IJN Yūbari (1923)

Japanese Navy Japanese light cruiser, 1923

An innovative light cruiser: Hiraga's IJN Yūbari

Yubari in 1923, Sasebo Yubari in 1923, Sasebo

Yūbari (夕張) was not only on the very first IJN post-WW1 design, but it was an experimental light cruiser which idea dated back from 1917 (where it was first programmed) and started in 1922, completed in 1923 for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Designed by famous engineer Hiraga, she was largely seen as a test bed for new designs and technologies and light tonnage in the midst of worldwide reductions, post-Washington. Nevertheless she was commissioned and quite active in many operations of World War II in the Pacific. Yūbari's designs and innovation would find their way in many future IJN warships, from destroyers to cruisers. During the war she took part in the most vicious fights in the south pacific, notably the whole Solomons campaign, from beginning to the end at Rabaul in 1944. She was commanded in 1940-1942 by captain Masami Ban, until 1943 by Taiji Hirai, Morie Funaki until 1944 and in the end, Takeo Nara for two months.


The Tenryu on trials, 1919
The Tenryu on trials, 1919

In 1917, new wartime IJN cruisers designs meant for scouting, raiding and escort were well seated on the new model of the Tenryū. Prior to that the Chikuma class were merely a prewar design and the Tenryū was intended to be the blueprint, the prototype for whole series of cruisers of the 1918 and 1919 programmes, four of them, all very similar with up to ten shielded guns, generous torpedo armament, high speed and very light protection, and onboard aviation. They also doubled as destroyers leaders. However the last class, Sendai, laid down in February 1922, were to be a closing for this type of ships. The admiralty wanted to take a radical departure and explore new possibilities, notably in general arrangement of the artillery, new protections scheme, better speed and range, testing also an experimental machinery. The 1917 project was to be named initially IJN Ayase.

ONI IJN Sendai class
ONI recoignition plate for the IJN Sendai class, built alongside the Yubari and last of the 1917 design generation cruisers.

The experimental light cruiser was authorized under the 1917 8-4 Fleet Program. However funding was not available until 1921. Yūbari was to be a new generation scout cruiser, experimentally combining the same combat potential of the standard 5,000 t Sendai-class with a much lighter displacement. After Japan signed the Washington treaty and its tonnage limitations for cruisers, this made even greater sense. However, the experimental cruiser was a pre-Washington cruiser, tailored for IJN needs.

Hiraga Captain Yuzuru Hiraga, Japan's leading naval architect, gathered his team and started working on the blueprints. He was assisted by Lieutenant Commander Kikuo Fujimoto, and presented an innovative, influential design which was well remarked at the time. It laid down the philosophy for cruisers as well as destroyers, of more firepower for less displacement, pushed to the extreme on the Furutaka and Aoba classes, essentially heavy cruisers with a 7,000 tonnes displacement to take advantage of every tonne authorized by the treaty.

ONI recoignition plates of the USN for the Yubari

Design of the Yūbari

ONI booklet - Yubari for the USN
ONI booklet - Yubari for the USN

The basic design concept for the Yūbari was to push forward both speed and firepower, to the expanse of protection but also displacement. Weight saving measures included a drastic reduction of the armor, integrated directly into the hull structure, part of the side and deck, and a high forecastle with significant flare, in order to improve seakeeping characteristics. With just one truncated funnel, the profile of the new ship, much shorter, ended with a 2.890 tonnes displacement, half that of a Sendai class that was in construction at that time.

Yuzuru Hiraga succeeded in having a ship almost with half the displacement, but still armed with six 5.5 in (127 mm) guns, one less than the Sendai, and half the number of torpedo tubes, while protection was reduced from 2.5 in on the belt down to 2.3 in. Other figures were roughly similar, but both the "structural armour" and intensive use of welding reduced the tonnage. Simple maths showed how profitable it was to built a fleet of these, giving extra vessels for the same tonnage.

yubari 55222

Hull and general characteristics

The IJN Yūbari was as small ship, but not that small for many light cruisers of WW2, which were of the same format: The hull was 435 feet long between perpendicular, 447 feet 10 inches at the waterline and 455 feet 8 inches overall. Its ratio was below 1/10 as she made 9 feet 6 inches in beam (versus 48 feet 5 in on the Sendai). The bow reminded the Sendai in shape, but the forecastle started right aft of main bridge tower. To even save electrical cabling, batteries and associated electrical sub-systems, the hull was pierced of three levels of ports, the lower one just above the waterline, an obvious source of flooding. Their framing was welded shut.

