Landing Ship Tank (1941)

US Navy ww2 USA (1942-45) - About 1051 ships

Armour Straight to the beaches: LSTs

For this first crossover article with our sister website, tanks encyclopedia, meet the ships that really allowed to carry allied armoured divisions straight to the beach of Italy, France, or many Pacific Islands. Without these, and because of devastated, fortified or absent harbours, tanks would have to wait long after the troops have landed before any infrastructure was ready for them. Those troops then would have been deprived of a very essential tool in modern warfare, impending heavy losses or to be pushed back to the sea.

An introduction: Heavy Landing ships in history

Beach landing operations were nothing new in the XXth century: In the Greek classical and Roman eras, Polybius, Thucydides, Livy, Demosthene and Diodorus all described the Hippagoges, ships tailored to carry horses. In the late Roman era were mentioned the "Thýra-Khelandions".

We already know the Byzantines introduced the "Greek Fire", a heavy napalm thrower/flamethrower. They also used heavy galleys tailored to carry cavalry (A. Jal, Archeologie Navale, 1840). What we don't know however were the details of their use or configuration.

Did the horses were stored above the rowers ?. Did the horses disembarked directly from frontal hinged doors as it supposed to sound ? Any case, this kind of ship was again described as the "nef huissière" in the Crusades (Hippagines Naves). These ships rigged the latin way (with triangular sails) and had rear doors to left the horse enter. But they probably required wooden ramps to allow the horse to disembark, or from side doors on wharves. This was the norm in conventional landings, after the infantry effectively beach landed on small rowing boats and already secured a solid foothold, up to the Crimean war.

X-Type-craft
WW1 British X-Type landing craft

However, already in 1879 for the landing in Pisagua, the Government of Chile ordered to built flat-bottomed landing craft called Chalanas. These had all the attributes of modern landing crafts and were large enough to a sizable infantry, landing some 1,800 men in less than two hours. In WW1, at Gallipoli, it was back to the usual, improvised methods with infantry landing from rowing ships. Horses and a few vehicles arrive much later when a wharf was constructed. In some occasions, troops that were leaving a ship via side doors were moaned down by Turkish shore defenses.

Landing ships of the the Great War

Only in February 1915 was placed an order for a purposely-designed landing craft. No less than 200 'X' Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow were built. Their first tour of duty was in the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula. With their drop down frontal ramp they landed the entire IX Corps (Commander Edward Unwin) at Suvla Bay, 6 August 1915, removing the Turkish Garrison. Known as the 'Beetles', these 135 tonnes ships carried 500 men each, and where 105'6'' long, 21' wide, and 7'6'' deep (32.2 m × 6.4 m × 2.3 m), all with bulletproof sides. Their heavy oil engines gave them 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph).

Interwar Prototypes

For tanks, there were already projects to land British heavy tanks from pontoons at the 3rd battle of Ypres in late 1917. In the interwar, prospects were renewed, at least in the British Navy to carry and land medium tanks. Exercises took place, in which a prototype designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was first tested in 1926. This relatively small craft was boxy in appearance, 16 tons, with a flat bow and stern. It was propelled by a a crude waterjet fed by a centrifugal pump driven by a Hotchkiss petrol engine. Eventually three were operated in 1930.

Landing-Ship-Family
US Landing Ship/Caft family

Early Wartime Landing Ships

Back in USA, both the USN and USMC studied the concept of advanced base force, which officially evolved into the Fleet Marine Force (FMF) in 1933. Fleet Landing Exercises took place in 1939 in which Andrew Higgins's boats for the first time shown their capabilities. The final design was given a ramp, was named LCVP, and mass production started right away. But these crafts were infantry-carrying ones.

A slightly larger variant called the LCPR could carry a jeep. But for larger hardware, converted cargos became the norm, including those mass-built to replace the losses in the Atlantic (Liberty ships among others). In the meantime larger infantry-carrying ships like the LSI appeared, and the first vehicles-carrying ones. The first were the Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) series devised two years earlier, and operated by the Royal Navy.

LSTillus
Wartime LST description

The LST concept

The real incentive began when Prime Minister Winston Churchill demanded an amphibious vessel capable of landing at least three 36-ton heavy tanks directly onto a beach in 1940. It was to be seaworthy and capable of a 10 day cruise in high seas, be inexpensive and simple to maintain. Naval architect Sir Roland Baker essentially designed what became the LCT Mark I, a 372 tonnes ships launched by Hawthorn Leslie in November 1940.

