Kamikaze planes and disappeared together with the 40 mm in the mid-1950s, rendered obsolete by the advent of the Jet age.

Main battery 1944-45

Cold War conventional USN Cruisers

USS Springfield CGL-7
USS Springfield (CGL-7) as modernized in the late 1960s.

After V-Day the US Navy was found with a wealth of cruisers unlike any period in history: Most interwar generation cruisers survived the conflict and the Cleveland and Baltimore class (partly still in construction when the war ended) suffered no loss. The interwar generation cruisers were discarded in the 1940-50s, apart the early war Brooklyn class, partly resold to foreign countries, like Brazil, Chile and Argentina.

The Cleveland class were placed in reserve in 1946-49 reactivated and modernized in part, discarded in the 1960s or 1970s depending on the level of modernization. For the modernized cruisers CGL-3-8, Springfield, Topeka, Providence, Oklahoma City, Little Rock, and Galveston were rebuilt on the same model as hybrid conventional/missile cruisers. Like for the Boston class conversion (see after), their main conventional armament was kept forward, but a Terrier or Talos SAM systems were installed at the rear, with reloads and enough room for 46 or 120 missiles depending on the type. Their serviced ended on the seventies.

USS Chicago
The Baltimore class heavy cruisers were also placed in reserve in the 1940s-50s, reactivated and modernized, some kept as pure conventional ships, and others as CG/CAG missile cruisers conversions. The USS Chicago, Albany and Columbus became CG conversions and Boston and Camberra CAG-1 and 2. The Boston class conversion consisted in modifying the superstructures and adding two RIM-2 Terrier missile launchers aft, with the main artillery kept intact forward. USS Boston and Canberra were converted at New York SB, both were recommissioned in November 1955 and June 1956.

The CH-10-12 conversion cruisers (USS Albany, Chicago and Columbus) were actually the most extreme conversions with two twin Talos SAM systems, forward and aft. The whole superstructure was rebuilt, and needless to say, the remaining artillery removed. This extreme reconversion was completed in 1961-62 and the ships were recommissioned in 1962-64. Their hulls were actually twenty years old at that stage.

These were fleet escorts to provide cover to the new USN supercarriers, like the nuclear USS Enteprise and previous Kitty Hawk and Forrestal conventional carriers classes. They were in service after probably the most outlandish USN Cruiser of that era, the USS Long Beach, which remained unique. Nothing of that scale was ever built afterwards, even when the USSR unveiled in 1979 its famous Kirov class "battlecruisers".

The Albany class remained the largest missile cruiser ever built by the United States, displacing 18,777 tonnes fully loaded versus 16,600 for the Long Beach and even 8,000 tons above the Virginia class nuclear missile cruisers (1974), the weight of the latter and a Leahy class (1961) combined !

Des Moines class heavy cruisers (1946)

USS Newport News
These three ships were the culmination of wartime US cruiser design. As soon as the Bureau of Ordnance perfected the automatic 6in/47 DP gun on which it had been working since 1937, it realised that the same principles could be applied to triple the rate of fire of the 8in gun; detailed weight estimates for twin and triple turrets became available in July, 1943 and a new cruiser to mount these weapons was almost immediately designed and ordered as the next class.

Such weapons would overcome the great defect of existing 8in guns - excessively slow fire - so slow that it was almost impossible to hit fast Japanese ships in night actions; at the same time they would greatly out-ranged the existing fast-firing 6in weapons.

USS Newport News in 1957
USS Newport News in 1957

At first a twin installation in Oregon City hulls was contemplated, on the theory that these ships might not even be delayed by the change; however, the General Board was already dissatisfied with existing heavy cruiser designs and felt that by demanding a completely new ship with triple turrets it would provide the postwar fleet with at least some satisfactory cruisers; otherwise the war might end with nothing but an inadequate six-gun ship under construction. New features not connected directly with the guns included a unit machinery arrangement similar to that in battleships and unique among US cruisers, and a separate 'bomb deck' to improve protection against bombing (not counted in computation of the immune zone against the 8in 260lb shell 15,700-28,000yds).

Des Moines overview 1948
Des Moines overview 1948

As the decision to pass to a new class was made in mid-1943, the next cruisers to be ordered were order to ensure that some of the new twin DP 6in/47 mounts were sent to However, he was overruled and later CA140 and 141, which were little advanced, were cancelled. The three ships completed appear to have been successful, USS Newport News serving as a flagship and fire support ship until she was decommissioned in 1975. The new 8in rapid-fire gun appears to have worked well in service, the sole exception being a turret explosion in Newport News in 1972, which completely disabled No 2 mount. On trials, Des Moines achieved 125,630shp = 32.66kts at 20,532t.