Initial weight-saving measures were so extreme that Hiraga thought possible to target 2,700 tonnes unloaded. That was twice more than most destroyers of the time, but still very light for a cruiser. Eventually engineers were so fearful of structural weaknesses that some stiffening during completion was necessary, making the ship actually 13% heavier than planned, 419 tonnes more to be exact. Also this caused an extra foot of draft, and 1.5 knots (2.8 km/h; 1.7 mph) speed reduction over the designed speed of 35.5 knots or even 37 as initially planned in 1921. Both very new new technologies, unproven sub-systems and procedures led to many mishaps and issues, becoming apparent once in service. The recognisable truncated smoke stack was too low and draw poorly. After completion and service it was revised, enlarged by 1.80 meters in 1924. Stability was also an issue, due to the narrowness and lightness of the hull, and Additional ballast was added for better stability.


The interesting point about it was Hiraga essentially scaled up a destroyer powerplant, with three turbine engines fed by eight oil-fired Kampon boilers for a total output as designed of 43,060 kW (57,740 hp). The exhaust pipes were trunked into a single smokestack, which freed deck space. This was a contrast to previous IJN cruiser designs like the Sendai and its four smokestacks. However this solution was not without causing problems: The draft was reduced, causing some overheating in the internals. Therefore during a refit, the funnel was heightened and widened.

These three turbo-gear units had a cubic capacity of 19,300 liters and developed some 14.2 Megawatts for 19,250 hp, a power passed on three-bladed propellers. These Parsons-type turbines developed by Mitsubishi under licence and and manufactured at Sasebo. The boilers were similar to those used on the Minekaze class destroyers, just double the number.

The Yubari on speed trials, 1923
The Yubari in speed trials, 1923

The Layout was particular: Two power units were in the front and back of the engine room, which was 55 m in length, for a total area of ​​235 m². Each unit included two main turbines, with an active high pressure one at 3000 rpm, fed by a HP fuel pump, and a lower rate turbine for 2000 rpm used for reverse, but fed by the same high pressure fuel pump. The transmission used two leading gears rotating a 3.12-m shaft three-bladed propeller at 400 rpm. The reverse turbine used the same housing as the high pressure one, with no separate cruising turbines. The two forward cruising gears were turned off at full speed.

Fuel supply comprised 916 tons of fuel oil, stored located in the double hull, under the forward lower deck and on the sides of the first boiler room, also protecting it by absorbing a potential hull damage. This supply allowed the Yubari to extend her range to 5,000 nautical miles at 14 knots. It was however found on trials, that overheating the boilers to increase top speed for long periods of time massively increased consumption, down to 3,300 miles when fully loaded. This is to compare to the Minekaze class range of 3600 miles, making the Yubari useless when acting as destroyer leader.

The eight water tube boilers were of the Kampon Ro Guo type. They integrated an oil heating system according to some sources, and for others, comprised mixed boilers, installed for fearing oil shortages in case of war. They were located in three boiler rooms, two small ones forward (perhaps the mixed ones), four large ones in the middle section and two large aft. Working pressure was 18.3 kgf/cm² at 156°C (or 138°C according to other sources). A twin funnel exhaust was used, one for the first four boilers, trunked and connected in a large slope to the almost vertical aft funnel group. This was an idea of Fujimoto to reduce smoke polluting and obscuring the bridge, and making the silhouette smaller and lighter. However, as we saw alrady, the drag was insufficient, forcing to rework the funnel shape after commission.

Yubari performed her sea trials on July 5, 1923 off Kosikijima Island, and was tested with an ouptut of 62 336 liters, for a top speed of 34,786 knots as registered. This was less than the contracted speed of at 35.5 knots, but due to unanticipated of overload, 3463 tonnes versus 3141 standard as planned. This steam power was completed by an electrical power unit, a network working at a voltage of 110 V, comprising two 66 KW electric generators, powered by in turn by two internal combustion engines located in the engine room.


The main battery of Yubari consisted of six 14 cm/50 3rd Year Type naval guns, the same as the Sendai, but mounted in a very peculiar arrangement: Two twin gun turrets on superfiring positions fore and aft, and two single gun turrets on the deck. This inversion of weight (the dual turrets higher up were a problem for stability) nevertheless allowed the ship to fire three guns over the bow or stern, including two with a better field of fire.