It was followed by three series, until the larger Mark 4, tested in combat in the disastrous Allied raid on Dieppe in 1942, the experience of which was closely followed by the personal in charge of the design of an equivalent for US service.

LCT202
British LCT 202.

After December 1941 indeed, the Bureau of Ships was put in charge to design plans for a ship which integrated advices from K.C. Barnaby of Thornycroft which worked on previous LCTs. Also the British evacuation from Dunkirk in 1940 was another motivation to study such designs. Early 1942, the first design was the LCT Mark 5, a 117-foot (36 m) craft, and it was possible to carry and ship it to combat in three separate water-tight sections, on board cargo ships of even an LST.

The Landing Ship, Tank however was a much larger design which can carry and extensive payload for amphibious operations. The real challenge was to go from the known working behaviour of a nimble landing craft, to such behemoth capable to deliver entire armoured battalions. The LST was a true game changer as it was not carried from a mothership but capable of ocean-going, shore-to-shore landings, almost from the training camp to the frontline.

Royal_Navy_HMS_Bachaquero_at_Bone_1942
HMS Bachaquero at Bone, 1942

Development of the LST

The fist true LST was British, the HMS Boxer class (Boxer, Bruiser, and Thruster, ordered in March 1941). It was capable to deliver 13 Churchill heavy infantry tanks, 27 vehicles and nearly 200 men, all across the ocean at a speed of 18 knots. However as it could not have shallow draught each of the three ships (March 1941) were given a very long ramp, stowed behind the bow doors. In November 1941, a British delegation paid a visit to the US United States Navy's Bureau of Ships for future shared development and also passed their experience to the new design.

The latter, called The LST(2) integrated among other ideas from Sir Rowland Baker's experience with LCTs, and the design was eventually authorized by the Congress in the acts of 6 February 1942, 26 May 1943, and 17 December 1943 as the same time as an enormous shipbuilding programme, unprecedented in US History. The keel of the first LST was laid down on 10 June 1942 at Newport News.

Standardization came in October, and twenty-three were in service by the end of the year. From then on indeed, a staggering quantity would be built until the end of the war, at breakneck speed, so much so that the admiralty did not even bother to give them proper names. They received identification numbers like all other landing crafts in service...

LCT-LST-blueprint
LCT-LST blueprint

Design Development of the LST(2)

Initial specification asked sufficient inner buoyancy even when the tank deck was flooded. Top speed was 10 knots as designed, with the same load as the HMS Boxer but drawing only 3 feet forward when beaching. These very large landing ships (at least until the modern assault ships built in the 1960s) were nevertheless challenging for engineers.

They had to retain qualities of long cruise ocean-going cargo ships, while being able to not only land hardware on the beach, but also retreat by themselves at sea to take another load, performing vital and relentless rotations from shore-to-shore all along the ongoing amphibious operations. For a start, a flat-bottom ship was a nuisance at sea, especially with a shallow drought.

In bad weather, if the excessive roll and pitch was not enough to have everyone on board sea sick to death, the stress on the hull would have gone far enough to break it apart. The problem was eventually solved by John C. Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships.

He basically sketched out the basic design that was to be standardized, which integrated an ingeniously large ballast system, filled for ocean cruise, and pumped out for beaching operations. The second ace in his sleeve was the equally ingenious, massive anchor and mechanical winch system which allowed the ship to pull itself off the beach, ensuring another rotation.

At that time, the US were not at war yet and the design was submitted to the British Admiralty on 5 November 1941, immediately accepted. An order came in response for 200 "LST (2)" or Mark 2 to be built through Lend-Lease. Of course one month later, the USA went at war, and this altered and accelerated the process that followed.

Tank_landing_ship_technical_diagram_1959
LST cutaway ad technical overview

Indeed in January 1942 the initial LST 280 feet (85 m) plan was modified as the Bureau of Ships asked for a 290 feets ship, and before the end of the month settled on a 328 feet (100 m) ship, that has to be given also a 50-foot (15 m) beam. These generous dimensions were not only motivated by payload concerns but also to ride higher in the water.