USS Newport News in 1966
USS Newport News in 1966

In October, 1943 CA134 was added to the new class (Des Moines) to bring it to five ships; the question was also asked whether CL143, 148 and 149 were shifted to the new heavy cruiser design, but CL144, 145, 146 and 147 were retained as units of a new 6in DP cruiser class (Worcester) CA139-142 and CL143-149. Largely in a late-war (1945) programme, which would have added CA150-153, was never approved by the President, leaving, at the end of the war, eight prospective members of the Des Moines class. CA142, 143 and 149 were all suspended, although materials for them were held pending a decision as to their fate. Indeed, Admiral King argued strongly for their completion on the theory that a homogeneous group of eight such ships would be extremely valuable.

Displacement: 17,255 long tons standard, 20,933 LT full load
Dimensions: 218.39 x 23.32 x 6.7 m (716 ft 6 in x 76 ft 6 in x 22 ft)
Propulsion: 4 shafts GE turbines, 4 boilers 120,000 shp
Performances: 33 knots (61 km/h), Range 10,500 nmi at 15 knots
Armament: 3x3 8 inch/55, 6x2 5 inch/38 12 x 2 3 inch/50, 12 × 20 mm Oerlikon
Armour: Belt: 4-6 in (102-152 mm), Deck: 3.5 in (89 mm), Turrets: 2-8 in (51-203 mm), Barbettes: 6.3 in (160 mm), Conning tower: 6.5 in (165 mm)

Worcester class light cruisers (1947)

Roanoke January 1950

These very large 'light cruisers' were designed to mount the twin 6in/47 automatic DP gun originally proposed by the Bureau of Ordnance as early as 1937, and intended for the Cleveland as originally designed, in 1939. The project was revived in 1941, with General Board Characteristics calling for twelve 6in DP guns, no 5in secondary battery, protection limited to a very thick deck (up to 6 or 7in) and a speed of at least 33kts. Later the Board accepted conventional side protection comparable to that of the Clevelands, and by the time the design had been completed early in 1944 the Chief of the Bureau of Ships saw it for the now seriously overloaded Clevelands.

CL155 in 1953
CL155 in 1953

He observed, too, that not even the new 5in/54 DP weapon an effective replacement would suffice against the guided missiles being introduced by the Germans and, presumably, the Japanese; the big 6in with a proximity fuze might well be not merely useful, but absolutely necessary. However, the success of the 6in/47 design inspired the Bureau of Ordnance to develop an automatic 8in/55, which was suitable for heavy cruisers not much larger than the Worcesters; the General Board at one point recommended that all seven new light cruisers contemplated (CL143-149) be re-ordered as large heavy cruisers. Ultimately production delays in the 8in gun and the need to send at least a few 6in DP weapons to sea modified this decision, so that four ships were ordered as 6in/47DP light cruisers: CL144-147, of which only two were ultimately completed.

USS Worcester 31 May 1952
USS Worcester 31 May 1952

Protection was to ensure immunity against the 6in 105lb shell between 9300 and 28,000yds (90° target angle); against 1000lb SAP bombs dropped from any altitude; and against 12in 1000lb AP bombs dropped from below 7500ft. Bomb protection included a separate 'bomb deck' Roanoke late in her career above the principal armoured deck, as in battleships and some heavy cruisers a quartet of floatplanes aft with their catapults; these were never, however, installed, although the hangar and crane were. Similarly, the original design included 12 quadruple 40 mm guns and 20-20mm; both ships were, however, armed exclusively with the new 3in/50 gun as completed.
On trials Worcester made 122,096shp = 32.81kts at 16,940t.

USS Worcester November 1949
USS Worcester November 1949

Displacement: 14,700 long-tons, 17,997 long-tons FL
Dimensions: 207 x 21.3 x 7.6m (680 x 70 x 25 ft)
Armament: 4 shaft Westinghouse, geared steam turbines 125,000 Horsepower
Performances: 33 knots
Armament: 6x2 6-in/47 Mk16 DP, 11×2 3-in/50 Mk33, 2 single 3-in/50 Mk34
Armour: belt: 3–5 in, deck: 3.5 in, turrets 2–6.5 in, barbettes: 5 in, CT 4.5 in

Read More /src

Conway's all the world's fighting ship 1906-21, 1922-47 and 1947-95
Books: US Heavy Cruisers in the World War II part 2: Technology and weapons of world wars - Michael T. Benson

Nomenclature of USN Cruisers

Omaha class scout cruisers (1920)

USS Trenton

The Omaha were the first American cruisers after a very long eclipse dating back to 1907 (the Chester). They were originally designed in 1919, originally to take the squadrons of large-scale destroyers (Wickes and Clemson) from the end of the Great War. Like them, they had this hull flush-deck and were recognisable "oven pipers". Their artillery was original, with an arrangement of two double turrets and pieces in barbettes, an unlikely mix that illustrated their transitional nature. They were launched in 1920-23 and completed in 1922-24, bearing the names of southern American cities (Omaha, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Raleigh, Detroit, Richmond, Concord, Trenton, Marblehead, and Memphis).