Her six 140-mm Type 3 guns were developed before WWI, adopted by the IJN on April 24, 1914. The No.1 and 4 deck guns had armored shields (similar of those from standard 3500/5500-ton light cruisers). The twin closed turrets (No.2/3, type A (Ko) were initially developed for reconnaissance cruisers (1916 project and 1918 project). Apart IJN Yubari, they were installed on the IJN Dzingei and Tegei floating depots and the minelayer IJN Okinoshima. The 50-ton turret measured 5.5 m long, 3.4 m wide 2.46 m high, covered with HT steel plates, 10 mm in thickness. Electric traverse speed was 4° per second. Elevation was speed was 6° per second. Manual aiming backup was provided for emergency. All six guns were placed in the axis but there was little room available to elevation, so they could not be used for AA salvoes and fire was differed to avoid causing damage to the superstructures.

Ammunition for the main guns comprised 38 kg shells with 11 kg bagged charges. They were stored in safe rooms located on the hold deck, at both the ends. They were carried upwards by four bucket chain hoists, to bow forecastle level and aft upper deck. For the single mounts deck guns, loading was carried out manually through the central supply wells but with a higher rate of fire. When Yubari entered service, two types of shells were carried, the “general purpose” ballistic cap hard half-AP shell but also the standard high-explosive, and also an incendiary and flare type shells were also carried and tried in exercises. Maximum firing range at 30° max elevation was 19.1 km.

IJN Yubari circa 1932
IJN Yubari, circa 1932

This was completed by a light artillery consisting of a single 8 cm/40 3rd Year Type dual purpose naval gun (AA), and two 7.7 mm machine guns for AA defense. Near the torpedo tubes were placed these 76.2 mm/40 type 3 AA gun elevating to 75°, completed by the two 7.7-mm Ryu machine guns. 76-mm shells were stored in the stern underdeck, placed right of the central propeller shaft. Two 47-mm signal guns of the Yamauchi design were located in the front superstructure.

It seems ludicrously inadequate for WW2 but in 1922, planes were still not considered a threat for ships and merely ways of doing reconnaissance. Many Type 3 heavy machine guns derived from the Hotchkiss 1914 model for the IJA could be carried also, and were, when the ship was transporting troops during wartime. The 7.7-mm Ryu machine guns were located amidships on a raised platform for anti-aircraft defense.

For closer engagement, notably night fighting the Japanese affectionate, IJN Yubari was fitted with two twin torpedo launchers banks placed on the centerline axis, fore and aft of the AA platform, just like in a destroyer, rather than side mounts like on the Sendai. The ship lost half its torpedo capability compared to the latter, but gained a 300° traverse and four reserve Type 93 torpedoes. The fire control system was centralized in the bridge, with no redundancy to save weight.

The twin rotary 610-mm torpedo tubes were of the type 8, similar to those of IJN Nagara and Sendai. Each weighted 8.45 tons, for a length of 8.8 m, 3.04 m width. They were powered by a 5 hp electric motor providing a traverse of 20° either side and were provided with manual loading backup. They launched a combined-cycle torpedo of the type 8. Eight were carried in all. Each weighted 2,362 tons and carried 346 kg of trinitrophenol explosive warhead charge. They could be set to 20,000 m range at 27 knots, or 15,000 m at 32 knots and 10,000 m at 38 knots. Placed on the upper deck, central part of the hull this allowed spare torpedoes to be easily accessed. Warheads were stored separately in a room located next to the central propeller shaft. Torpedoes were never fire at full speed due to heavy spray. The problem was solved by them higher, while shields were provided, shown in later pictures.

IJN Yubari cica 1930

Control for the main guns depended from a type 13 central aiming visor placed on the tripod mast 23.06 m high. it used a synchronous transmission device developed on the basis of a WWI British prototype adopted by the Navy in 1916. Its effective range coincided with the main guns at 19 km. Two 2.5 or 3-meter Barr and Stoud rangefinders were also used, placed on the edges of the compass bridge. For night fighting, two 90-cm powerful lights projectors were carried, one located above the compass bridge, the second behind the funnel. They were put to good use at the battle of Kolombangara, illuminating USS Vincennes.