Their carrying capacity was nevertheless taken to 2,100-ton (1,900 t) and the larger width allowed to design a more generous bow door opening and ramp of 14 feet (4.3 m), large enough to accommodate all allied vehicles in service. The larger size also imposed thicker plates, 0.375 inches (9 mm) on the bridge, but not hardened, which did not constituted a true protection against shell splinters. The bow under plates were one inch thick to absorb beaching stress. A scale model was produced and tested at the David Taylor Model Basin in Washington, D.C.

Design Specifications

In addition of the ballasts, anchor and winch systems, many other details were worked out, like the ventilation of the tank space, which provided enough draft to allow all tanks to start and warm their engine before landing. A small elevator was also provided to store additional vehicles and payloads on the upper deck. In April 1942 a mock-up well-deck was built and tested for three monthes in real conditions with tanks supplied by Fort Knox (at this location). First beaching test was performed at Quonset, Rhode Island, in early 1943.

LST-761
LST-761

Production

Standardization came in October 1942, although production was well underway already. What was particular in that case it that production plans commenced even before testing were completed, or even scheduled. Coordination between the Bureau of Ships and shipbuilders was performed on the flow by the Material Coordinating Agency, allowing flexibility and revisions during the initial production phases.

The programme indeed had received the utmost urgency. The keel of an aircraft carrier was even removed to make room for the first LST. The flat-bottom of the ship allowed to built it along inland waterways, near the steel fabrication yards and supplies. Empty hulls were then often shipped and the operations surveyed by a "Ferry Command" to the coastal yards for completion and fitting-out of the equipments. Remarkably enough, of the 1,051 LSTs built during the war, 670 were supplied by five "cornfield shipyards" in the Middle West !

These were Neville Island, and the American Bridge Company in Ambridge, Pennsylvania, Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. in Evansville, Indiana, Chicago Bridge and Iron's shipyard in Seneca, Illinois.

LST-532
LST-532

Production simplifications were ongoing constantly to provide faster paces in welding and assembling, so much so, that from the initial four monthes in 1943 the production was reduced down to two monthes. But in between, operational experience had a return and imposed substantial modifications.

From LST-491, the elevator was replaced by a hinged ramp lowered to the main deck, placed just before the the bow ramp, allowing much faster rolling operations and landing. From the LST-542 class was added a navigation bridge, water distillation plant, removal of the tank deck ventilator from the main deck and strengthening of the main in order to carry a LCT, an upgrade in armor and the addition of a 3 in caliber gun.

They had two General Motors 12-567 diesel engines, two shafts, twin rudders and a Speed of 12 knots (14 mph; 22 km/h). When submerged, the main bay could accomodate 2 to 6 LCVPs. Eventually 1,051 has been actually constructed, 113 LSTs were transferred to Britain, and four found their way later in the Greek navy (see later).

LST-786
LST 786

British LSTs

Although this would be the object of a separated article, some 80 LST Mk.3 (40 cancelled) were built in the UK (35) and Canada (26). They served with marines as diverses after the war as the Royal Australian Navy, Hellenic Navy, Royal Netherlands Navy, Indian Navy. Propulsion was assumed by an Admiralty pattern 3-drum water-tube type boilers (225 pounds psqi).

Main engines were 4-cylinder triple expansion, 4-crank type, balanced on the Yarrow-Tweedy-Slick system. Thy developed 2,750 hp (2,050 kW) total. In addition there were the three initial massive ships, 116 m long, 4800 tonnes Maracaibo class. These signaled themselves by their double hinged ramp of 100 ft (30 m) span and could carry 18 × 30 ton tanks or 22 × 25 ton tanks or 33 × 3-ton trucks. The Boxer class was even larger at 120 m and 5400-5900 tonnes.

Crusader-landing-TLC-124
A Crusader tank landing from LCT-124

The LST in action

Unfortunately despite their merits (Winston Churchill would claim later that these workhorses "won the war" for the allies), the LST were not so quite vulnerable despite been quickly nicknamed both the sailors and soldiers "Large Slow Target" or "Large Stationary Target" from their acronym.

Their combat debut took place in the Solomon Islands in June 1943 (and not Operation Torch as generally thought were converted ships and LCTs were present). They participated in the invasions of Sicily (Operation Husky), Italy (Baytown, Avalanche), Normandy (Overlord), Southern France (Anvil Dragoon) in the European Theater and proved invaluable in the whole island-hopping campaigns in the Pacific. They had been instrumental in the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

LST_Invasion_of_Normandy
LSTs in Normandy, june 1944

Even with such production however, they were never enough of these ships for the Mediterranean theater or to assume the logistics of amphibious operations in Italy, but after the landings in Normandy, the situation gradually improved. LSTs suffered losses in several occasions, notably a devastating ammunition supply mishandling that cost a chain explosion.

