Nevada class Battleships (1914)

US Navy ww2 USA (1914) USS Nevada, Oklahoma

The Nevada class: First "standard battleships"

The Nevada and Oklahoma marked a milestone in US Battleship design. Launched just before WW1 broke out, they were the world's first to adopt the famous "all or nothing" armor scheme, quite a rationalization of armor protection tailored for long-range engagements. Two years later, as they were just being completed, the Battle of Jutland this was clearly shown as a useful layout, quickly adopted by other navies. The Nevada class was also introduced the first "standards" in a sense they adopted for the first time three-gun turrets solution to maximize the arc of fire and oil-fired water-tube boilers. They were transitional in that sense, still with superfiring twin turrets. The standard was expanded to 4x3 and was repeated for next four classes battleships, clearly intended by the admiralty to be tactically homogeneous and form the ideal battle line, the "battleship row" in pearl Harbor in 1941. Both paid a heavy price as Oklahoma was sunk, her remains partially dismantled many years later. USS Nevada was also badly hit but survived, and after repairs and further modernizations had quite an active career in the Pacific until the end of the war.

uss new york in hampton roads
The previous New York class, in Hampton Roads.

Development of the Nevada class

Context: The standard is born of Congress opposition

When the ships were to be planned, there was a strong political opposition to continual growth and cost of battleship building in the congress since the dreadnought. The Navy settled on a program of two new battleships per year, endorsed by President Theodore Roosevelt. However in 1904, Congress changed and started to reject Navy's requests, back to one ship per year or not at all. Howard Taft, one of the "falcons" and Roosevelt successor tried to bend the congress with little success. However he managed to obtain authorization for two capital ships FY1912. This was the Nevada class. However, Woodrow Wilson was elected in 1912, and immediately opposed the naval spending, endorsed by his Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels blocked demands for larger and more powerful ships, and in exchange of two vessels per fiscal year, the admiralty made a compromise and accepted to stick to the same standard. Later, it was internally argued that this standard will allow an homogeneous battleline and to streamline tactics.

USS Nevada in trials, 1916
USS Nevada in trials, 1916

Design development

The General Board started with twin-gun turrets of earlier dreadnoughts as the arc of fire was not optimal but only in broadside. It was requested for the first time a move towards three-gun turrets. This configuration would allow less turrets, a better armour rationale, and better arc of fire. At first, the choice of twelve 14 in (356 mm) guns looks ideal. It was two more than the New York class, with four turrets. design work started for FY1912 two years prior, and the first sketch were prepared by the Bureau of Construction and Repair (C&R) in May 1910.

They were heavily based on the preceding New Yorks but the aft superfiring No.4 turret was removed and amidships No.3 turret in superfiring over the No.5 turret. This was similar to British battlecruisers of the time but was soon seen as a complicated arrangement, requiring an ammunition magazine between the engine and boiler rooms. Naval historian Norman Friedman suggested this could have been adopted to reduce an excessive weight aft, causing greater stress to the stepped the hull and requiring extra stiffening there, less weight available to armor protection. As usual the design provisioned also four torpedo tubes and a classic 5-in secondary of seventeen QF guns. As shown by the initial blueprints, the belt armor was 11 in (279 mm) thick.

Birth of the all-or-nothing armor scheme

Meanwhile the Navy's think tank estimated that long range gunnery naval engagements would be the norm, reflected by the recent appearance of better armor-piercing shells and that the days of the high-explosive shells were counted. The latter could be dealt by medium armor of the new standard. In addition there was still no possibility to aim specifically at unarmored areas while AP shells would easily perforate medium armor and explode deep inside. The assumption of long range gunnery also as reflected in the adoption of a thick deck armor due to the increasingly parabolic trajectory of modern shells. Therefore the armored sides were a bit ignored at this point.

ballistic theories
Ballistic studies about HMS inflexible. This illustrates the board's discussions about long range gunnery that led to this armour scheme theory.

The logical result of these speculations led to the "all or nothing" logic. Basically this was a statistic-based assumption of what parts needed to be protected most and reserve this protection only for the ship's vitals. This naturally comprised the ammunition magazines, powerplant spaces, and command areas (notably the CT). In addition it was made watertight, in order to design an "armored raft" allowing the ship to float even in case all the rest of the unprotected hull was flooded. It was calculated to contain enough reserve buoyancy. This was a breakthrough innovation for the time, a revolution in capital ship protection that will spread like wildfire outside the US, an soon reach cruisers as well. Therefore the Nevada class was the first in the world to inaugurate this radical protection scheme.

Launch of USS Oklahoma in NY Shipbuilding Co in March 1914.