Least known, Yubari could also be used as a minelayer, carrying Type B mines, No.1 type, adopted by the IJN on September 2, 1921. They were an improved version of the No.1 Type A used since 1916. They had a cylinder diameter of 0.5 m, for a 1.07 m length, weighing 192 kg, carried 102 kg of trinitrophenol. Installed in pairs on the business end of a 100-meter steel cable, they detonated on contact. To protect them from the effects of blast gases from the stern main guns, they were covered by a casing, on six parallel mine deck rails.


That was certainly on paper the weak point of the design, at least compared to the previous cruisers, notably the Sendai class. IJN Yūbari was given 38 mm (1.50 in) plating for the belt, to protect the powerplant and the gun magazines, 28 mm (1.10 in) for the deck and bridge, but it was integrated directly into the structure, thus saving much weight and making an overall far better protection. The turrets had 25 mm thick frontal plating (0.98 in).

armour section The main armor belt was composed of three rows of NVNC plates with a total length of 58.50 m, about 42% of the hull, for 4.15 m in height and the best thickness over the powerplant, located inside the hull. Its lower edge was connected to the double bottom edge starting from from the keel, and the upper one was connected to the armored deck. The belt had an internal slope of 10° but outwards, from top to bottom, not a good solution as the contact angle of incomng shells was close to perpendicular. On subsequent projects, plates were tilted inward. The outer lining of the High Tensile steel was 19 mm. The fuel oil tanks were located in between this internal section and the belt itself. The thick liquid provided an additional buffer agains vibrations caused by a round penetration, but a heavy cal. near-miss could rupture the internal layer.

The upper part of the armor belt was connected to a 25.4 mm armored deck, made of NVNC plates. The part between belt and outer casing was made of 22 mm thick HT steel plates, and 16 mm plates of the same additionally attached to the inner section. The lower funnel section and air intakes were protected by a 32 mm NVNC layer, up to 0.63 m of the armored deck. The superstructure was left unprotected but the turret wells, internal elevators, barbettes and interphone pipes were covered with HT steel thick eneough to deal with shrapnell. The overall picture, despite thinner plating in just one portion, was that Yubari had a significantly better protection than previous designs. The total armour weight was 349 tons, making 8.5% of the displacement versus 220–238 or 3.4–3.7% on the previous 5500-ton cruisers like the Sendai/Kuma-class and just 176 tonnes or 4.2% on 3500-ton cruisers, making it twice better than the Tenryu class in that respect.

The Yūbari in action

Yubari in sea trials, 1932
Yubari in sea trials, 1932

Early years: The interwar

IJN Yubari
IJN Yūbari circa 1932, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

IJN Yūbari, laid down on 5 June 1922, was launched on 5 March 1923, completed at Sasebo NyD, commissioned on 23 July 1923, just before the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. She immdiately was sent to help evacuate refugees from Yokohama and other stricken cities, and on September 1923 was visited by Crown Prince Hirohito. In April 1925, she followed US Navy exercises off of Oahu, and taking part at last, she was chased by American destroyers but managed to left them out, impressing the guests present. Back home, she was versed to the reserves in November 1933.

In 1932, the Yubari's single 76 mm AA gun was removed. In 1935, two twin Type 93 13.2 mm (0.52 in) guns were fitted, long derived from the Hotchkiss M1914. These were replaced in turn by two twin 25 mm guns in 1940.

Exactly one year afterwards, she left the reserved under Captain Tadashige Daigo command. She was assigned to the Yokosuka Naval District, modernized and refitted the next year. She spent 1935-36 patrolling patrols the Chinese coastal waters, and when the second Sino-Japanese War broke out in August 1937, she helped evacuating Japanese civilians of southern China. She received next the mission to cover landings of the IJA at Hangzhou, on 20 October 1937. Back to Yokosuka, she joined the reserved in December 1937, emergin in March 1939 to be sent to Ōminato Guard District and to the waters of the Sakhalin Islands, contested by USSR.

Yubari in Shanghai, 1937 - ONI
Yubari in Shanghai, 1937 - ONI

Early war

On December, 7, 1941 she served as flagship of the sixth Destroyer Squadron, 4th Fleet. This force was sent to defend the South Pacific Mandate in Truk. In early 1942, Yūbari served as flagship for the Japanese invasion force of Wake Island, she was coordinating and covering fire from 11 to 23 December 1941, proceeded to shore bombardment, while USMC island gun position replicated, but she took no apparent damage.

