The birth of the Austrian Navy

The history of the Austrian Navy can be traced back to 1382 when Trieste came under Austrian protection and in the 17th a small ragtag naval force was created there. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became the great maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice, close neighbours of the Adriatic and they went at war between 1283 and 1372. After the Peace of Turin in 1381, Venice renounced its claim to Trieste and the latter citizens petitioned Leopold III, the Duke of Austria for protection. Therefore it became part of the Duchy of Austria, and a treaty was signed in the castle of Graz on 30 September 1382. This gave a port to Austria, a landlock Empire for the first time, and a large and prosperous one.

Austria knew this "golden eggs hen" needed to be ruled with a velvet glove and in fact, the city was given a large degree of autonomy. The Dukes of Austria in fact neglected the idea of having a fleet to protect it. This was left to the City itself.


Ship of the Line SMS Kaiser
Radetzky class Frigates
Erzherzog Friedrich class Corvettes
Novara class Frigates
Not yet precised
Not yet precised

The 17th Century

The situation remained unchanged until the late 18th century. At last there was a first attempt of a proper Austrian navy, as during the Thirty Years War, Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein (Duke of Mecklenburg) also became "Admiral of the North and Baltic Seas" by the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II in 1628. Wallenstein's attention was in the baltic and he was eventually assassinated in 1634, precisely to prevent an Austrian navy to be active in the North or Baltic Seas.

Austria however later built a presence on the mighty Danube River, "the european mississippi", and dring the Great Turkish War, Prince Eugene of Savoy deployed a small flotilla on this natural border with the Ottoman Empire, something the House of Habsburg did on occasion in the 16th and 17th centuries. These river flotillas mostly transported troops across the Danube and controlled the river.

The 18th Century

Map of Europe 1870

This would take time for Austria to develop a seagoing navy: The French Navy shelled the port of Trieste during the War of Spanish Succession, devastating port installations for a decade. Austria was aware of its inability to defend its coast in the Adriatic and when was signed the treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, and Baden, Austria gained the Spanish Netherlands, Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Duchy of Milan (Sardinia and Naples were lost to Spain in 1734) but these territories gave a huge coastal and maritime possession, Austria was still unable to defend, but "leasing" the local fleets and gave them full autonomy.

The War of Spanish Succession saw Austria trying again to develop a navy, also mirroring the growing Europan interest in mercantilism, colonial Empire and merchant fleets, chartering of overseas trading companies. Austria was still marred in its ambitions by geography, despite having a long coastline in the eastern Adriatic its major ports were isolated from Vienna by the Austrian Alps with no major rivers to make the link. Despite of thios, Austria used the Elbe, Oder, and Danube whenever possible for internal traffic, but the coastal roads went through mountains populated by brigands, a perilous proposition. The Elbe and Oder also flowed through Prussia and into the North and Baltic Seas, and can be blockaded, while the mouth of the Danube was part of the Ottoman Empire, both major rivals for Austria.

The Ostend Company

Following the War of Spanish Succession, Austria's only main access to the sea was its newly acquired Austrian Netherlands. Laying within the boundaries of the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire, the provinced had numerous ports with easy access to the Atlantic and skilled sailors and ships construtors. Ghent, Antwerp, Bruges and Ostend in particular, but there was a disconnection between the Austrian economy and in the Netherlands, as the province was mostly left alone. Prince Eugene of Savoy from June 1716 even never travelled there, preferring to stay in Vienna, sending chosen representatives instead.

Dutch, British and French East India Companies until the 18th centuries developed themselves rapidly, and when merchants and shipowners in Ostend started to create trade to the East Indies, this attracted the attention of the Austrian court. In December 1722, Charles VI granted a 30-year charter to the Ostend Company, trading both with the East and West Indies, and down south to Africa. The Ostend Company became extremely profitable operating until 1732 no less than 21 Indiamans, with prized destinations such as Canton. Soon rising tea prices alone broughts massive profits and until 1728, the Ostend Company carried some 7 million pounds of tea, almost half of the total in Europe back then, rivalling with the East India Company. The Ostend Company however was suspended by Charles VI due to British diplomatic requests manoeuvers after the Treaty of Vienna. All operations ceased in 1731.