Evolution of the design (June 1910-fall 1910)

In June 1910 the Admiralty Board sent new requirements to C&R, still requesting a twelve-gun battery but also a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) and crucially the "all or nothing" protection scheme they created. C&R engineers however reported that the heavy armor deck would indeed considerably strengthen the hull notably fo longitudinal strength and compensate for the barbette openings, but also pointed out the 11-inch belt armor was no longer able to defeat the latest main guns in development. The Board responded by conceding an extra 1.5 in (38 mm) splinter bulkhead backing the belt internally to contain shell fragments. By October-November 1910, the Navy submitted budget estimates for FY1912, planned for the Congress vote scheduling in 1911. Figures were based on the New Yorks and this was accepted by the Congress. But as a result, this imposed a displacement of 27,000 long tons (27,000 t) like the previous ships. Soon C&R's protested it was too light and asked for a redesign, also incorporating experiences from service of the first USN dreadnoughts.

wow's rendition - USS Oklahoma in 1941

C&R redesign, concessions and approval (1911)

C&R redesign changes were first to drop the the arrangement of the aft pair of turrets. However it was still not found at that stage superfiring triple turret arrangement was too heavy. It was decided to move away the amidships magazine close to the boiler rooms as it was difficult to keep cool, as shown on previous battleships. The thicker deck increased hull strength so C&R proposed a closely spaced aft superfiring pair. This allowed also to shorten the hull, reduce armor protection, and keep in the displacement limits. The Delaware reports about its propulsion of mixing coal and oil also brought out a simplification: Only oil fired boilers.

This radical option was found to procure a set of advantages:
-The ability to refuel at sea (with simple flexible pipes by navy tankers)
-A significant reduction in boiler room crews (no more stokers)
-A greater fuel efficiency (smaller tanks)
-More compact boiler rooms, making shorter space to protect.
C&R was internally divided on this issue on this issue as they thought the deep ASW protection relied on these coal bunkers backing the side armor. The Board however was enthusiastic and approved all these changes in November 1910. Engineers of C&R however continue to lobby for the New York class design, but the Board stuck to the latest revise proposal and decided to return on steam turbines in the they belief the notoriously voracious turbines would be better fed by more efficient oil for long range cruise in the Pacific.

uss nevada stern
wow's rendition - USS Nevada stern, 1941

C&R submitted its next proposal on 13 February 1911; it generally aligned with the Board's ideas for the armor layout, but it retained some medium armor to protect the secondary guns and it incorporated triple-expansion machinery (though they noted that the engine rooms could accommodate Curtis turbines). The Board rejected it, leading the designers to remove the medium armor, producing a series of studies with speeds of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), 20.5 knots (38 km/h; 24 mph), and 21 knots and main batteries that ranged from eight to twelve guns. During this period, on 4 March, Congress authorized a pair of ships, designated BB-36 and BB-37 for FY1912. With the ships now authorized, the Board selected one of the ten-gun, 20.5-knot variations on 30 March, which had a belt that was increased to 14 in but included a series of tapers at the top and bottom edge to save weight. The Bureau of Ordnance pointed out that the belt could not be manufactured in a single strake with the tapers, so a joint between upper and lower strakes—a design weakness the engineers had been attempting to avoid—would have to be used. The problem was resolved in July, when C&R proposed removing the 1.5-inch splinter bulkhead in favor of increasing the belt to 13.5 in (343 mm) and incorporating only one taper at the lower edge.[8]

C&R and the board would then argued over the turret question. Four turrets would mad considerable weight savings and a thicker belt, correcting an observation of C&R about side protection. However the biggest concern was the Navy has until now never built a three-gun turret. There were concerns both at C&R and the board that a single hit could disable all three guns (something that will came to haunt proponents of a four-gun turrets in France in 1911 too !). It was also estimated that a triple opening in the face armor would make it weaker. C&R suggested making a model to be used on the old battleship Indiana, which was denied.

The Gangut shown using triple turrets was possible in a deck-level configuration only. But the limited displacement forced a superfiring solution in any case (wow)

Navy secretary J. Daniels meanwhile approved the Nevada final design on 31 March 1911, but as no turret design was ready then and many questions stayed in the balance. It was quite a gamble as this was an untested design, although many examples in Europe shown this seemed a way forward: Little they knew the Dante Aligheri, Gangut, and Tegetthof designs all gambled this already. The latter even gambled on superfiring turrets which was one step further away from the first two, which had long hulls to accomodate deck-level turrets only. C&R obtained to built an experimental turret in August 1912, which fired and proved the concept was sound but showed modifications were needed to reduce shell interference, also a crucial issue for accuracy. The finalized design compromised this by adopting a ten-gun battery: For the board this was a though pill to swallow, but the only realistic prospect was that only two turrets would be triple mounts on the deck, with superfiring twin-gun turrets (which was already a proven design).

SMS Tegetthoff forward turrets. The Austro-Hungarians made the radical choice of triple turrets before everybody in order, like the Americans, to keep the displacement low due to their limited yard basin size. It is not known if US Intelligence reported this at that time.

At that stage the Board began made this design circulate among a large array fleet officers for returns. Captain John Hood (later a member of the Board) criticized the the secondary battery, already shown in service to be very "wet" to the point of being useless in rough seas. Due the torpedoes having a better range, it was found crucial to deal sooner with TBs and destroyers, and the fast 5-inch /51 caliber was too short range for this. But then, here was no suitable alternative, therefore the Board had little choice but to keep the initial battery. They could not by then foresee that rapid progresses in fire control would increase their accuracy greatly. This also avoided any complicated redesign which would added weight an delay the construction (as much heavier 6-in guns would have been a logical choice).