Built lightly, they relied on speed and were part of this generation of what were called tin-clad cruisers, relying on speed as their only protection. lower on the water and in heavy weather in the North Atlantic, they loaded so much sea water that the sailors used to joke that their machines did not run on oil but with water from the sea. Atlantic ... More poorly isolated, they were icy and wet in winter, furnaces in the summer sious the tropics. Their anti-submarine protection was very advanced and their active service was very active and long.

These ten ships received in 1936 a new main telemeter, their front mast was reinforced, and a more modern DCA was added to them in 1939, consisting of several double cal.50 (12.7 mm) machine gun carriages. In 1942 with the war, they were taken in hand for a deep modification of their DCA, modernized notably with new 127 mm pieces and a very reinforced light armament (see specifications). Those sent to the Pacific as those assigned to the Atlantic served as escorts.

At min-1942 a radar was added to them, and what they had left of torpedo tubes (four quadruple benches, originally 16 tubes) were removed to improve their stability, as well as the catapults for seaplanes that fitted some of them. . In 1944, the Milwaukee was transferred to the USSR as a lease-loan becoming the Murmansk, to provide escorts from that port. None of these were sunk during the war. They were all scrapped in 1946, except the Murmansk, returned in 1947.

USS Milwaukee 1942
The USS Milwaukee in June 1942, departing for Guadalcanal. The camouflage of the time was quite complex but well adapted to the landscape of South Pacific islands.

Characteristics (in 1942)

Displacement: 7050 t, 8950 T FL
Dimensions: 172 x 16.2 x 7.25 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Westinghouse turbines, 2 BW boilers, 70,000 hp. and 32 knots max.
Armor: 90 mm belt, 25-50 mm blockhouse, bridges and CT.
Armament: 10 x 152mm guns (2x2, 6x1), 6 x 127mm guns, 2x4 x 40mm, 8 x 20mm, 8 Mitt. 12.7 mm, 2x4 TLT 533 mm.
Crew: 750

Pensacola class heavy cruisers (1928)

USS Salt Lake City
The USS Pensacola in March 1945, in support of Okinawa. Note the evolutions with the original design - see below.

When the treaty of Washington was ratified by the great naval powers in 1922, the nomenclature of the types was modified and somehow concepts, consecrated. Among these changes, the most notable was the appearance of a new class in its own right, the "Washington Cruiser" which in fact was the typical form of the heavy cruiser, a new category with almost intangible, 10,000 tons - Eight 8-inches (203 mm). If the British, French and Italians chose the double turret configuration, the Americans from the beginning adopted a triple turret configuratiosn already well initiated for their dreadnought. It appeared natural to adapt it for their cruisers, while maintaining a configuration in four axial turrets.

The Admiralty had thus in this design choose a compromise with the most powerful artillery possible (ten pieces) crammed on a strictly limited tonnage. Like other navies, welding construction technique was adopted to save tons of steels rivets. But these choices were paid later in practice and throughout their careers. For reasons still unclear the triple turrets were placed in superfiring positions rather than the contrary.

In addition, this was compounded by the adoption of tripod military masts, both tall and heavy, to suppoer the fire control posts, and a tall bridge blockhouse. With a limited beam and a lightly built hull, this caused a dangerous overweight and the Pensacola cruisers were quickly seen as excessive "rollers". So excessive in fact that from trials, captain voluntarily limited their evolutions and turns in particulars. Each time these manoeuvers needed to be made a a lower speed than the operation required. Morover their pitch was high due to flush deck hull too short, narrow and overloaded in the front, making these ships ploughing excessively and disturbingly, in heavy weather.

The Pensacola class was quasi-experimental. USS Pensacola twin, USS Salt Lake City, was launched in 1930 and completed in 1931. Both ships received already counterkeels in 1939 to improve their stability, but in 1942 their superstructures were massively lightened, and the massive tripod masts were removed. This did dot resolved completely their problem, but having their turrets swapped for example or the superrfiring ones removed seemed not to have been an option. They received a radar, new fire control systems, and a powerful AAA. This settled some of their deficiencies and they participated in the major pacific operations before being removed from active service in 1947.

Their example helped to define the next class, the Northampton. It must be said that the last class of "heavy" cruisers in USN service dated back to the Saint Louis of 1908. This partly explains many theoretical deficiencies leading to the blueprints for these ships, a true novelty in the US Navy.

Salt Lake City
The USS Salt Lake City in 1939. These over-armed sailors were so severely weighted in the highs that they were rebuilt in 1942.