Austrian East India Company

Marine sektion in Vienna

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI saw the success of the Ostend Company and started to create a proper navy to ensure its protection. One of these initiative was also a land road through the Semmering Pass from Vienna to Trieste. Trieste and Fiume weere also declared free ports to boost their activity in 1719. Piracy in the Adriatic and Mediterranean was a thing, so the King soon purchased a single three-decker, the British-built 80-gun, 3rd rate man-o-war Cumberland, in 1720. She became SMS San Carlos, and was stationed in Naples. Construction of more ships started, employing Italian and Spanish officers to crew them. This early Adriatic fleet comprised three ships of the line, a single frigate and several galleys, with perhaps 500 guns between them and 8,000 men. After the end of the Ostend Company however, a committee was created in 1738 by Emperial decree, making a review of the Austria's Adriatic fleet. The report concluded the fleet had little utility while being expensive while still vulnerable. Charles VI then decided to cancel the Adriatic fleet, transferring most guns and crews to the more urgent Danube Flotilla.

Charles VI passed out on 19 October 1740 and Frederick II of Prussia invaded Austria in December, taking Silesia in the War of the Austrian Succession (seven-year war). Austria's fought entirely on land, its Danube fleet being comitted. Maria Theresa however dimissed the navy entirely and focused on the inheritance of the throne of Austria. Meanwhile, pirates and privateers, Barbary corsairs hampered Austria's trade, left wthout protection, to such point that supplies were now carried by foreign ships. Count Kaunitz decided by himesf and without support to create a small force of frigates for the Adriatic, Vienna being still indifferent. His initiative fell through.

In 1775, there was another attmpt to create a maritime trading venture, the Austrian East India Company, headed by William Bolts. The first trip started to India began on 24 September 1776, with the Indiaman Giuseppe e Teresa, sailing from Livorno (Grand Duchy of Tuscany, ruled by Maria Theresa's son Leopold). After this first success, Bolt obtain a 10-year charter, opening roads to Persia, India, China and Africa.

The Austrian East India Company developed for the next two years, with factories and depots on the Malabar Coast, but also southeastern Africa (Delagoa Bay) and the Nicobar Islands. However th campany failed to be profitable pressured by well-established, aggressive colonial powers, such as Portugal and the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway. Bolts was evicted from Africa and the Bay of Bengal and the Austrian government caved in to avoid another war. For the next 20 years Vienna did not tried to resurrect the company or a navy to protect it. Until the late 1700s, the Austrian government still hoped Trieste and Fiume would create this fleet, which never happened.

The first true Austrian Navy (1786)

Laharpe, Beyrand and Stengel, taken in Ancona, 1799

The Austrian Navy was at last create, established for good, in 1786. Emperor Joseph II ordered two 20-guns cutters in Ostend to be based Trieste. A perfect ship to deal with piracy. Joseph II created also the first Austrian Navy Naval Ensign, maintained until 1915: Red-white-red and showing the crown of the Archduchy of Austria. It replaced the traditional yellow and black flag inherited from the Habsburg Monarchy. As the French Revolution was about to start in 1789, followed by Revolutionary Wars. It saw the largest expansion of the Austrian Navy under the young Leopold II. Back then, the Austrian Navy was based in and off Trieste. In 1797 the Treaty of Campo Formio ended the War of the First Coalition and Austria ceded to France the Netherlands and islands such as Corfu and some islands in the Adriatic belonging to Venice. The Republic of Venice saw its territories divided, Austria receiving Venice, Istria and Dalmatia. Its naval forces became the bedrock of the new Austrian Navy, as well facilities and crews, the base for the future Austrian Navy.

Campo Formio saw ustria becoming overnight the dominant naval power in the Adriatic. However Venice suffered under French occupation and ships acquired amounted to 37 vessels in 1799, mostly small coastal craft (111 guns, 787 crew). This small force, in poor condition was unable to project power, and could only patrol and protect Austrian shipping in the Adriatic. Ancona was acquired in 1799, and the navy gained three former Venetian ships of the line: Laharpe, Stengel and Beyrand. These were 74 guns vessels, but the Austrian government chose to sell them instead; New regulations were imposed notably the instructon of officers and captains regarding discipline, speaking German, and business transactions or surgeons to fumigate their ships. Gradually the Austrian navy made a transition from Spanish and Italian crews towards Germanic officers in 1848, in part to better integrated its multi-ethnic Empire.

The XIXth Century

From 1817 to 1848

Blockade of Venice 1830

By the end of the 1700s the Austrian Navy started to be rebuilt after the Congress of Vienna. Political necessities were the engines behind as well as more favourable economic conditions: For example in 1817 the marriage between the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina and Emperor Pedro I of Brazil saw the first overseas trip by the Austrian Navy with the Archduchess onboard SMS Augusta and Austria. They dropped anchor in Rio de Janeiro. In 1820, the frigate SMS Carolina escorted the ships making the trip back with the Brazilian Emperor. Later the same frigate sailed to China. In the early 1830s Austrian trade along the Danube and in the Mediterranean rode quickly in scale and in 1830, the Austrian Danube Steam Navigation Company was created. In 1834 the Mediterranean was now crossed regularly be the steamship Marie Dorothee, making her first trip between Trieste and Constantinople. In 1836, the Austrian Lloyd, first national insurance maritime company, was established. The merchant marine needed a strong Austrian Navy to provide protection on the high seas, and grew alongside.

