HSwMS Fylgia (1905)

HSwMS Fylgia was the smallest armored cruiser in the world, a three-funnelled 4,800 tons ship with eight 6-in guns (152 mm) in four twin turrets fore, aft and admiships, which was rather innovative at the time. She was commissioned on 21 June 1907, served as cadet training in the interwar and then was comprehensively modernized prior to WW2. She was to be integrated in a new coastal fleet together with recent Swedish coastal Battleships, with Clas Fleming, leading squadrons of torpedo boats. Her major reconstruction lasted until 1940. During the war, she performed neutrality patrols, camouflaged with white bands on her hull. She also saw the early cold war, used as target ship and eventually decommissioned in 1953. By 1957 when she was scrapped, her hull was more than half a century old.


Painting of Fylgia

Development History

In 1892, the naval committee which already planned the torpedo cruisers also determined that the Swedish fleet needed two types of cruisers, a large and a smaller one. As often when submitted this, the riskdag (parliament) refuse the larger one and authorized the smaller one, which in fact became a serie of five torpedo cruisers we saw earlier. In 1901 however, a new committee was appointed to investigate again the fleet's ship needs in a rapidly changing international context and after some feedback from the small torpedo cruisers were clearly insufficient, pointed at the larger cruiser option again. This was the only one that can solve the fleet's tasks. The prospect was initially even more ambitious, looking for not one but several cruisers that could independently spy at sea, combat destroyers and light cruisers and be used as school ships in peacetime.

HSwMS Fylgia was first planned at the turn of the century, cruisers were pretty rare in Swedish naval history: In fact, apart the frigate Vanadis in 1862 and screw corvette Balder in 1870, there was no proper "cruiser" in the Swedish Navy for decades, at least a proper one. In 1896 through, a whole serie of torpedo cruisers, the örnen class, were the only exception. These five vessels built in 1894-1900 after the conclusion of the 1892 naval committee, displaced barely more than 800 tons and were essentially designed and used as torpedo boats leaders. However they were green water naval assets, clearly not fit for longer cruises, as befitting of a normal "cruiser". So the Swedish admiralty looked for a large fleet vessel that can be used to "lead the leaders", meaning these torpedo cruisers and all the flotillas as a naval HQ, with a sufficient level of protection and armament as a backup. It was still a largely coastal vessel intended for a defensive role, and thus, the Navy did not needed a long range, needlessly large and costly vessel. From there, specifications dictated a very unique ship, tailored for Swedish needs.

In 1902 at last, funds were granted for final design work and construction of a single new cruiser, while the same year an order was placed with Bergsunds Mekaniska Verkstads AB (Stockholm). The latter delegated construction work to its newly acquired Finnboda shipyard. In 1903, funding was requested for the construction of a sister ship, but this was denied by the parliament.


Launch of HSwMS Fylgia

Design

Hull & Protection

Fylgia was 115.1 meters long overall, to the tip of her ram, 14.8 meters wide and a draft of 5.1 meters. This was the size of an average German light cruiser of the time, not an armoured vessel. It even looked the part with her three raked funnels, two masts and sponsn artillery, typical forecastle and poop. It is hard from there to say for certain where influences layed, but certainly between British ang German ship design. Due to her armour, her standard displacement was 4,310 tonnes standard, 4,980 tonnes fully loaded, so much more than a light cruiser of equivalent size, closer to 3500 tonnes standard. All in all she was also an elegant ship, with a pointed stern, slight ram bow, three equally spaced, moderately tall funnels, and two also raked masts.

Behind and above her unique conning tower was built a small two-level (one enclosed, one open above) command and navigation bridge. As per usual visual conventions of the day, her hull was painted white, and the funnels, masts and air intakes and other "deck furniture" was painted in typical "canvas beige". Decorum was kept minimal, there were just two small heraldry plaques at the bow with the Swedish Royal house symbology, painted blue and gold, her name at the stern and the usual officers open galley. She was built only for a crew of 322 men, of which 50 were cadets (so only 270), making her the least crewed armoured cruiser worldwide also, something helped in part by the armament's choice.

hswms-fylgia-armoured-cruiser-bp

As a protected ship, Fylgia was given a sturdy hull, built of 22–35 mm thick riveted high carbon content Swedish steel. The core of her protection rested on a 50 mm (2.5 in) (at both ends), up to 100 mm (4 in) thick waterline armor amidship, extended about 50% of the hull's lenght. So it was protecting the central machinery spaces and ammo storages, but not the fore and aft turret barbettes. It was also internal, not shown on the hull. Its lower edge was connected by 50 mm to the main deck slopes, and its flat section was only 22 mm thickness behind the belt (1.1 inches). The main deck outside the citadel was down to 35 mm in thickness (1.9 inches), still turtleback.