USS Pensacola illustration
The USS Pensacola in March 1945, in support of Okinawa. Note the evolutions with the original design

Characteristics (in 1939)

Displacement: 9100 tons, 11,500 tons FL
Dimensions: 178.5 x 19.9 x 5.9 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft, 4 Parsons turbines, 4 WF boilers, 107,000 hp. 32.5 knots
Armor: Turrets 165, belt 63, blockhouse and casemate 105-50 mm, bridge 51 mm.
Armament: 10 x 152mm guns (2x2, 2x3), 4 x 127mm guns, 8 Mitt. 12.7 mm, 2x3 TLT 533 mm, 4 seaplanes.
Crew size: 631

Northampton class heavy cruisers (1930)

Succeeding to the Pensacola, the Northampton class improved many points. The very poor behavior at sea was compensated by a raised bow and forecastle instead of a flush deck, three triple turrets instead of four mixed, an increased width, and lowered superstructures. However, speed remaining a priority, their armor was sacrificed, only capable against destroyers shells, and their subdivision, especially for parabolic shells, was insufficient. These were the USN "tin-clad cruisers". The class included six ship built at Newport News and New York's arsenal respectively: USS Augusta, Chicago and Houston, Northampton, Chester and Louisville.

The war quickly imposed the adoption of an AAA more convincing than single 5-in (127 mm) mounts and 0.5 in (12.7 mm) HMGs with nothing in between. One of their side TT bank was sacrificed for four additional 5-in and four twin 0.5 in mounts. Their aft superstructure was lightened, and from 1943, a new drastic overhaul of the superstructure occured, which were lowered and lightened, but better armored. Subsequently survivors of Guadalcanal in late 1943 saw the replacement of their 0.5 in by quadruple 40 mm and single 20 mm (in 1944, typically twenty 40 mm and thirteen to twenty 20 mm Oerlikon). Houston, Northampton and Chicago were sunk around Guadalcanal, USS Chester was badly damaged in never repaired, while the other two survived and left the active lists in 1949.

USS Northampton
USS Houston in march 1942, with an early navy blue camouflage measure, in the Solomons.

Characteristics (in 1941)
Displacement: 9,006 t, 11,420 T FL
Dimensions: 182.96 x 20.14 x 5.9 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 Parsons turbines, 4 WT boilers, 107,000 hp. and 32.5 knots max.
Armor: Turrets 50-60, belt 76, blockhouse and casemate 95-20 mm, bridge 25 mm.
Armament: 9 x 152mm (3x3) guns, 8 x 127mm guns, 8 Mitt. 12.7 mm, 2x3 TLT 533 mm, 4 seaplanes.
Crew: 670 (1941) 850 (1944).

Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)

USS Portland, colorized by Hirootoko JR.
USS Portland, colorized by Hirootoko JR.

Designed after the Northampton, the two new heavy cruisers, Portland and Indianapolis, were contemporary of the New Orleans which on their side improved on many points and mainly that of protection. Spacious, larger and heavier than the Northamptons, they were nonetheless also the last of the "tin clad" cruisers. Their tonnage was already 10,260 tonnes standard, so there was no additional armor margin possible within the limitations.

Some areas were protected against 6-in shells at certain angles, but 8-in shells could pass through them without problem. Torpedo tubes were removed and AAA increased in compensation. Among their originality, the front mast was much lower, as well as the rear one, lighter and cleared of projectors, relegated to footbridges behind the funnel, for a better stability. Their large accommodations make them ideal to serve as command ships.

Until May 1943, these two ships were taken over for a redesign, among other things to clear the bow for more AAA, which more than doubled. The superstructure were rebuilt, lightened and lowered, with an open deck, and the tripod mast removed in favor of a mast-lattice in front of the rear funnel. AAA went up to four quadruple carriages, and four twin 40 mm and 12 singles 20 mm Oelikon. These two ships were heavily engaged in the Pacific. These modifications were the prototypes of the subsequent Northampton class reconstruction.

USS Indianapolis

USS Portland (CA33), was very active and deployed during most major naval operations of the Pacific, and several times damaged. She survived the war and was broken up in December 1959. In 1945, USS Indianapolis was doubly (in)famous. First for delivering the A Bomb ("Little Boy") at Tinian, where a B29 bomber named Enola Gay, carried it to sow apocalypse in Hiroshima.

As a kind of stroke of fate (or celestial vengeance for the Japanese), the cruiser on her return on July 29 was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. The last USN major loss in this war. She sank quickly, taking with her a large part of the crew, the others having to survive through the burning oil, and later isolation and fatigue, shark attacks for several days before being collected. The last ship of the allies to be sunk during the Second World War was the centrepiece of a drama that inspired a movie, USS Indianapolis: Men of Courage in 2016.