The Greek War of Independence was the occasion for the Austrian Navy to engage Greek pirates. They indeed more often preyed on Austrian shipping. Not by politocal needs but to fund the Greek rebellion against Ottoman rule. Barbary corsairs did the same in the Western Mediterranean. Austria's naval forces were soon hard-pressed and stretched thin. In 1829, two Austrian corvettes, a brig, and a schooner (Lt.Cdr Franz Bandiera) threatened Morocco to obtain the release of a captured Austrian merchant ship, which they refused to do so, leading to the bombardment of Larache. This action was sufficient to end of North African pirates actions against Austria.

The 1830s modernization was the occasion for the construction of additional ships, purchasing guns and other equipments as well. For the first time, steamships were to be integrated, notably as dispatch vessels as customary at the time. The first was the 500-tonne paddle steamer SMS Maria Anna (Fiume Shipyard), commissioned in 1836. Archduke Friedrich Leopold also joined the Navy and boosted its morale and prestige, being instrumental in modernizing its ships and institutions, bases and arsenals. It was by then that the "Venetian" nature of the Austrian Navy started to change drastically. The first serious test of this "new navy" came with the Oriental crisis of 1840.

The First Egyptian-Ottoman War had Muhammad Ali of Egypt conquering Syria, reclaimed in 1839 by the Ottomans, later defeated at the Battle of Nezib. Soon the Convention of London was signed, in which the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia sent a force to support the Ottoman Empire, offering Muhammad Ali hereditary rule in Egypt in exchange to staying in the Ottoman Empire and withdrawing from Syria. Since he never agreed, a multinational force was sent in September 1840 and the British and Austrian navies blockaded the Nile Delta, shelling Beirut. The Frigate Guerriera shelled Sidon and both nations later landed a party which stormed its coastal fortifications. Sidon fell on 28 September. Next, the Austrian shelled Acre in November, getting rid of its coastal fortifications and later storming the city. Friedrich Leopold ditinguidhes himself at this occasion, personally leading the landing party, hoisting flage don the citadel and later awarded the Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. In 1844 her became Vice-Admiral and later Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, still aged 23, but he died in Venice three years later.

Giovanni Pass - Austrian Frigates in 1817

The events of 1848, the "spring of revolution" across Europe saw a rapid rise in nationalism, Venice became independent, and the only three Austrian corvettes and a few vessels fell in the hands of rebels, as well as the arsenal and stores. Together with it, the "Italian" character of this early navy disappeared with it. Instead, various nationalities within the empire would be represented, as well as North European and more Germanic traditions, and in 1849, some Italian Republics declared war on Austria but were defeated.

Eventually Austria retook Venice and the fleet that was there and the previous year as Franz Joseph I became Emperor of Austria, he appointed a Dane, Rea Admiral Hans Birch Von Dalherup as Commander in Chief of the Navy to develop and modernize it. From there, all ships listed would be added the prefix "SMS" for "Seiner Majestät Schiff" but after two years in office, Von Delherup resigned. In 1850, Archduke Ferdinand Max, brother of the Emperor was appointed C-in-C in is place. He started to develop a more ambitious force, far from the coastal hotchpoth of mixed vessels dominated by corvettes and gunboats. There was also an old sailing fleet made from antiquated vessels, most of them being French:

From 1848 to 1860

After a the success of the revolution in France in February, revolutionary fervor across Europe had repercussions, including in Vienna: Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich resigned, left in exile to London and Emperor Ferdinand I abdicated in favor to his nephew Franz Joseph, promising reforms. Nationalist sentiments across the Empire, bwteen ethnic groups led to the several revolutions in Austria, but with prevalent Liberal sentiments among Austrians, but the Hungarians soon wanted to establish their own independent kingdom, and Italians within the the Austrian Empire stated to remigrate to Italy. Vienna own Revolution triggerred anti-Habsburg riots in Milan and Venice, but Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky could not beat the coalized Venetian and Milanese insurgents on the Lombardy-Venetian front, in fact, avacuating western Italy altogether. He setup a line of defensive fortresses between Milan and Venice ('Quadrilatero'). Eventually on 23 March 1848, The Kingdom of Sardinia declared war on Austria, starting the First Italian War of Independence.