Design of the Nevada class

Reconstitution of the armour scheme by Slavomir Lipiecki SRC

Hull and all-or-nothing protection

diagram of the Nevada armour scheme
Brassey's diagram of the Nevada armour scheme

The Nevada class BBs had a 575 ft (175 m) waterline long hull, 583 ft (178 m) overall, 95 ft 2.5 in (29 m) beam and 27 ft 7.6 in (8 m) draft (standard displacement), down to 29 ft 6 in (8.99 m) fully loaded, and the latter ranged from 27,500 long tons (27,900 t) as designed, 28,400 long tons (28,900 t) calculated fully loaded in service. Their ram bow was followed by a forecastle deck making around 50% of the ship's length and superstructure were kept minimal to maximize the field of fire. There was an heavily-armored conning tower aft of the forward superfiring turret and two lattice masts behind, both supporting spotting tops.

The belt armor was 13.5 inches thick in between the outermost barbettes, protecting the magazines and machinery, 17 ft 4.6 inches or 5 meters wide, including 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) underwater. It was reduced below to 8 in (203 mm). It was assumed that shells falling that far underwater to be slowed down enough. Both belt ends were connected by a transverse bulkhead 8-13 inches (330 mm) thick, created the citadel. Since it was all or nothing, both the bow and stern were unprotected.
The armored deck was 3 in (76 mm) but with a special treatment steel (STS), made in three layers. It made the top of the citadel. Further aft, it had a thicker stray of armour, 6.25 in (159 mm) over the propeller shafts. The armor deck connected to the top of the belt without slopes. There was below the secondary armored deck, made in nickel steel and 1.5 in (38 mm) thick, only there to contain splinters from the level above. Its sides were sloped down, and 2 in (51 mm) thick, connecting to the bottom edge of the belt, closing the citadel.

The main triple turrets (deck) faces had 18 in (457 mm) thick plates and 10 in (254 mm) sides, 5 inches roofs. The superfiring twin-gun turrets had (406 mm) faces, 9 in (229 mm) sides and all had 9 inches back plate. Barbettes had all 13 inches thick walls and the conning tower had 16 inches walls, and a 8 inches (203 mm) roof and it was made of STS armor. Boilers uptakes to the funnel had a protective conical mantlet 13 inches thick (340 mm).

USS Nevada during her sea trials

Powerplant; Shifting to oil-only

The Nevada class received direct-drive Curtis steam turbines, unlike previous ships. It was believed more oil would compensate for the consumption. They were fed by twelve oil-fired Yarrow water-tube boilers, and the class for the first time also had a pair of reduction geared cruising turbines clutched into the high-pressure turbines for fuel economy at low speeds. This also was a measure to reduce consumption.

This system really became a standard in all following US battleships to the exception of the late class using a turbo-electric arrangement. USS Oklahoma diverged from USS Nevada in having two vertical triple-expansion engines instead, plus twelve oil-fired Babcock & Wilcox boilers. This was a usual testing measure by the Navy to compare both ships propulsion system, and having at least one of the two with a reliable, known system. However USS Oklahoma's reciprocating engines proved troublesome, generating excessive vibration. This was so bad that in 1925 the nav envisioned to replaced them by diesel engines but their excessive weight prevented this move. Also these ships diverged from the previous ones by having all their exhausts ducted into a single funnel, with its uptake well armoured.

Both ships had difference outputs as a result of their respective powerplants: 26,500 shaft horsepower (19,800 kW) for USS Nevada and 24,800 indicated horsepower (18,500 kW) for Oklahoma, but both were noted as capable of 20.5 knots as deigned. On speed trials, USS Nevada reached 20.9 knots (38.7 km/h; 24.1 mph) on an output figure of 26,291 shp (19,605 kW) on speed trials upon completion. Also as design, their radius of action was 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) but in reality it was in service 5,195 nmi (9,621 km; 5,978 mi) at 12 knots, and only 1,980 nmi at 20 knots. Nevada's tactical turn to 180° took 825 yards or 754 m at 15 knots, down to 580 yards (530 m) at 19 knots and 625 yards (572 m) at 20 knots for USS Oklahoma.

uss nevada 1920
BB-36 Nevada overview in 1920. Many secondary guns has been retired already (hull), less those in the battery deck casemate.

Armament: Towards the 4x3 standard

Main Armament

The Nevada's class main armament comprised ten 14-inch /45 caliber Mark III guns in a 2x3 - 2x2 superfiring arrangement. The triple turrets had their barrels supported by two trunnions so that they could only elevate as a single unit, not separately. These guns were supplied by 1,400-pound (635 kg) armor-piercing (AP) shells which existed the barrel at 2,600 feet per second (790 m/s). The close triple barrel arrangement showed excessive dispersion so practice dictated a successive fire, tenth of a second delay. The barrels elevated to 15 degrees and depressed to −5 degrees. The best range was 21,140 yd (19,330 m). The barrels were served by two shell hoists and the guns and loading system were all electric. For fire control, the twin turrets were given roof armored rangefinders, and they were connected to the centralized fire control room in the conning tower. To complete this data also came from the main mast rangefinder, fore and aft.

wow's rendition, USS Nevada in December 1941, on her way

Secondary Armament

It consisted in a secondary battery, twenty-one 5-inch /51 caliber Mark VIII guns. They fired a 50 lb (23 kg) shell, which exited the barrel at a muzzle velocity of 3,150 ft/s (960 m/s). Twelve were in forecastle deck casemates, and the other six were in lower hull casemates, one more installed directly into the stern. In service, like for previous battleships, they were soon prove, excessively wet in rough sea. In later modernizations they were all removed. Two guns were in open mounts, mounted on the sides of the conning tower. Of course there was no lighter gun or AA.

