HSwMS Dristigheten (1900)

HSwMS Dristigheten was Swedish Navy's coastal defence ship of the new century, single in her class, and essentially a modified version of the Oden-class of 1894-99. Launched 28 April 1900, she became a seaplane tender in 1927-1930 with hangar and deck aft, cranes and three floatplanes. She served as such in WW2 and was reclassified as a target postwar, still active until 1961, quite an old ship at that point...

Design Development of the HSwMS Dristigheten (1896-1899)

panorama Swedish navy 1899
1899 Panorama of the Swedish Navy (Svenska Flotten), HMS Dristigheten is in the background, she was still in constrcution at the time.

At the end of the 19th century, technical developments were ongoing throughout Europe and ship design and contruction progressed very quickly in many areas. At the time the Oden class were still in construction, by the autumn of 1896, the Swedish Marine Administration was commissioned to starte early phase development of a new Panzerkepp (Armoured ship) for the coastal defense. Drawings were soon produced for a new coastal battleship of the same type but improved. In 1897, a proposal was submitted for a modified Oden class improvemed in several ways, and two yards, Motala and Lindholmens Verkstads (Shipyard), were jointly commissioned to build the new, still unmanned vessel. The keel was eventually laid down in Lindholmen (Gothenburg) on 6 February 1899 while the final design was still in the workings. Unlike previous panzerkepp named after Norse mythology figures, it was decided by the Riskdag to honor King Gustav III's reign. "Dristigheten" loosely translates as "boldness" or "hardlihood". A previous ship was built in 1785, a two-decker ship of the line.

HMS_Dristigheten_1906

Design of the HSwMS Dristigheten

Thule
HSwMS Thule (1893). Third ship of the Svea class (also Göta), these were sea-going coastal battleships, unlike the previous monitors Loke (1871) and J.Eriksson class of 1966.

Oden
HSwMS Oden (1897), virtually a repeat of the previous Svea class, slightly larger and faster. The class comprised also Thor and Niord.

Compared to the previous oden class, Dristigheten was a gradual improvement in scale and with a completely revised armament made for fast-firing at longer ranges. This was the stepping stone on which were built the Äran class in 1902-1904. They were gradual improvements, slightly larger and faster (17 knots).

Hull & protection

conways profile - Dristigheten

The HSwMS Dristigheten overall lenght was 89 meters, for 14.77 meters in beam, and 4.92 meters of draught. Her standard displacement was noted at the time to be 3,200 tonnes with a contracted maximum displacement of 3,600 tonnes (as the previous Odin). Her armor scheme was simple and largely inspired by the previous Odin class, with a new surface-hardened plating offering better protection, of the Harvey Nickel Type (HN). Overall, this allowed to reduced the armour figures thickness and cover more of the ship without increasing the displacement. The belt was protected by 8 inches (200 mm), the armor deck by 2 inches (25 mm) and the turrets from from 6 inches to 8 inches (150 to 200 mm). The previous Odin class used Creusot Steel plates, and the belt reach 9-1/2 inches, Odin even having 10 inch turret faces (250 mm).

HMS_Dristigheten

Propulsion

The machinery comprised two 3-cyclinder triple expansion piston steam engines plus eight steam boilers. The latter were set up in two fire rooms, fitted for the first time with watertube boilers, unlike Odin clas classic type. The forward boilers fed the two steam engines which 5,400 indicated horsepower combined as contracted. Each machine was driving a single shaft propeller. On trials, Dristigheten reached her design speed.

Armament

Main artillery:

The armament of HSwMS Dristigheten was the object of much debate and discussions. It ended with a compromise, with medium guns, but more of them. The previous Odin class had 10 inches/42 cannons (25.4 cm) fore and aft while HSwMS Dristigheten had instead two 8.3 inches/44 (21 cm), which seems far lighter. But these Krupp guns were faster-firing combined with a longer range. These two 21cm m/98 were installed in two turrets fore and aft, like in the previous class. The next point was second artillery in the light of recent engagements needed to be buffed up, and on HSwMS Dristigheten this translated to six 15.2 cm cannons w/98 placed in three armored casemates on the broadsides, instead of six 4.7 inches (120 mm) on the previous Oden.

Light artillery:

It consisted in ten 57 mm cannons m/798B, plus one 37 mm cannon m/98B in each steam pinnace on board. This was completed by two 45.7 cm underwater torpedo tubes m/99 for close quarters.

⚙ Specifications 1914

Displacement3200-3445t standard, 3,600t FL
Dimensions86.87/89 oa x 14.78 x 4.88 m (285 x 48 x 16 ft)
Propulsion2 shafts Steam TE engines, 8 boilers, 5,400 shp (4,000 kW)
Speed16.8 kn (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph)
Range2,900 nmi at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Armament2 x 210 mm/44cal. Bofors M/98 (8.3 in)
6 x 152 mm/44cal. Bofors M/98 (6 in)
10 x 57 mm/55cal. Ssk. M/89B (6-pdr)
2 x 45,7 cm TTs (18 in)
ArmorHarvey Nickel 203 mm (8 in) main belt & main turrets
Crew262


Interwar Reconstruction

1922 Overhaul

It was clear after WW2 HSwMS Dristigheten's armament needed a modernization. She kept her two main guns, six secondaries, but reduced the lighter guns to eight 6-pdr (57 mm), two removed, and two more 6-pdr, of various models and possibly used for landing parties, while the torpedo tubes were removed. Also the military tops were removed to improve stability. Two of the 57 mm cannons were replaced by anti-aircraft guns, placed on the roof of the forward turret. Previously in 1911 she had received a new rangefinder and tripod mast.