The "old fleet"

74-guns frigates:

Three ships of the Temeraire class, mass-produced (107 built) Napoleonic 74-cannons, 1st rank frigates which saw little service in the Austrian Navy, SMS Carolina (1808) Ex-French Carolina, Bellona (1811) - ex-French Régénérateur and Reale Italiano (1812) - ex-French Royal Italien. Likely part of the Italian Napoleonic Navy, built in Venice and captured by Austria, but discarded in 1830 and 1838 respectively.

Lipsia class:

Due to the revived ties of Napoleon with Austria, an entire class of ships built from 1811, called in France the Pallas class, 40-guns frigates, among which a few were part of the Napoleonic Italian Fleet later donated to Austria: The SMS Lipsia (1811)- ex Princesse de Bologne, SMS Austria (1812) - ex-French Piave, SMS Augusta (1813) - ex-French Amphitrite, SMS Ebe (1820) - ex-French Hébé, SMS Medea (1827) - ex-French Moskva, SMS Juno (1829) - ex-French Guerrière and SMS Venere (1832) - ex-French Vénus. The French built no less than 57 of these, all designed by Sané. Most of those listed were attributed to Austria when completed, so they never saw service with France. Their status is difficult to pinpoint in 1860. Some clearly were still around, used as pontoon or barges, or for training. Corona, built in Venice and started in August 1812 saw her Construction abandoned April 1814 at the fall of Venice to the Austrians. The same fate awaited Istrienne in 1813.

Sailing Corvettes:

SMS Diana (1834), SMS Minerva (1838), SMS Carolina (1844)

Sailing Brigs:

SMS Montecuccoli (1831), SMS Pola (1832), SMS Pylades (1843), SMS Hussar (1847)

Schooners (goelettes)

SMS Camaeleon (1833), SMS Fido (1834), SMS Bravo (1837), SMS Dromedar (1837), SMS Arethusa (1850), SMS Arthemisia (1851), SMS Saida (1855)

Paddle steamers (Radaviso)

SMS Vulcano (1843), Messagiere (1847), Achilles (1848), Custoza (1848), Curtatone (1848), Roma (1848), Santa Lucia (1850), Volta (1850), Kaiserin Elisabeth (1850), Taurus (1851), Gorzkowski (1854), Prinz Eugen (1854), Jupiter (1857)

The Austrian Navy in 1860

Note this was the Austrian Navy, not Austro-Hungarian Navy yet. The Empire was unified after 1867 as a consequence of the Italian Independence and nationalists action. The flag was the classic three bands red and white with Royal armories.

Ships of the line

Kaiser (1858)

SMS Kaiser was a 92-gun wooden ship of the line, the last vessel of the type when built, and only screw propelled ship of the line built by the Austrians, at the shipyard of Pola. Laid down in March 1855, launched in October 1858, completed in 1859 she soon took part in the Second Schleswig War of 1864 in the North Sea. She also took part in the "Seven Weeks War" in 1866,and famously the monumental Battle of Lissa as flagship, with Admiral Anton von Petz leading the Austrian 2nd Division. Despite her old style, she engaged several Italian ironclads at once and even rammed Re di Portogallo, while aldo badly damaging by gunfire Affondatore.

These duels between old school ships of the line and ironclads remained the only ones in history. Quickspecs: 5,811t, 2-24 pdr ML rifles, 16-40 pdr SB, 74-30 pdr SB, 11.5kts

In 1869, Kaiser was taken in hands to be rebuilt into a casemate ironclad, until 1873 but delayed because of budgetary issues. Armor plate notably came from British companies and casemate ships were in 1873 already superseded by turret ships. So Kaiser, barely completed, served only until 1875 (So three years) actvely, before place din reserve until 1902 in reserve with additional upgrades and modernizations in the 1880s. From 1901 she became SMS Bellona, disarmed and converted as a pontoon, barracks ship in Pola until WWI. Seized as a war prize by the Italians she was likely scrapped not long after.

Drache class Ironclads - Started Feb. 1861:

Drache class

The first Austrian Ironclads, studied from 1860 by Joseph Von Romako, as quick adaptation of 3rd class frigates. They Laid down in February, launched in 9 September 1861, completed in November 1862 so after the end of this topic, but the Drache and Salamander marked a turning point fior the Austro-Hungarian Navy which had a first, and quite severe test in 1866. Indeed, they were built at Trieste, in response to the Italian Formidabile, which itself responded to the French Gloire of 1859. Barely five years after the Crimean war where it was obvious that fleets needed to upgrade their sailship to steam whatever their size and drank, the concept of ironclad stepped in and a new race, typical of this industrial era, was on. See more in the 1870 page (in writing).