These ships could nevertheless absorb punishment and survive, possibly because of their reinforced structure. One survived a collision with a Liberty Ship.

LSTs-Iwo-Jima
LSTs at Iwo Jima, with mount Suribachi behind

Only 26 were lost due to enemy action, 13 more because of bad weather, reef, or accidents. Better still, of the grand total, if many had been mothballed, other scrapped or tested in a nuclear explosion, the majority served yet again in the Korean war, proving themselves at the landing in Inchon, and were later modernized, to served in the Vietnam war (at last named after Counties and Parrishes), despite their age.

Also as a side note, LST were not the largest amphibious ships built in WW2: The LSVs of 6000 tonnes with an aft ramp to carry DUKWs, LVTs, LCVPs or LVTs depending of the operations (6 built, 1942-43) or the twenty-five, 4030/7400 tonnes LSDs (landing ships docks) which carried beaching crafts, pioneering the modern assault ships.

Lst-983
LST launching a LVTP-5

WW2 Veterans saved the last LST

In the US, the last was sold for scrap in 1984. But those which served under foreign flags has been maintained in service for some well until the early 1990s. One of these, the Greek L144 in 1994 was one of four LSTs scheduled for replacement. A group of US Veterans deploring the absence of a surviving ww2-era LST battled for years with red tape and sent a delegation to evaluate the ships.

One (with the best-looking state) was chosen, anchored in Suda bay in Crete. It was repaired and restored, then undergone a perilous trip across the Mediterranean (yet with more repairs en route as one engine broke up), and then across the Atlantic and Mexican gulf to Mobile, Alabama, where it stands today in its original LST-325 ww2 state in working order, available for visits.

Conversions

In total 83 ships were converted as auxiliaries or special-purpose vessels. -ARL (Landing craft repair ships): Bow ramp and doors removed and sealed, derricks, booms and winches added to haul damaged landing craft on board for repairs. Auxiliary power and electrical workshops were also provided.

USS_LST-776_with_Brodie_system_front_view_during_testing_1943
LST 776 with Brodie system

-LSTH (Landing Hospital ships): 36 converted. They brought no less than 41,035 wounded men back across the English Channel from Normandy by D-Day+114 (28 September 1944).

-Ammunition Supply Ships: Some were given extra cranes and handling gear, used only for ammunition supply for capital ships.

Improvized aircraft carriers: The USS LST-906 launched a L-4 Grasshopper from a prepared flight deck. While additional L-4s were stowed alongside the deck. Later in the war, USS LST-16, USS LST-337, USS LST-386, USS LST-525, LST-776, and USS LST-906 were all converted to launch planes only but USS LST-393 and USS LST-776 were fitted with the Brodie System for planes take off and landings.

FTD (Fighter Direction Tenders): Three converted in British service. they had AMES Type 11 and Type 15 fighter control radar to provide coverage and coordination on the D-Day landing areas (Despite Luftwaffe incursions were quite reduced). HMS FDT 216 covered Omaha and Utah beaches, HMS FDT 217 Sword, Juno, and Gold, and HMS FDT 13 covered the channel. They resulted nonetheless to the destruction of 76 enemy aircraft total.

Also some ships were converted as MTB tenders, aircraft engine or landing craft repair ships, battle damage repair ships, floating store and depot ships, salvage craft tenders.

Axis LSTs

It should be noted that the Japanese also devised their own LST for their operations, the T101 class delivered from 1943 to 1945. They have been planned by the Navy Technical Department (Kampon) after studying intelligence reports on the LCTs during operation Torch.

The first No.101 was laid down in November 1943. 103 were planned, and 69 completed (49 for the Navy, 20 for the Army) and 41 lost in action. They have about the same characteristics with a well deck but were lighter at 950 tonnes and 80.50 m (264 ft 1 in) long overall.

Four_Japanese_No101-class_landing_ships
Japanese T101 type LSTs

The Germans also developed their own large landing ship, the Marinefährprahm (MFP), "naval ferry barge" in 1940, originally planned to participate in Operation Sea Lion (The British Invasion). Instead, these relatively smaller ships (220-239t, 47.04-49.84m long) has been mostly used in the Mediterranean theater, and in Norway, for auxiliary duties.