Close Armament

As designed, both Nevada class had the customary 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes, both submerged in pairs in the broadside, below the waterline. They fired the new Bliss-Leavitt torpedoes Mark VII type. They had a 321 lb (146 kg) warhead and could reach 12,500 yd (11,400 m) at 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph), single setting available.

USS Oklahoma's sea trials

Specifications in 1916

Dimensions175 x 29 x 9 m - 573 ft, 95 ft, 29 ft
Displacement27,000 long tons standard, 28,367 long tons Fully Loaded
Crew1044 total: 55 officers, 809 enlisted men
Propulsion2 shafts VTE 14 water-tube boilers 28,100 shp (20,954 kW)
Speed21 kn (39 km/h; 24 mph) 7,060 nmi (13,080 km; 8,120 mi)
Armament10 × 14in (356), 21 × 5in (127), 4x 3pdr, 2x 1pdr, 2x 21in (533 mm) TTs sub
Armor Belt: 10–12 in, casemate: 6.5–11 in, Barbettes: 10–12 in, Turrets 2-14 in, Decks 2 in, CT 12 in

The Nevada class in service: WW1 and interwar

USS Oklahoma as experimentally painted with a disruptive pattern in 1917
USS Oklahoma as experimentally painted with a disruptive pattern in 1917 - Colorized by Irootoko Jr.

USS Nevada and Oklahoma 1916-1920

Wow's rendition of USS Oklahoma in 1941
Wow's rendition of USS Oklahoma in 1941

After fitting out in Boston, and later in New York Navy Yard, USS Nevada first served with the Atlantic Fleet based in Newport, Rhode Island. Her service started on 26 May 1916 with training cruises and exercises off Norfolk, Virginia. She made trips to the Caribbean. When the US entered the war in April 1917, there was a shortage of fuel oil in Britain so Nevada was not sent with Battleship Division 9 (BatDiv 9) made of VTE coal-burning Delaware, Florida, Wyoming, and New York. Instead, she was planned to join the British Grand Fleet on 7 December 1917, 6th Battle Squadron. however it's only on 13 August 1918 USS Nevada departed for Britain, the last US BB to do so, seeing little action as expected.

She arrived in Berehaven (Ireland) on 23 August, joining Utah and her sister ship Oklahoma, the "Bantry Bay Squadron", officially Battleship Division Six (BatDiv 6). The squadron was under command of Rear Admiral Thomas S. Rodgers. The battleships escorted the largest, most and valuable convoys in case German capital ships would slip through the British Grand Fleet and fall on the convoy by another route. This never happened so the battleships never fired a shot in anger. From 11 November, USS Nevada, now was under command of William Carey Cole, taking service until 7 May 1919). On 13 December 1918, she was part of a fleet of 10 battleships, including her sister ship, that escorted the SS George Washington, the liner carrying president Woodrow Wilson to Brest for the Paris Peace Conference. They sailed for home the next day and arrived in NYC in two weeks, in time to participate to a naval review linked to victory parades and celebrations.

USS Nevada WW1
USS Nevada WW1

USS Oklahoma like other ships of BatDiv 6 only was only called out once in 80 days. On 14 October 1918 (capt. Charles B. McVay, Jr.) she escorted troop ships back from UK on 16 October and the remainder of her days in harbour, conducted drills at anchor in Bantry Bay. Crews played American football and competitive sailing, but six later fell ill from the Pandemic flu around the 2 November. USS Oklahoma stayed off Berehaven until 11 November 1918 but in the wake of the victory, crewmembers fought with members of Sinn Féin, and the battleship's captain was obliged to paid for the damage and made public excuses to the mayors of nearby Bantry bay towns.

USS Nevada: The interwar

USS Nevada in drydock, 1935

In 1919, USS Nevada was transferred to the Pacific Fleet and USS Oklahoma joined her in 1921. Nevada's captain was Thomas P. Magruder from May to October 1919, William Dugald MacDougall (until 4 May 1920) in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets. In 1920, Nevada was taken in hands for a short drydock refit: Her 21 five-inch (127 mm)/51 cal guns were cut down to twelve already in 1918, due to the hull casemate guns being "too wet". Only the battery superstructure guns were kept, plus the two deck guns abreast the conning tower. Nevada new captain was Luke McNamee (until 19 September 1921). She sailed with USS Arizona to represented the United States at the Peruvian Centennial Exposition (July 1921). Douglas E. Dismukes took command in turn until 30 December 1922 and USS Nevada teamed with USS Maryland to escort back to South America the SS Pan America carrying Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to attend the Centennial of Brazilian Independence. Both ships were in Rio de Janeiro from 5 to 11 September 1922, and legend has it that baseball was made popular when Nevada's crew was on leave in the city.