The Solomons Campaign: Rabaul & Salamaua

Yūbari and her destroyer group then took part in the capture of Rabaul and New Ireland in the Solomon Islands, and took part in the invasion of Salamaua–Lae on 8 March 1942. Two days later two Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless attacked her from USS Lexington. They missed, but they were so close, Yubari had many KiA among her AA gun crews. Next she repelled a wave of four Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat. They strafed her and killed her executive officer and other officers as the bridge was crippled.

The next day at dawn she was attacked this time by SBD-3s from USS Yorktown. The latter managed to hit gunpowder charges stored near the No. 2 turret. This detonated but the fire which spread rapidly was contained by the damage control crew which set protective mattresses around the bridge. A single F4F-3 managed to blow up gasoline drums in her port lifeboat, causing more fires. Fortunately for the ships, her direfighting teams were good, despite too short fire hose. Fire started to catch the forward torpedo mount but the captain ordered them fired in emergency. However, the mount did not moved, due to electric maulfunction. Then the crew managed to have them dumped to the sea by using pulleys and ropes while the fire was closing fast.

In total IJN Yūbari escape certain destruction, having evaded succesfully 67 bombs and 12 torpedoes, and only deplored 13 KiA and 49 injured. Later, four USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress were en route to Rabaul, found her and bombed her. She took four near-misses, from heavy bombs, blasting her stern with three large gashes. These were patched and the cruiser managed to sail to Truk for repairs until 25 March 1942.

Operation Mo May 1942

When Operation MO started on 4 May 1942, Yubari was again the flagship of the attack force and shelled positions. On 7 May, she was attacked again by a pack of four B-17, which missed again. She later managed to rescue survivors from the aircraft carrier Shōhō, sunk earlier this day. She was back to Truk on 13 May. She then learnt that operation Mo was cancelled because of the Battle of the Coral Sea mixed results. Worn out, she sailed for home, reaching Yokosuka for a short refit and maintenance lasting from 19 May to 19 June 1942 while her crew rested.

The Solomons Campaign: Guadalcanal

From 29 June 1942, IJN Yūbari was part of the force engaged in the Solomon Islands and took part in the whole campaign. She carried personnel on Guadalcanal which would construct an airfield, later widely contested. By 17 June however her chief mechanic signalled many problems with her powerplant. She was forced to never passed 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph) for safety, only usinf two shafts. The cruiser nevertheless was deemed fast enough to take part in the Battle of Savo Island which took place on 9 August 1942, where she managed to hit USS Ralph Talbot, a destroyer during this fateful night, while she torpedoed and hit the heavy cruiser USS Vincennes, one of the three sunk. This crippling blow forced USMC forces present to be deprived of their well-needed supplies, as the whole landing force fled the area. They would have to fend off Japanese attacks and their constant reinforcements in the Jungle for months.

On 20 August 1842, IJN Yūbari sortied from Truk to patrol up to the Marshall, Gilbert, and Palau islands. She was stationed at Tarawa from 20 October 1942. On 20 November she was still there as a guard ship, but departed for Yokosuka in late December. She was refitted there, her middle turbine repaired, while the decks received a number of additional much-needed AA guns. She was out in February 1943, and sailed for Rabaul. She arrived there on 1 April, tasked to the Southwest Area Fleet. On 2 July her destroyer attack group shelled Rendova Island where US Forces tried to consolidate a bridgehead.

While she was back off Buin in August 1943, IJN Yūbari struck a mine. Her bow was blasted and the forward hull twisted down, with 26 injured. Her speed fell to 22 knots due to the broken and twisted prow, but she managed to make it back to Yokosuka for repairs. This took until October 1943, but she received a complement of anti-aircraft guns. Also for the first time she received a Type 22 surface search radar plus a Type 94 sonar for ASW warfare.

Back to Rabaul - November-December 1943

She returned to Rabaul on 3 November. On 4 November, she made it in time to rescue 196 crew and infantry, and even manage to retrieve three field guns from the sinking transport Kiyosumi Maru, managing to stay afloat after the previous day air attack. Two days later, she se was part of the infamous "Tokyo Express" hich carried troops and supplies by night to Guadalcanal. She was carryong herself 700 men of the IJA 17th Division plus 25 tons of supplies, but to Bougainville Island.