The armored deck was arched as per usual standards of the day, in true turtleback fashion. During construction, there was criticism in the admirakty (after all this was Sweden's first such construction) that she would have poor stability, but at sea it would turn out she had good seaworthiness, turning radius and agility at large. Her turrets were protected by 130 mm of armour for the face (5 inches), down to 40 mm (2 inches) for the sides and roof. The ammunition hoists were protected by 100 mm thick walls.

HMS_Fylgia_192

Powerplant

Fylgia was one of the last Swedish warships equipped with vertical, triple expansion, steam engines. She had two of them, fed by the steam produced in twelve coal-fired watertubes boilers, placed in three separate compartments. The two four-cylinder triple expansion engines drove a single propeller shaft each. Also, each separated boiler room's four boilers had their pipes truncated into a single funnel, resulted in this "three pipes" appearance. This powerplant developed a total of 12,000 horsepower, making for a top speed of 22.77 knots (42 km/h) observed on trials, well above the estimated speed of 21.5 knots, also required in the navy specs. Still, 21 knots was not outstanding given the standards of the time, especially for a scout, but it was deemed sufficient at that time. Her coal stock was limited to 350 up to 900 tons maximum due to her small size, still providing her for a very generous 8,000 nautical miles at 10 knots. She was noted as a good steamer also. All in all Fylgia "looked right" and she certainly behaved that way.

Armament


Fylgia in a severe storm, listing, and showing her forward turret

Main artillery:

Fylgia's main artillery was another strong selling point of the design; She had eight 15.2 cm cannons m/03 (6 inches), but instead of having them in individual mounts, in tandem fore and aft and sponsons, she had all eight grouped into twin turrets. It was no unusual for armoured cruisers though, but in this case, even size guns were mounted in broadside turrets, so bow, stern, and amidships, a "lozenge" configuration allowing six guns in chase, retreat and broadside. Front armor was 125 mm thick and sloped and the mounts were manually traversed, as well as the barrel elevation, individually. The artillery officer from its position in the mainmast fighting top, directed fire via an acoustic tube.

Light artillery & torpedoes:

Secondary artillery was homogeneous, and consisted of fourteen 57 mm cannons m/89B (12 pdr) placed in four casemates on the broadside at the battery deck edges, in enclosed sponsons, two amidship, four more forward and aft of the hull's Forecastle and poop and deck guns front and aft of the bridge. In addition, there were two 37 mm m/98B for saluting also amidships. There was also a forward torpedo room with just two 45.7 cm underwater torpedoes of the m/04 type.

HMS_Fylgia_newly_launched
Fylgia, after launch, pending completion.

⚙ Specifications 1907

Displacement4,734t standard, 4,900t FL
Dimensions115.10 x 14.78 x 6.30 m (383 ft 10 in x 48 ft 7 in x 20 ft 8 in)
Propulsion2 shafts, TE engines 12,000 ihp (8,900 kW)
Speed22 knots (41 km/h)
Range8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h)
Armament8 x 6 in/50, 14 x 6-pdr, 2-in TTs
ArmorKC, KNC, 4 in belt and 5in-2in turrets
Crew320 (50 cadets)

Refit 1939-40

Modernization designs were proposed as early as 1935, and in 1936 a plan as accepted, but rejected by the Riskdag. It was rejected again in 1937 and 1938, before growing international tensions changed the context. After being postponed for so many years, the summer of 1939 saw the parliament voting a budget for the complete reconstruction and overhaul of HMS Fylgia. The admiralty planned the cruiser would be part of the west coast fleet after that, with its own close protection group.