USS Nevada in 1925
USS Nevada in 1925

By the fall of 1922, John M. Luby took command, until 7 September 1924, replaced by David W. Todd, until 11 June 1926. Meanwhile USS Nevada took part in a "goodwill cruise" to Australia and New Zealand in 1925. The cruise was hampered by the lack of supply points and demonstrated to naval powers of the pacific that the US was now able to project her battlefleet in the transpacific area of operations, being able in theory to confront the Imperial Japanese Navy in home waters for a possible "decisive battle". This also changed naval scenarios and games in the US naval academy.

wow's rendition of USS Nevada

wow's rendition of USS Nevada

Nevada class modernization

Clarence S. Kempff took command in 11 June 1926 and would serve until 20 September 1927 as the ship was conducted in the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for modernization. It would last until 1930, under command of Hilary H. Royall (until 12 July 1930). The rebuilt was comprehensive:
-Corbel masts replace by tripods
-Steam turbines from cancelled USS North Dakota installed, geared turbines to increase range.
-Original Yarrow boilers replaced with 6 Bureau Express and new arrangement
-Main guns elevation increased to 30° (23,000 to 34,000 yards (31,100 m)
-Anti-torpedo bulges added
-Two catapults added: Three Vought O2U-3 Corsair spotter.
-Eight 5 in (127 mm)/25 tertiary DP guns added
-New superstructure installed, some 5 inch (127 mm)/51 relocated there as in New Mexico class.

USS Nevada afterwards joined the Pacific Fleet and stayed there until the attack of Pearl Harbor under command of John J. Hyland (until 30 April 1932), then William S. Pye (4 December 1933), Adolphus Staton (25 June 1935), Robert L. Ghormley (23 June 1936), Claude B. Mayo (2 October 1937), Robert Alfred Theobald (10 May 1939) and Francis W. Rockwell.(until 4 June 1941)

HD Cutaway of USS Okhahoma in the 1930s

Specifications (Nevada) in WW2

Dimensions Same but width beam 32.3 m (106 feets)
Displacement32,000 - 33,000 tons FL after refit 1926
Propulsion6 × Bureau Express oil-fired boilers
Speed19.72 kn (23 mph; 37 km/h)
ArmamentSame but 12x5 in/51, 8x5 in/25 8 × 0.5 in (13 mm) Browning 0.3 1944: 6×5 in/51, 10×3 in/50, 10×quad 40 mm Bofors, 44×20 mm Oerlikon
Armor Same but turrets top extra 1.75 in (44 mm)

Read More/Src

Tom's Modelworks: Nevada 1941 & 1945
HP-Models USS Nevada BB-36 (1945) 1/700 HP models review
1/350 resin, PE brass USS Nevada BB36 Dec. 1944*
1/820 70782 Lindberg USS Arizona and USS Nevada 'Attack on Pearl Harbor' with Diorama Sea Base
*By iron shipright

USS Oklahoma in service: The interwar

Author's 2 views illustration of the Nevada in Dec. 1941

USS Oklahoma joined USS Arizona in Portland on 30 November 1918 and Nevada joined them on 4 December to form Battleship Division Nine, assigned as a convoy escort for the ocean liner SS George Washington carrying President Woodrow Wilson to France. After a trip back home to New York City in early 1919 she conducted winter battle drills off Cuba and by June returned to Brest, to escort Wilson back to New York. She Oklahoma was overhauled afterwards, her secondary battery reduced as her sister and in cruised to South America's west coast for combined exercises with the Pacific Fleet and attended the Peruvian Centennial in 1923. She then joined the Pacific Fleet in 1925 for a training cruise from San Francisco to Hawaii for war games.

She then departed Samoa, crossing the equator and arrived in Australia for more exercises and stopped in New Zealand. In early 1927, she joined the Atlantic Scouting Fleet but by November, entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard for an extensive overhaul like her sister ship. She was then back with the Scouting Fleet for exercises in the Caribbean, and West Coast again via Panama in June 1930. The Fleet operations routine lasted until the spring of 1936 and that summer, she carried midshipmen on a European tour and was on guard duty during the civil war in Spain, stopping at Bilbao in July 1936 to rescue American citizens and other refugees and bring them to Gibraltar and French ports. She returned to the pacific on 24 October 1936.

For the next four years she participated in many exercises including the Army, Air force, and training reservists. USS Oklahoma by December 1937 was based in Pearl Harbor and multiplied patrols alternated with exercised and was back in USA, entering Puget Sound Navy Yard yard twice, to have extra AA artillery and armor installed, the last time in February 1941. She was to have her armour replaced and upgraded in San Pedro by mid-August but was struck by a severe storm and the next morning lost her starboard propeller. She sailed to San Francisco for repairs and stayed in drydock until mid-October 1941. She then sailed back to Hawaii, but according to the Washington Treaty she was planned for retirement on 2 May 1942.