Armament 2 x 210 mm/44cal. Bofors M/1898
6 x 152 mm/44cal. Bofors M/98
8 x 57 mm/55cal. Ssk. M/89B
1 x 57 mm/21,3cal. Bofors lvk M/16
1 x 57 mm/21,3cal. Bofors lvk M/19
CrewCirca 380

HSwMS Dristigheten 1927-1930 Reconstruction

In 1927, it was decided to convert HSwMS Dristigheten into a depot ship for the floatplanes of the Swedish Coastal Fleet's aviation. The 21 cm cannons and light artillery was removed and four the 15.2 cm (6 inches) cannons were later landed to be reused by Swedish auxiliary cruisers used during WWII. The new focus was on air defense, with four 7.5 cm m/15-23 models and four 8 mm machine guns m/14-29. A new superstructure was also constructed, extending over the entire stern, including workshops. Its roof also had parking space for floatplanes, lifted by a crane mounted at the far aft. There was no catapult, so the planes were simply lowered at sea for taking of. In 1939, these were Fairey IIIs.
Armament4x 75, 2 x 40 mm AA, 4 MGs
Aviation2-3 seaplanes T1 Heinkel HD 16, J4 Heinkel HD 19
Crew427 with air crews

HSwMS Dristigheten in service


Dristigheten as completed



HSwMS Dristigheten was launched on April 28, 1900, she lade her sea trials and was commissioned on September 5 1901. Nothing much happened until 1906, as she trained in home waters and the other Oden class coastal battleships. In 1906, however she started for a limured cruise, visiting Germany and Great Britain (east ports) due to her limited range. However by November, HSwMS Dristigheten started a long voyage for the winter, going south to the Mediterranean, visiting many ports in southern Europe and North Africa. In April 1907 she was back in Karlskrona. nothing is wothy to mention in 1907-1910. That year and until 1911, she went into drydock from an overhaul and refit: He front mast was rebuilt into a tripod for more sturdiness, in order to support a platform for a modern two-meter rangefinder. During WW1, she was part of the neutrality fleet, trying to enfore Swedish Waters integrity and to protect Swedish trade. After the war, in 1922 she underwent a second refit, mostly revolving around modernizing her armament, although she kept the original battery unchanged.



HSwMS Dristigheten in WW2 and afterwards


HMS Dristigheten in WW2 - Old Author's illustration

Nothing much happened during the interwar worthy of note. In September 1939, war started and trigerred the mobilization plan in Sweden. HSwMS Dristigheten entered the Coastal Fleet's reconnaissance squadron ans a backup protection. She teamed with HSwMS Gotland and six torpedo boats. However she was not inspected toroughly enough to see her machinery problems. Accidents soon multiplied in the boilers and steam engine, causing frequent stops and ultimately seeing her confined to harbour. When Denmark and Norway were invaded (April 9, 1940), HSwMS Dristigheten was still inspected in the naval shipyard of Stockholm, planning a possible overhaul. This inspection properly asessed the needs and she was after some fixes, relegated to the coastal fleet, and later, camoufmaged and having neutrality bands, stayed mostly static until the end of the war. In 1945 she sailed to Karlskrona, pending her fate.

Post-WW2 service

After World War II, HSwMS Dristigheten was placed in reserve due to her age. She was stricken eventually on June 13, 1947. Instead of being sold for scrap, she was used as a target ship for many many years, being shelled and blasted by aviation. In the summer of 1960, she saw her last firing exercise, destroyers and frigates testing their AP shells. She was inspected after this exercise by a security team on board. They quickly located several servere leaks to seal, and she was prepared to be towed towards Karlskrona. However before arriving there, she sank to a depth of ten meters, still largely above water. The authorities decided she could not be left here, even blasted, so a team built a rim of boards around the ship to refloat her. Operations went on and water was pumped out. She was refloated and conducted to the Oscarsdockan in Karlskrona. In 1961 she was sold for scrapping in Gothenburg.




Sinking, salvage and drydock repairs, 1960-61.

Sources/Read More


Old article on runeberg.org
On navypedia.org
On worldnavalships.com
HD Picture on digitaltmuseum.se
On shapeways

Borgenstam, Curt; Insulander, Per; Åhlund, Bertil (1993), Kryssare : med svenska flottans kryssare under 75 år (1:a), Karlskrona
von Hofsten, Gustav; Waernberg, Jan (2003), Örlogsfartyg: Svenska maskindrivna fartyg under tretungad flagg (1:a), Karlskrona
Holmquist, Åke (1972), Flottans beredskap 1938-1940, Uddevalla: Bohusläningens AB
Insulander, Per; Ohlsson, Curt S (2001) (1:a), Falkenberg: C B Marinlitteratur AB
Lagvall, Bertil (1991), Flottans Neutralitetsvakt 1939-1945, Karlskrona

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Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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