The modernization was one of the most ambitious and thorough of that time. Fylgia was drydocked for almost two years. Her superstructures were dismantled, her deck gutted as well as her battery and protective decks, in order to access to her machinery spaces.
-Her powerplant was partly modernized: She kept her VTE engines, but all her twelve coal-fired boilers were removed, and replaced by four large oil-fired Penhoët boilers. The boiler room No1 was rebuilt as a cadet accommodation area. The truncated exhausts had her funnels down to two, altering her appearance.
-The ram was eliminated and the bow reshaped into a semi-clipper variant, making her longer.
-The bridge structure was entirely rebuilt, and the CT eliminated. It was much roomier as a result, and inspired by Swedish destroyers of the time.
-Main artillery was modernized: She kept all her eight main guns in turrets, but with a new gun cradle, new barrel, new relload mechanism and new, more powerful ammunition. As a result, her main guns new had a firing range of 16,000 meters.
-The central fring direction was modernized too, with modern fire control systems and telemeters.
-All the electrical circuitry and subsystems, the communication network, were also entirely modernized.
-New electrical supply based on modern diesels, feeding generators and more powerful batteries.
-New wireless radio sets, many compartments modified.
-All former 57 mm guns replaced by:
> Four 57 mm Bofors w/98B-38B AA
> Four twin gyro-stabilized 40 mm automatic w/36 Bofors guns
> Four single 25 mm automatic w/32 Bofors
> Two twin 20 mm automatic AA gun.
-The two fixed underwater torpedo tubes were replaced by swiveling 533 cm tubes on opposite sides of the deck.
The diversity of armament was on purpose: It was to help the cadets familiaizing with all guns types in service with the Swedish Navy.

⚙ Specifications 1940

Speed26 knots (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph)
Armament6 x 152 mm (2x2, 2x1) 6-in
-4x 75 mm (3 in)
-4x 25 mm AA (1.2 in)
-4x 2 40mm AA
-2x 2 20mm AA
Crewcirca 480

HSwMS Fylgia in service

HMS Fylgia was launched on December 20, 1905, completed and commissioned on 20 June 1907. She was the Swedish fleet's largest ship to date, and yet the world's smallest armored cruiser. Fitting out work took longer than expected due to a strike, in fact, planned initially to early 1907. This summer, Fylgia started right away in a "shakedown cruise" to the Caribbean sea and United States coastal waters. In fact she would make ten long journeys until the First World War broke out. In 1913, her stern casemate were removed to provide better crew accommodation and those in the bow would be also removed soon. The foremast was reinforced and mounted a military lookout. After a firing incident, vulnerable aft 57 mm cannons were also relocated. On February 7, 1913 Fylgia ran aground off Karlskrona. This took place near Kurrholmarna, in Karlskrona's inner archipelago, and fortunately nobody was injured and damage was minimal. After being towed away she resumed service.

The Great War

When World War I broke out, Fylgia was underway to the Mediterranean. At her first stop, news came in and her cruise was cancelled. She wa scalled back home to perform guarding patrols, enforcing the coastal national neutrality zones, under command of Captain Fredrik Riben. On several occasions she spotted, warned and fired upon foreign warships travelling through these areas and Swedish waters, all repelled. In the autumn of 1915 Fylgia led the only Swedish ship convoy ever during this war, and in 1916, her old aft 57 mm (12 pdr) guns were replaced with new 57 mm AA guns from Bofors. After the war ended, the Swedish admirakty devised a brand new plan for the coastal fleet. There was to be a main force including three new armored ships, well protected by several layers of smaller ships each, so three task forces or flotillas. One such plans included Fylgia, Fleming working together with a screen of destroyers, closest to the main force, and ten torpedo boats for close protection. Discussions went on but nothing changed for Fylgia.

HSwMS Fylgia's interwar career

In 1919, Fylgia departed made her first postwar trip as a naval cadet training vessel, to the Caribbean, and the West coast of the United States. During the decades between wars she undetook no less than 20 of such cruises, without notiable incident, before was disarmed in 1933, docked in Karlskrona pending her fate. By then, the venerable cruiser was in poor conditions and obsolete. She was transferred to the reserve fleet to be investigated by a commission in charge or evaluating her fate, scrapyard or modernization, and to which degree. The team soon stated the boilers were completely outdated, and the armament and its attached fire control systems were also completely out of date. Discussions went on but it was decided to keep and modernize her was on paper less costly than building a brand new ship. Her interwar captains were Gunnar Unger (1919-1920), Claës Lindsström (1922–1923), Nils Åkerblom (1925–1925 & 1927–1928), Arvid Hägg (1925–1926), Lave Beck-Friis (1931–1932) and Magnus von Arbin (1933–1934). For the refit details, see above.