Modern Screw frigates

Radetzky class (1854)


SMS Radetzky was the largest screw frigate in the Austrian Navy. She was built by Money, Wigram & Sons of London, named after field marshal Joseph Radetzky von Radetz. Launched in 1854, she participated in the Battle of Heligoland with the Prussians and against the Danes, during the Second Schleswig War of 1864. Although this is off-topic qhe would be also made famous by her epic fight at the Battle of Lissa during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1869 her powder magazine exploded for obscure reasons, off the coast of Vis (Adriatic). She sank with almost all her crew, 345 men and officers out of 369. Her wreck was rediscovered in 2014 and a memorial service was held.

Adria (1856)
adria 1856

SMS Adria was a 1st rank Frigate, noted on Conway's as a 50 guns, very similar to Radetzky.
Donau (1856): 50 guns Frigate and rear-sister ship of Radetsky and Adria, she was launched the same year as Adria.

Novara (1850) – Sailing frigate, converted 1862

SMS Novara

Also close to the ships above, Novara was also arguably the best known for historical reasons. She only was converted in 1862-65. SMS Novara is also the oldest entry in Conways, and as stated, was laid down as the Frigate Minerva in 1843, launched 1850 and completed in 1851. In 1868 she was rearmed with thirteen 24-pdr Wahrendorf BL, thirty two 30 pdr ML, two 4-pdr ML, and in 1872 she was given twenty 24 pdr BL, ten 24 pdr in the battery dekc, on the main deck, two 24 BL on pivot, and two 3-pdr landing guns. Names after the battle of Novara (1849), she was mostly made famous however for her expedition of 1857-59, the first large scale scientific expedition led by Austria. Sponsored by Ferdinand Maximillian and the great German scientist Alexander von Humboldt she made an extended voyage of discovery to the Far East and the Pacific. She is placed on the same level as the HMS Challenger, Endeavour, Beagle and Astrolabe or USS Peacock to name but a few. She also took part in the battle of lissa and stayed in service until 1876, became an utility hulk, a stationary gunnery TS in 1881, stricken on 1898 and scrapped a year later. She was by then 56 years old.

Schwarzenberg (1853) – Ex-sailing frigate, 1862

Very similar to Novara and like Novara built in Venice, she was also converted in 1861-62 with the same type of engine. She was shorted, beamier with the higher draft but same official displacement. She also had a heavier armament, changed in 1866 after Heligoland to just four 30 pdr removed.

Modern Screw corvettes

SMS Erzherzog Friedrich class Corvettes (1857)

Composite Frigate, at the origin built as a sailing one, but converted on the stock to steam. generally similar to Novara (same machinery, tonnage and armament) after her conversion in 1861-62 her engine as pore powerful, yet she was slower at 11 knots versus 12 on Novara. She took part in the 1864 war against Denmark at Heligoland and in 1870-90 served as cadet training ship. She was stricken on 20 November 1890.

Quick specs: 76.79 x 14.32 m x 5.8 m, 2,615 t (2,574 long tons), Crew 550, Propulsion (1865*), one shaft CP 4 Boilers 12 kts 3,300 nm range, armament 4 × 60-pdr Paixhans, 28 × 30-pdr, 2 × 24-pdr BL

Regia marina at Ancona after the battle, basically Lissa was mostly a draw. Both the young composite Kingdom and the immense south-eastern Empire stayed defiant across the adriatic for more decades, and until 1919. Both Navies grew stronger by competing all along.

Read More/Src

Conway's all the world"s fighting ships 1860-1905
Alain Demerliac, Nomenclature des navires francais de 1800–1815
Rif Winfield & Stephen S Roberts, French Warships in the Age of Sail 1786-1861: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing 2015
austro-hungarian navy (global)
Nava ensigns
(DE) Karl Gogg, Österreichs Kriegsmarine 1848-1918, Salzburg, Verlag das Bergland-Buch, 1974
Cesare Augusto Levi, Navi da guerra costruite nell'Arsenale di Venezia dal 1664 al 1896, Venezia
Lawrence Sondhaus, The Naval Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918: Navalism, Industrial Development and the Politics of Dualism, West Lafayette, Purdue Univertity
Johannes Ziegler, Die Operationen der österreichischen Mawährend des Krieges 1866, Wien, J.B. Wallishauffer, 1866.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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