USS Indianapolis
USS Indianapolis en 1945, at the time she delivered the atomic bomb, sunk soon after on her way back.

Specifications Displacement: 10,258 t. standard -12,755 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 185.9 m long, 20.12 m wide, 6.40 m draft
Machines: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 107,000 hp.
Maximum speed: 32.5 knots
Shield: Belt 57, turrets 65, bridges 160-50
Weaponry: 9 guns of 203 (3 × 3), 8 of 127, 8 ML 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft
Crew: 917

New Orleans class heavy cruisers (1933)

No doubt the "tin class cruisers" of the previous Washington designs, imposed by the tonnage limit forced the office of construction and repair within the Admiralty to review its copy by gaining weight where it was necessary for a better distribution and improve protection. The "tin clad cruisers" period was drawing to an end in Europe, Italy unveiling the Zara class and France the Algérie. Also it was no longer claimed that the range and firepower of 8-in artillery made any protection superfluous. From 1929 a plan called for 20 new cruisers, and very quickly the admiralty was interested in well-balanced European designs.

The bureau studies demonstrated that by restricting dimensions and weight distributon it was possible to maintain good protection, sufficient horsepower and reasonable speed while remaining within the required tonnage limit. But that implied also a slower speed. This design work led to the definition of an internal compartmentation with an internal armor extending only around the superstructures and main turrets, called the "immune zone" using the all or nothing scheme already tried on battleships, and inspired from ancient protected cruisers.

New Orleans - color profil

In addition to this redistribution, lighter and still powerful machines were used, while torpedo tubes were eliminated from the design. The hull was also shortened and lowered. This allowed a 5.5 in (130 mm) armour thickness overall on the central cell and belt. Machine rooms were protected by an extra 3.5-in (90 mm) and the decks by 2.5-in (64 mm).

The US Navy used this class, first called Astoria after the lead ship (which sank later), to test variations on a design that remained broadly similar. There are three series, the New Orleans, Astoria and Minneapolis, for the first, the Tuscaloosa and San Francisco for the second and the Quincy and Vincennes for the last. Blueprints were revised between each series and a difference of 600 tons existed between the first and last. These were test benches and the direct ancestors of all upcoming American cruisers. The turrets received 0.9-3 in (25-70 mm) and the barbettes 7-in (170 mm). The blockhouse was protected by 5.5-in also. But speed remained very comfortable at 33 knots. On their time, the New Orleans were probably among the world's most successful heavy cruisers, although protection (as shown by events) was still not optimal.

On the other hand, anti-aircraft artillery was entrusted to eight 5-in (127 mm), way too slow to deal with modern strafing aviation, alongside eight 2.5 in way too short in range. This was largely compensated during the war, with many quadruple Bofors 40 mm and fifty or so single oerlikon guns. They also received radar and new targeting and firing controls, while their superstructure was lightened again, reworked but "bunkerized". USS Astoria, Quincy and Vincennes were famously destroyed during the battle of Savo in August 1942, and the others participated in many hard engagements but survived the war.

USS New Orleans
USS San Francisco in March 1945, the horizontal livery in effect since the end of 1944, of light gray/medium gray/dark blue

Characteristics (in 1941):
Displacement: 9,950 t, 12,400 T FL
Dimensions: 179,27 x 18,82 x 5,9 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 Westinghouse turbines, 8 B&C boilers, 107,000 hp. 32.7 knots max.
Armor: Turrets 30-70, belt 120, CT 130 and casemate 80 mm, decks 60 mm.
Armament: 9 x 203 mm (3x3), 8 x 127 mm, 8 x 12.7 mm, 4 seaplanes

Brooklyn class heavy cruisers (1936)

USS Phoenix
The signing of the Treaty of London, then a report from the US Naval Attaché to Japan which noted that the IJN Admiralty with the Mogami was working on a new type of cruiser combining low displacement and great firepower, presided over the design of Brooklyn class ships. They were by tonnage heavy cruisers, with a displacement of nearly 10,000 tons, but "light cruisers" as armed with fifteen 6-in (152 mm) guns of a new semi-automatic type, twice as fast as 8-in guns. Distribution was also in five triple turrets to achieve the greatest possible firepower.

On the other hand, this passage to fifteen guns took place at the cost of a drastic reduction of armor compared to New Orleans. The hull was nevertheless of a new model, more massive and roomy, especially with a near square stern, incorporating a hangar for 4 seaplanes. Compartimentation was stronger, compensating the lack of armor by dissipating the rounds energy. As a result, the superstructures were also reduced to allow the installation of the five axial turrets.