USS Oklahoma during WW2

USS Oklahoma off Alcatraz in the 1930s

Oklahoma was moored in berth Fox in the battleship row 5 on 7 December 1941, when the attack started, alongside USS Maryland. In fact she protected her on her flank. She was the object of Akagi and Kaga torpedo planes first, and hit three times seconds apart. On hit 20 feet (6.1 m) below the waterline near the mainmast position, blewing up the anti-torpedo bulge, spilling oil from ruptured fuel bunkers sounding tubes but the hull beyond remained intact. Irony was the men scrambled to fire the AA only to find their that firing were under lock and key in the armory. The time for them to get there and be operational, the first wave was over. The third torpedo struck at 08:00 near Frame 65 and this time it penetrating the hull, ruptured the fuel bunkers and access trunks to the two forward boiler rooms and the transverse bulkhead to the aft boiler room so flooding began.

USS Oklahoma started to capsize to port when two more torpedoes struck while the bridge was strafed by Zero fighters, so the men were compelled to abandoned ship. About twelve minutes later she she rolled over completely, her masts scrapping the bottom, until he keel was exposed, taking possible one or two more hits in the meantime. The crew had time to evacuate for the most fortunate and went on helping other ships, starting manning AA on USS Maryland. In total, the ship lost 421 officers and men, many missing, trapped inside later drowning as the ship slowly filled up. Efforts to rescue them started quickly but dragged on into the night, it took hours. Nevertheless, some attempts worked, such as Julio DeCastro, a civilian yard worker which saved 32, cutting open the very thick hull with pneumatic jackhammers, crowbars and maces. The problem was that trapped air escape and the volume was taken by water, further raising levels, and stored fuel tanks needed to be avoided to avoid further spills or explosions.

USS Oklahoma off Gibraltar in april 1936

They were remembered: Ensign John C. England for example had two USS England, DE-635 and DLG-22 named after him, as USS Stern, USS Austin. Austin posthumously was awarded the Navy Cross, while Ensign Francis C. Flaherty and Seaman James R. Ward had the medal of honor, and more Navy and Marine Corps Medals were awarded to other members of the crew. The ship was a hazard for navigation and obviously needed to be salvaged. An assessment was done in early 1942, but it was cost-prohibitive. Eventually work started gradually on 15 July 1942, under command of Captain F. H. Whitaker. First she was to be righted up, and this step took eight months with was pumped inside, divers installing improvised airlocks until 20,000 tonnes of water was pumped out, using the torpedo holes. To avoid the ship to slide, 5500 of coral soil solidified her bow while two barges controlled the ship's rise. The lifting operation was made using 21 derricks, attached to the upturned hull. Their high-tensile steel cables were actioned by massive hydraulic winching machines ashore. The "parbuckling" operation was completed on 16 June 1943 while divers and special teams had the gruesome task of removing human remains.

USS Oklahoma burning in Pearl Habor

In the end, the hull was inserted into cofferdams to allow basic repairs, patch the hull. On 28 December 1943, UDD Oklahoma was towed into drydock No. 2, Pearl Harbor NyD, and her main guns, powerplant and what was left of her stores and ammunition were all removed. Further damage was repaired and she was moored later, but due to the damage and priorities, it was understood she would not be modernized as her sister ships, the damage was too great. She was therefore decommissioned on 1 September 1944, her superstructure entirely removed when the war ended and she proposed for auction at Brooklyn NyD on 26 November 1946, sold to Moore Drydock Co. of Oakland, California, then by May 1947, and was to be towed for scrap.

The company had to had her moved from Pearl Harbor to the San Francisco scrapyard but Disaster struck on 17 May, both tugs being caught in a storm circa 500 miles (800 km) from Hawaii. It was discovered the ship had begun listing heavily and to avoid the tugs to be carried down when the ship would probably sink, they were radioed to head back to port. However in between the tugs already were dragged backwards at 15 knots as Oklahoma started to sink straight down, but the tug skippers ordered to loosen the cable drums and drop them completely at the very end.
The hulk's position remained unknown. Dredging operations took place in 2006 by the US Navy, which recovered parts of Oklahoma still in Pearl Harbor, portion of the rear fire control tower support mast, later transported to the Muskogee War Memorial Park in 2010, now on permanent outdoor display. The ship's bell and two screws are now on display at the Kirkpatrick Science Museum in Oklahoma City and her aft wheel at the Oklahoma History Center.

USS Okhahoma being refloated and righted, and waiting for her faite, moored alongside USS Wisconsin after the war

On 7 December 2007 a memorial for the Oklahoma's 429 crew members as erected at Ford Island, nearby USS Missouri. Only 35 missing sailors and officers were later identified but 388 were not, and they were interred as such in the Nu'uanu and Halawa cemeteries, disinterred in 1947 for more identifications, helping properly burying 45 of them at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific. In 2015, the DoD announced a new exhumation to be done, for DNA testings. By December 2017, 100 more had been identified and by the next year, 181, sent to their families by the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. In December 2019, the 236th unknown was identified, leaving 152 still unknown for the future. The last survivor of USS Oklahoma, Ed Vezey, passed out aged 95.