Fylgia_1940
Fylgia_1941
Fylgia in 1941 after completion, with her first baltic grey livery and white bands, later changed for camouflage.

Fylgia, camouflaged in 1943-45
Fylgia, camouflaged in 1943-45

WW2 service

Fylgia's reconstruction took the full year of 1940 and went on until early 1941. By then she started her post-refit trials, fixes in dock, and training with partly new recruits in order to gain operational status. After this she was assigned to the Gothenburg Squadron, in late autumn 1941. She belonged to the Gothenburg Squadron until 1944/45 and reorganization of the Swedish fleet, but she was retook also in 1942-45 her role at the naval school department for training, and during the winters, still traveled along the Swedish coast with officer cadets.

HMS_Fylgia-WW2
Fylgia during WW2

Post-WW2 service

Fylgia in Amsterdam, 1948
Fylgia in Amsterdam, 1948
Fylgia in Amsterdam, 1948

Fylgia in Amsterdam, 1948

HMS Fylgia after the war went on as the fleet's main training ships for cadets, and resumed her long trips abroad. The feature film "The Navy's Cavaliers" was shot in connection in 1948 during her long journey under command of Gunnar Fogelberg. Fylgia cruised each year, often twice, before the winter season and her service back in coastal waters plus yearly maintenance, until 1953, so for nine years during the cold war. Eventually the admiralty recoignised her slow speed was a disadvantage in wartime and she was still too cramped as a training vessel. She was discarded on 1st January 1953, mothballed, and from January 30, 1953 she was disarmed. Useful equipment was landed, her artillery moved to the Kalix fortification line in Norrbotten, placed near the village of Siknäs, in 1960. Special blockhouse and facilities were created to operate them. Two such turrets were condemned and blasted for safety after their closure in the early 2000s, but the main facility with another other turrets and liaison center remained, now part of the Siknäsfortet museum. The last one was sealed, but is also part of the museum's exhibition.

Meawnhile, the hull also found its usefuless. After some minor modifications for the task, she was converted as a target hulk. She was repeatedly fired upon by the last generation of Swedish destroyers and cruisers (such as the Göta Lejon class) but also by coastal artillery. She was it was hit many times, but always refused to sink. Eventually, the old vessel was sold in 1957 for 418,157 crowns (approx. 5.77 million by 2009) to a scrapyard at Gothenburg near Copenhagen.

Fylgia as target ship
Fylgia as a target ship, 1955

Fylgia's former guns, fortification, Siknäsfortet museum
Salvaged turret, recycled into a naval fortification, still listed as "reserve".

Read More & Src

John Gardiner, Conway's all the world's fighting ship 1860è1905, 1906-1921, 1922-47.
Borgenstam, Curt; Insulander, Per; Åhlund, Bertil (1993), Kryssare : med svenska flottans kryssare under 75 år
Lagvall, Bertil (1991), Flottans Neutralitetsvakt 1939-1945, Karlskrona: Marinlitteraturföreningen nr 71
von Hofsten, Gustav; Waernberg, Jan (2003), Örlogsfartyg: Svenska maskindrivna fartyg under tretungad flagg (1:a), Karlskrona: Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek


On navypedia
Nice colorized photo by Frank, Fylgia saluting 1928; Maritime Museum in Stockholm (Fo229116).
Additional photos WT
wiki SE
Swedish history museum
On digitaltmuseum.se

The models corner
1:100 brass wood model at the Baltic sea Museum
shapeways 1:700
1/1250 model (pdf)

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
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Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
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Linois cruiser (1867)
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Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
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Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
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Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
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Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
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Mehmet Selim (1876)
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Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
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Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
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Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
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Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
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Gunboat Aruba (1873)
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La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
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Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
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Parseval class sloops (1876)
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Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
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G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
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Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
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Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
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Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
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HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
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HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
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Trafalgar class (1887)
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HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
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Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
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Princesa de Asturias (1896)
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Destructor class (1886)
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TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
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Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
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Cincinatti class (1892)
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USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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