Just like the previous class, seven of the Brooklyn class were built between 1935 and 1938. USS Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Savanah, Nashville, Phoenix, Boise, Honolulu, St Louis, and Helena. The latter two had their machines rearranged, and new 5-in/38 in the brand new twin turret instead of the previous single unprotected mounts, while their superstructures were revised behind the aft funnel.

uss brooklyn 1942
USS Brooklyn 1942

In 1942, they all received a new open gangway, with lightened superstructure, the CT removed, and portholes largely welded shuts. They were later supplemented by a massive AAA, reaching its maximum at the end of 1944 with four quadruple and six twin 40 mm carriages, and twenty 20 mm AA in twin or 18-20 in single mounts.

They were all well engaged in combat with mixed success, in Europe for the most part, especially in the Mediterranean. In 1943, in July, the USS Helena was sunk by German guided flying bombs. It was proved that her AA did not have sufficient scope. This was the only loss of this class, and only USN cruiser sunk by missiles. After the war, those who were not broken up in 1960 had been sold to the three "naval powers" of South America, Brazil (StLouis), Argentina (Phoenix, Boise), and Chile (Brooklyn), Nashville). They were still in service in the 1980s, with little change.

USS Philadelphia

Characteristics (in 1941): Displacement: 9,767 t. standard -12 207 t. Full Load Dimensions: 185.42 m long, 18.82 m wide, 6.93 m draft Machines: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 8 B & W boilers, 100,000 hp. Maximum speed: 32.5 knots Shield: Belt 127, turrets 155, bridges 25, blockhouse 127 Armament: 15 guns of 152 (5 × 3), 8 of 127 mm, 30 of 40 mm AA (4 × 4, 6 × 2), 20 of 20 mm, 8 mitt. 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft Crew: 868

USS Wichita (1937)

USS_Wichita_and_USS_Wasp_Scapa_Flow_April_1942 USS Wichita and USS Wasp at Scapa Flow by April 1942

USS Wichita in 1945

This heavy cruiser, derived from the Brooklyn class, shared the hull with its square stern, and was authorized under the Treaty of London, for the fiscal year 1935. A Brooklyn derivative was proposed, with better equipment and space available for its onboard aviation, and superstructures revised to release additional firing arc, and a more modern secondary armament in single DP turrets, a higher freeboard, better stability, and new turrets, more spaced, plus a much better protection, while exceeding the 10,000 tonnes limit. The Wichita entered service in 1939, and she was an important milestone in the design of USN heavy cruisers of the 1940s: The Baltimores class studied in 1940 were closely inspired by the Wichita.

However, as the boundaries of the treaty flew away at the beginning of the conflict, engineers became free to add additional 5-in turrets and largely reinforce the AAA, now including 40 and 20 mm guns (8 of 40 mm and 15 of 20 mm). Wichita was little modified until 1944, gaining a radar while her bridge was lightened and rebuilt in the same standard as other cruisers. USS Wichita spent most of her career in the Atlantic, escorting convoys with the Royal Navy. In 1948, the office of ships and repair conducted a study for her conversion into a missile cruiser. In the end Baltimore class units were preferred and she joined the demolition yard in 1959.

USS Wichita
Author's illustration of USS Wichita in 1945

Characteristics (in 1941):
Displacement: 10,589 t. standard -13 015 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 185,42 m long, 18,82 m wide, 7,24 m of draft
Machines: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 8 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 100,000 hp.
Maximum speed: 33 knots
Shield: Belt 152, turrets 203, bridges 57mm
Weaponry: 9 guns of 203 mm (3 × 3), 8 of 127 mm, 8 ML 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft
Crew: 929

Atlanta class AA cruisers (1941)

At the end of the 1930s, the concept of "super destroyer" became fashionable. The Admiralty also sought to define a new type of light cruiser to replace the old Omaha class from the 1920s. The concept had resulted in a lightweight generic ship exclusively armed with the new standard 5-in (127 mm) dual purpose, twin turrets. Semi-automated, these had excellent anti-aircraft capabilities as well as anti-ships and became widespread on the USN.

To survive in front of heavier ships, the Atlanta class had to rely on their speed. The displacement being limited to 6,000 tons was the result of the second treaty of London in 1936 for extra tonnage cruisers. Initially only four ships were ordered, followed by four others much later, and war broken out in the meantime, and so they come as completely redefined in the 1940s with a new rearmament program in a serie of 11 vessels, later curtailed.


From USS Oakland, they differed by an open deck and additional light AAA instead of their side turrets. Due to the increase of AAA during the war many modifications were imposed, including the addition of ballasts, removal of TTs, new lightened superstructures, more concentrated, seen on the last launched in 1944-46, USS Juneau (2), Spokane and Fresno. They did not participated in the conflict unlike the other eight completed in 1942-45, USS Atlanta, Juneau, San Diego, San Juan, Oakland, Reno, Flint, and Tucson. They were all named after major Texan cities.