USS Nevada during WW2

Sinking at Pearl Harbor and repairs

USS Nevada beached on Hospital Point

Back to Nevada: On 6 December 1941, USS Nevada was in port for the weekend, anticipated quite, since 4 July. Vice Admiral William S. Pye Task Force was granted this weekend leave whereas it has been scheduled to operate with Vice Admiral William Halsey, Jr.'s aircraft carrier task force. But the latter did not want to have his carriers slowed down and declined to be escorted by the battleships, a fateful decision. Halsey indeed steamed up to reinforce Wake Island's Marine detachment with extra aviation. On the 7th, USS Nevada band was playing "Morning Colors" just as planes were spotted on the horizon.

USS Nevada was in line at the end the battleship row, off Ford Island, not exactly ready to manoeuver, but aft of Arizona. Commanding officer Francis W. Scanland (in service until 15 December) was ashore as the first bombs dropped. Ensign Joe Taussig on duty just ordered a second boiler lit off, gradually warming up the engines. Nevada's gunners scrambled to action as alarm went on, opened fire whereas engineers rushed to raise steam. Soon, a Kate TB plane dropped a single 18 in (460 mm) Type 91 Mod 2 torpedo, which hit Frame 41 below the belt, 14 ft (4.3 m) above the keel. It was 08:10 AM, and just after she was shot down by the battleship's own gunners. The torpedo bulkhead however did its job, but there was serious leaking which caused the flooding of port side compartments, below the first platform deck. The ship started to list 4–5° but damage control crew managed to stop it, by counter-flooding. Nevada at 0840 had her engines fed by steam and started her departure while her gunners allegedly shot down four more planes. Ensign Taussig's saved his ship but lost a leg in on of the strafing attacks. As soon as she was underway, Nevada became however a moving target.

Japanese Aichi "Val" dive bombers of the second wave quickly concentrated on her. Pilots intended to sink her in the channel to block the harbor, carrying 250 kg bombs, but channel's width of 1200 feet would have made this effort not successful. However about 09:50, USS Nevada was hit by five bombs in close succession. The first exploded above the crew's galley, anoher the port director platform and down to the stack on the upper deck. Another hit the first forward triple turret on the port waterway. Large holes were blown up in the upper and main decks. Two more struck the forecastle, another failed to exploded in between decks, but another blew near the gasoline tank wich started to leak badly. Fire spread rapidly.

Bow assessement of Nevada's damage

Gasoline fires around Turret 1 fortunately led to nothing as the main magazines were empty as the battleships were just about to underwent a swap to a new heavier projectile. The new powder charges were planned to be loaded on this Sunday. That was another strike of luck for the ship. USS Nevada however was now crippled and ordered to proceed west of Ford Island to ground her, which was done off Hospital Point at 10:30. She was assisted by USS Hoga and Avocet and her crew meanwhile shot down three more planes. The ship gently touched the bottom straight, quickly flooded thanks to the lack of watertight subdivision between the second and main decks. Water then started to enter through bomb holes and both the dynamo and boiler rooms were flooded soon.
During the attack, Nevada deplored 60 killed and 109 wounded and later two more men would die aboard during salvage operations two month later. They were poisoned by hydrogen sulfide gas, emanating since December from decomposing paper and meat. The damage party later assessed she could have been hit by as much as ten bomb hits. Refloating and repair the ship would take time however.

USS Nevada leaving Pearl for major repair and modernization in 1942


Various appearances of USS Nevada throughout her operational life.

On 12 February 1942 under Harry L. Thompson command, the battleship was refloated by using pumps, and temporarily repaired at Pearl Harbor, sent to Puget Sound NyD for drydock repairs. Her state was evaluated by the commission as positive for a modernization. It happened under command of Howard F. Kingman and completed in October 1942. She resembled USS South Dakota after this. The work consisted in replacing the main bridge superstructure by a thinner, lighter and taller one with open decks, rebuilt exhaust trunks into a new taller, raked funnel, relocation of the aft tripod mast further forward to gain arc of fires, deletion of the all 5"/51s and 5"/25s guns, replaced with sixteen 5"/38 caliber guns in new twin mounts, and considerable number of quad 40 mm and single 20 m Oerlikon guns, radars and modernized fire control systems. Willard A. Kitts took command on 25 January 1943, until 21 July 1943 leading the ship for her first new career operation, providing fire support from 11–18 May 1943 for the capture of Attu.

Details of the post-pearl harbor reconstruction
Details of the post-pearl harbor reconstruction, which was quite radical, but fast. USS Nevada was ready on time for D-Day.