On 11 November 1943, IJN Yūbari was attacked and damaged by planes for two carriers during a Raid on Rabaul an anchor. This happened again on 14 November, but each time she only had splinter damage from near-misses. A week later, she was to be part of another "tokyo Express", this time to Garove Island (New Britain), cancelled after she was badly damaged by a raid of USAAF B-24 Liberators and Seaplanes PBY Catalinas (which could carry bombs). This forced her to return to Yokosuka on 19 December for long repairs. Like the previous time, the IJA pressed to add more AA batteries, which were installed wherever possible, as this was the main threat for the ship and many others in the IJN by that time.

She had therefore her more significant refit as her two single deck 140 mm (5.5 in)/50 main guns were removed. They were replaced by a single Type 10 4.7 in (120 mm)/45 gun. Also six twin and one triple Type 96 25-mm AA guns were placed on the deck while a Type 22 search radar was installed on the mainmast, and two depth charge launchers at the stern for ASW warfare; Mine rails were not used anymore and she never performed a wartime mission of minelaying as far as the records shows.

Last operations, March-June 1944

On April 23–25, Yubari, teamed up with IJN Kinu and the destroyers Samidare and Yuzuki, to Palau, taking on board 365 soldiers and 50 tons of cargo. On the evening of the 26th she escorted the transport No. 149 to the island of Sonsorol. On the morning of April 27, the ships unloaded at destination and set sail around 9h00 AM.

On , and they refused to attempt to reach the cruiser to Palau, . “Yubari” sank at 10:15, leaving its nose under the water, this happened 35 nautical miles from the island of Sonsorol, at a point with coordinates 5 ° 38 ′ s. w. 131 ° 45 ′ in d.HGYAO. In total, 19 crew members died during torpedoing and the struggle for survivability [55] [56].

Yubari was back in action, heading for Saipan on 30 March 1944, and departed later for Palau on 25 April, sighted two days later the submersible USS Bluegill. Her captain had a lucky spot, as this was his very first war patrol. Well placed, he fired all six bow torpedoes from a range of 2400 meters. Yūbari's spotters saw them, and she managed to evade four, but no the last two, which hit her starboard side, blasting N°1 boiler room. it was approximateiverly 10h04 AM.

The flood was so massive that bulkheads could not stop it and N°2 boiler room was soon flooded also. She lost speed and started to roll starboard while her bow plunged under. Only her middle boiler room and turbine remained safe, allowing the ship to move on, but this failed also. By 10:30, the safety teams worked hard but could not stop the flooding. and even when the destroyer IJN Samidare tried to take her in tow at 16:50, at 5-knot speed and using anchor chains. But they burst after several attempts as Yubari was already too heavily loaded with seawater.

Nevertheless, with many air pockets she managed to stay afloat almost 24 hours after the torpedo hits. On April 28, at 4:15 AM, water reached the upper deck and later her captain ordered to abandon ship. Noon came, and she finally sank at 05°20′N 132°16′E, around 10h15 AM. She lost 19 crewmen, mostly stokers killed during the torpedo hits and trapped inside by the flooding. However Yubari was not stricken before 10 June 1944.

HD illustration of the Yubari in 1923 and 1942 by the author, 1/200


Displacement 3,315 t. standard -4,447 t. Full Load
Dimensions 139 m long, 12 m wide, 3.6 m draft
Propulsion 3 shaft turbines and 8 boilers, 57,500 hp, 34 knots
Armor: Armored Deck and belt 16-22-25-28 mm, gun shields 11 mm, ammo wells 32 mm
Armament: 6x 140 mm (2×2, 2×1), 1× 76mm/40 AA, 2x2 610 mm TTs, 2x 7.7mm MGs, 34 mines.
Crew: 350

Sources/Read More
WoW's rendition of IJN Yubari
WoW's rendition of IJN Yubari

Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1921-1946
Dull, Paul S. (1978). A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945.
Howarth, Stephen (1983). The Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895-1945
Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945
Lacroix, Eric & Wells II, Linton (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War.
Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-311-3.
Roscoe, Theodore (1949). United States Submarine Operations in World War II.
Stille, Mark (2012). Imperial Japanese Navy Light Cruisers 1941-45. Osprey.
Whitley, M.J. (1995). Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia.
Lacroix, Japanese Cruisers, p. 307, 794
Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp (1997). "JUNYOKAN!".
Japanese Navy Ships at history.navy.mil.com.
Yūbari class Imperial Japanese Navy Page
CombinedFleet.com: IJN Yūbari, history

Models Corner:
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Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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