The first four, accepted in emergency in January-February 1942 were immediately thrown into the hell of the Salomon Islands: Two did not return from it, USS Atlanta and Juneau, sank together on November 13 near Guadalcanal. They were the only losses of the war.

The others served as AA escorts for the large Task Forces of the Pacific. Their characteristics made them relatively unhelpful vessels (like the British Dido class), as their engines proved to be disappointing, speed and manoeuvrability very inadequate. As squadron destroyer leaders they proved a little more useful. They remained in service between 20 and 25 years, disarmed 1962-66, even 1973 for USS Spokane.

USS Juneau
USS Juneau in 1942, showing her particular camouflage

Characteristics (in 1941):

Displacement: 6,718 t. standard -8,340 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 165 m long, 16.21 m wide, 6.25 m draft
Machinery: 2 shaft Westinghouses turbines, 4 B & W boilers, 75,000 hp.
Top speed: 32.5 knots
Armour:Max: 90 mm
Armament: 16 guns of 127 (8 × 2), 16 of 40 mm AA (4 × 4), 8 of 20 mm, 8 TLT 533 mm (2 × 4), 80 grenades ASM
Crew: 623

Cleveland class light cruisers (1942)



USS Denver Underway
USS Denver Underway, circa December 1942. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

The Cleveland-class cruisers formed series of ships which became the most prolific ever for cruisers. With 29 completed out of 52 keels laid down, 13 cancellations and 10 converted into fast aircraft carriers (USS Independence class), this was the new standard of USN "light" cruisers. They were "light" only in contrast with the Baltimore, as their wartime tonnage reached 12,000 tonnes empty and 14,000 fully load, above Washington limits.

Among these units, two will be completed on a different design, the USS Fargo and USS Huntington. This revised 1942 design was to give them a better arc of fire for their AAA by adopting a more compact superstructure, entirely reviewed and simplified, plus a single funnel.

The attempt to respect the treaty fell out at the outbreak of the war, and to save time, the Cleveland were chosen for mass production. Their limited size and the hunting of excess weight made their protection insufficient. The original project, defined in 1939, was to include 5 twin turrets of the new semi-automated 6-in, but development time meant that we relied on the proven triple model of the Brooklyn class instead, while the model was ready for the next Worcester.

The Cleveland were more Brooklyn than Wichita in concept, which rather inspired the Baltimore. As expected, the Cleveland had a little more machine space and integral power supply that made portholes obsolete as source of waterways. The AAA artillery differed between ships, 28 x 40 mm and 21 x 20 mm for both Fargo subclasses in 1945.

The Cleveland class ships were laid down between 1 July 1940 and 20 February 1944 and launched between 1 November 1941 and 22 March 1945. Some were completed too late to participate in the war: the USS Manchester, Galveston, Fargo and Huntington, who did not have the opportunity to assert the relevance of their new design in operations. But they were deployed both in Korea and Vietnam. After the conflict, this force was of course largely involved in many support operations, and some were later converted into hybrid missile launchers. Some were dropped from the lists after 1960, and others survived until 1970-78. The USS Little Rock is one of those. She has been preserved and is currently a museum ship, only surviving example of the class, but not in her original state unfortunately.

USS Birmingham
USS Birmingham in 1944, soon after the battle of Leyte where she was badly damaged by the explosion of the carrier St Lo


Displacement: 11,744 t. standard -14 130 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 185.9 m long, 20.22 m wide, 7.47 m draft
Machinery: 4 propellers, 4 GE turbines, 4 Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 100,000 hp.
Top speed: 32.5 knots
Armor: Belt 127, turrets 165, bridges 51, inner casemate 127-152 mm
Armament: 12 guns of 152 (5 × 3), 12 of 127 (6 × 2), 28 guns of 40 (4 × 4, 2 × 2), 10 of 20 mm AA, 4 aircraft
Crew: 273

Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)

The Baltimore class cruisers were not to be the last or the largest conventional cruisers built, followed after the war by the Worcester and the Des Moines, but they are certainly among the best. The Clevelands had been criticized for their lack of space. The Baltimores were to resume studies with the USS Wichita and push their advantage in a more massive hull while paying particular attention to protection.

Peacetime had long been forgotten, since at full load a Baltimore reached 17,000 tons, which was quite considerable, and placed them at the head of allied cruisers in size. The Baltimore class was to have 24 units, but 6 were cancelled on August 12, 1945. The remaining 18 were admitted for service, but after the conflict for six of them. Those who had time to participate were 12: The USS Baltimore, Boston, Camberra, Quincy, Pittsburgh, St. Paul, Columbus, Chicago, Bremerton, Fall River, Los Angeles and Macon. They were launched in 1942-44 and completed in 1943-45.