D-Day campaign

USS after the Attu and Kiska capaign, was back in Norfolk Navy Yard in June 1943 for further modernization an when completed, departed for Atlantic convoy escort duties. She escorted convoys in a remote chance a German capital ship would raid it, but it never happened. Only on the northern route, towards Murmansk, German raids from Norway were attempted.
She made convoy runs throughout 1944, until send in in preparation for the Normandy Invasion by April 1944. Powell M. Rhea had by then taken command since 21 July 1943. In fact, the choice was not hard as she was the only battleship present both at Pearl Harbor and available for the Normandy landings. Her floatplane observer pilots were assigned to VOS-7, flying Spitfires from RNAS Lee-on-Solent. USS Nevada had the honor of being chosen by Rear Admiral Morton Deyo as his flagship for the operation. From 6 to 17 June she bring precious artillery support inland, departed for supply in UK and came back on 25 June to resume fire, moving to shell coastal defenses in the Cherbourg Peninsula, as far as 17 nmi (20 mi; 31 km) inland. The Germans however made counterbattery fire and she was near-missed 27 times. Her fire was estimated by the troops "incredibly accurate".

Operation Dragoon

In August, the allies prepared the second landing, in the south of France, so USS Nevada was sent in the Mediterranean for such operation. To support the landings of Operation Dragoon she teamed up with four battleships, USS Texas, Arkansas, HMS Ramillies, Free French Lorraine, and three US heavy cruisers escorted by many destroyers. Many landing ships and craft used at D-Day were also transferred for the operation. Nevada started operation on 15 August and until 25 September 1944, she duelled with "Big Willie", the most fearful German coastal fortress boasting four 340 mm (13.4 in) guns in two twin turrets, salvaged from Provence scuttled earlier in Toulon. The battery reached 19 nautical miles (35 km) and commanded every approach to Toulon and in addition to concrete, was reinforced by heavy armor plate embedded into the rocky sides of the island of Saint Mandrier. USS Nevada pounded the fortress, but she was not alone to do so from 19 August. This was combined to low-level bomber strikes. In all, Nevada fired 354 salvos at the fort. Toulon eventually fell on the 25th, but the fort held until the 28, eventually captured by ground troops.

USS Nevada in 1945
USS Nevada in 1945 (HD)

Iwo Jima

Before proceeding into the pacific, Nevada was back to New York for a gun barrels relining, as they were quite worn out by that stage and the three Turret 1 main guns were comletely replaced with Mark 8 guns models from USS Arizona which were in a relining process in december 1942 and were left in storage since, to Mark 12 specifications. Homer L. Grosskopf took command on 4 October 1944 and USS Nevada arrived off Iwo Jima on 16 February 1945, commencing the preparatory artillery cover. The heavy bombardmen went on until 7 March and as the invasion took plane, she moved closer from shore, at 600 yd (550 m) to provide a more precise firepower at any troop's command.


24 March 1945: Nevada was with Task Force 54, called "Fire Support Force" sent off Okinawa for shelling the island prior to the landings. TF 54 moved into position during the the night of the 23rd and shelled until dawn and during the day known airfields, shore defenses and supply dumps plus reported troop concentrations. However as the night fell for a ceasefire, seven kamikazes arrived and targeted the fleet, just when the air cover was back on the carrier's decks. One crashed onto the main deck of Nevada, even badly hit, and blasted near turret No. 3, killed 11 , injuring 49, knocking out the turret and three Oerlikon guns nearby. Two more men were lost due to a battery fire on 5 April and until 30 June Nevada continued to support fire until her departure for the 3rd Fleet. She stays with it from 10 July to 7 August and went to the home islands for the last days of the war, Capt. Crosskopf leaving command on 28 October 1945.

BB-36 shelling iwo Jima - the color photo shows part of the camouflage

post-war fate

Cecil C. Adell too command of Nevada on 28 October 1945, and she was back at Pearl Harbor after her stay in Tokyo Bay. A commission examined the ship ans estimated that after her 32 years of service she was no longer needed for post-war fleet, and assigned to be a target ship. In her new role, she was to be condicted in the Pacific to the Bikini atoll, infamous for the atomic experiments that took place under the name Operation Crossroads. It was the summer of July 1946, her captain had left command since the 1st of July, and USS Nevada was to be the bombardier's primary target for the test 'Able', aiming directly at the ship with its unique A-bomb. Therefore, due to the altitude, Nevada's decks were painted a reddish-orange. Despite of this, when the test started, the bomb fell about 1,700 yd (1,600 m) off the mark. It exploded just above the assault transport USS Gilliam instead and Nevada survived the blast.

She remained afloat also after the "Baker" test, using a new method of underground explosion, 90 ft (27 m) below the surface. Due to the denser water, the schockwave damage the ship's hull and radioactive fallout from the spray stuck to the ship. She was nevertheless towed to Pearl Harbor and formally decommissioned on 29 August 1946. After being closely examined, she was too dangerous to be scrapped and was instead used as a gunnery target practice, 65 miles southwest of Pearl Harbor. It was the 31 July 1948. Despite the battering she received, the valiant old battleship refused to sink and was eventually finished off by an aerial torpedo amidships.


A former main gun was preserved and is now displayed alongside a Missouri's gun at the Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, east of the Arizona State Capitol complex (Phoenix). The memorial represents the Pacific War as a whole. A Replica at 1/15 scale of the USS Nevada was used for overhead shots of Battleship Row in the classic flick Tora! Tora! Tora!. She is today part of Los Angeles yearly parades for V-day, navy day and veteran day.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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