Some has been specialized as FLAK-ships, support ships and gunboats, referred to by the allies as the "Flak Lighter" or "F-lighter". No less than 700 has been cranked up. They had a covered bridge and could carry light vehicles and about 200 men, but not tanks in the basic version. The A1 however was modified to carry captured and modified KV-1/K-2 tanks bound to invade Malta. The derived Italian Motozattera (MZ) planned for the same operation were modified to carry up to three M13/40 medium tanks and 100 fully equipped infantrymen.

Probably the most amazing tank landing ship ever imagined was the German Transport Hydrofoil VS-8, but that's another story...


Visit of LST 325

Links

The LST series class on wikipedia
Full list of LSTs
Various liveries
3d model
Interesting paint scheme
On passionmilitaria.com (FR)
Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1922-1946.

Standard 1944 LST specifications

Dimensions99,90 x 15 x 1.02-4.29 m (328' x 50' x 3'-14')
Displacement1780 t standard - 3880 t FL
Crew108-125
Propulsion2 screws, 2 TE 3 cyl., 12 boilers, 9775 cv. 19,3 knots max
Speed22 knots (40.7 km/h; 25.3 mph)
Range 7,000 nmi (12,960 km; 8,060 mi) at 14 knots (25.9 km/h; 16.1 mph)
Armament1 × 3' (76 mm), 6 × 40 mm, 6 × 20 mm, 2 × 0.5' (12.7 mm), 4 × 0.3' (7.62 mm)
Payload60 tonnes above deck, 2000 tonnes or 20 tanks & 200 men
Armor9.5 mm (0.37') deck

Video: LST documentary

https://youtu.be/OTSqhCdgwrI

Gallery

sherman-lst-NAF
Sherman M4A1 landing off an LST in beaches of Anzio during the amphibious attack on German forces in Italy dubbed Operation Shingle - 22 January 1944

Canadian-Sherman_off_LST_Sicily
LST landing a Canadian Sherman tank in Sicily, 1943

LST-942_underway_in_late_1944
LST-942 underway in late 1944

dday-gray-2014-LST
Camouflaged USS LST 393 at Muskegon in 2014 that Veterans wanted to repaint grey for 71st D-Day anniversary. The ship operated in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, England, Wales, Ireland and France, and was credited with carrying 9,135 soldiers and 3,248 vehicles.

LST-898
LST-598

LST-inoperation
LST in operations

LST-528-Thule1952
LST-528 at Thule in 1952

LST-594
LST-594

LST-738-burning
LST-738 burning after being hit by Japanese artillery

Graham_County_LST-1176-PuertoRico-1964
Modernized LST-1176 Graham County at Puerto Rico, 1964

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Fairey III (1917-1935)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Channel (1919)
Vickers Viking (1919)
Saunders Kittiwake (1920) Supermarine Sea King (1920)
Fairey Pintail (1920)
Short N.3 Cromarty (1921)
Supermarine Seal II (1921)
Vickers Vanellus (1922)
Supermarine Seagull (1922)
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Fairey N.4 – five-seat (1923)
Supermarine Sea Eagle (1923)
Vickers Vulture (1924)
Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle (1924)
Supermarine Scarab (1924)
Fairey Fremantle (1924)
English Electric Ayr (1924)
English Electric Kingston (1924)
Hawker Dantorp (1925)
Blackburn Velos (1925)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Saunders A.3 Valkyrie (1927)
Blackburn Nautilus (1929)
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark (1929)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Saro A.7 Severn (1930)
Saro A.19 Cloud (1930)
Saro Windhover (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Short S.15 (1931)
Blackburn Sydney (1931)
Short Sarafand (1932)
Short Knuckleduster (1933)
Saro London (1934)
Short Seaford (1934)
Short S.19 Singapore III (1934)
Fairey S.9/30 (1934)
de Havilland Hornet Moth (1934)
Blackburn Perth (1934)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 (1936)
Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp (1937)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Supermarine Sea Otter (1938)
Short S.30/33 Empire (1938)
Short S.20 Mercury (1938)
Short S.21 Maia (1938)
Saro A.33 (1938)
Blackburn B-20 (1940)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Supermarine Spitfire Seaplane (1942)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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