Their main features, apart from their huge hull, were their artillery in three 8-in triple turrets, as for the Wichita, a secondary AA artillery made of standard 5-in twin turrets, and a much higher light weaponry . The experience of the conflict had made it possible to mount such a concentration of guns around the central redoubt that each ship could set up a veritable "wall of steel" impassable to the torpedo bombers, and later to the Kamikazes.

A simple comparison makes it possible to get an idea of ​​it: The USS Wichita, when it entered service in February 1939, had 8 pieces of 127 mm and 8 machine guns of 12.7 mm. With the Baltimore, we went to 12 of 127 mm, 48 of 40 mm, 24 of 20 mm in 1942, and much more in 1945. Another peculiarity of these ships was the adoption of a better distributed shielding, and new shells for their 203 mm pieces. These much heavier ones could in parabolic trajectory cross the thickest armor of Japanese heavy cruisers in service.

During the war, these ships registered no losses, despite their presence in very hard commitments. But in 1944, the situation in Japan was such that the only threats to be feared were Kamikazes and pocket submersibles of the coastal defense or suicide boats. As for the Cleveland, attempts were made to further improve their arc of fire by reducing the superstructures, while reviewing the distribution of the armor.

This culminated in the sub-class Oregon City, launched as her two sister-ships Albany and Rochester in 1945 and completed in 1946. Soon enough for the Korean War. These ships had a brilliant career after the war, forming the backbone of the US conventional fleet until 1970. Many served as fire support and command ships in Vietnam, and five of them were completely rebuilt in missile cruisers including two, the USS Chicago and the USS Albany was still in service in 1980. They have been put in reserve since.

USS Boston 1945
USS Boston in 1945

USS Pittsburg
USS Pittsburg 1945

USS Quincy 1944
USS Quincy in 1944


Displacement: 14,472 t. standard -17 030 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 205.26 m long, 21.60 m wide, 7.32 m draft
Machinery: 4 shaft GE turbines, 4 Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 120,000 hp.
Top speed: 33 knots
Armor: Belt 152, turrets 203, bridges 76, inner casemate 127-155 mm
Armament: 9 guns of 203 (3 × 3), 12 of 127 (6 × 2), 48 guns of 40 (11 × 4, 2 × 2), 24 of 20 mm AA, 4 planes.
Crew: 723

Alaska class large cruisers (1944)

USS Alaska
USS Alaska, colorized by Hirootoko Jr.

The Alaska class were the great white elephants of the US Navy. Their conception goes back to the beginning of the war, when all the treaties of limitation became obsolete. The US Navy therefore only released itself to study a new standard of conventional heavy cruiser (the term "conventional" designated during the cold war a ship not armed with missiles, but having artillery like main weapon.). The heavy cruiser genre was then brought to a logical degree of "upsizing" taking into account the reality that applied to all warships, ever larger and more powerful. A cruiser from 1880 rarely exceeded 100 meters and was limited to 5000 tons.

The Baltimore rose to 17,000 tons at full load, and with Prinz Eugen German, to 20,000 tons. However their main armament still remained 8 or 9 pieces of 203 mm. With the Alaska, the Admiralty intended to pass directly to the caliber 305 mm, that in force on the ships of line since 1890 and until 1916. Their distribution and the general physiognomy brought them much closer to the contemporary American battleships, so that they were sometimes placed in the obsolete category of "battle cruisers", which took into account their speed -33 knots-and their armor-relatively light.

The influence of President Roosevelt on their design is often cited. Enthusiastic like the other Theodore of the beginning of the century by all that touched the navy, he wanted for the fleet a type of ship similar to that which made the pride of the Royal Navy, like Hood. It was also intended to make, like the German Germans, an invulnerable pirate of this "super cruiser".

The Alaska class was to have 6 buildings, but soon, when it became apparent that the concepts underlying them were totally out of date, the other three, which should have been started in June 1943, were canceled. Two units were completed, Guam and Alaska launched in 1943, and Hawaii in March 1945, but only the first two were completed in June and September 1944. They proved in operation that they were a pretty bastard concept, finally, and having no adversaries after their war, expensive maintenance and in any case outclassed by missiles, these dinosaurs had no place in the fleet. They were put in reserve since 1961.

USS Alaska
USS Alaska in july 1944


Displacement: 29,780 t. standard -34 253 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 246.43 m long, 27.76 m wide, 9.70 m draft
Machinery: 4 propellers, 4 GE turbines, 8 Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 150,000 hp.
Top speed: 33 knots
Armor: Belt 220, turrets 315, bridges 80-100, blockhouse 270 mm
Armament: 9 guns of 305 (3 × 3), 12 of 127 (6 × 2), 56 guns of 40 (14 × 4), 34 of 20 mm AA
Crew: 1,417

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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