Germany (1898-1918)

A TBDs division

German Destroyers of the great war

By their denomination alone "Hochseetorpedoboote", these ships were not only bigger derivatives of torpedo-boats. By range, size and armament they were meant to escort the Hochseeflotte in the high seas, and not staying in close vicinity of German naval bases.

Compared to the Italian and French navies that favoured large fleets of torpedo-boats for coastal defence, German TBDs were regarded as part of the battle fleet. These High Seas Torpedo Boats however were still not really destroyers if compared to the British ones.

Their general conception was related to their intended purposes: First breaking up enemy formations and deal with battleships in torpedo attacks, and only second, deal with other TBDs with their gunnery range.

S113
SMS S113, probably the best TBD of the German High Sea Fleet

Admiral Von Tirpitz defined himself their role: "A torpedo boat has to be big enough to be able to operate in waters beyond our coasts together with the high seas fleet, but it has to be small enough to be commanded by one single officer"

This imposed drastic limitations in crew and crew effectiveness, therefore size. Their main appearance was dictated by a front raised, but short forecastle, giving them the summary appearance of "toothbrushes".

Their hull was still shaped as the one of any torpedo-boat, with a pronounced turtleback and low freeboard in order to reduce the silhouette. They were also singular in that they had an auxiliary rudder under the bow. But these light designs, adequate for the baltic in peacetime, lacked seaworthiness for the North Atlantic.

The Germans were slow to catch up in terms of propulsion with adoption of steam and geared turbines, and oil fuel. Only late in the war (with the parenthesis of the Russian orders), did German naval engineers produced a large design where the well-deck was deleted and the forecastle extended.

V170, one of the last German destroyers of the war
V170, one of the last German destroyers of the war

Previous German "Division Boats"

Previously, German experience with these small ships expressed itself in "Division Boats" which were essentially flotilla leaders for other torbedo boats built (mainly) by Schichau, but also Germaniawerft, Vulcan, Dantzig, Kiel, Wilhelmshaven, Weser and in the 1880s when Germany did not appeared yet as a threat, by Yarrow and Thornycroft (which helped shaping the German ones).

From 1884 to 1898 they were all classed as "First class torpedo boats", 90 to 180 tonnes, the latter being armed with 3 torpedo tubes with one spare torpedo, and one 50mm gun. Even before that in the 1870s were used a serie of 10 "spar torpedo vessels" later reclassified as minelayers or tugs (never served in ww1).

However, Weser built in 1883 the first serie of seven TBDs, largely failed and retired in 1891, followed by an experimental 1st class, 140 tonnes torpedo-gunboats by Weser and four 60 tonnes TBs ordered at Thornycroft and White.

Schichau D9 Division boat -1894 (Navypedia)
Returning to these "Division Boats", they were very enlarged torpedo-boats, 300 to 450 tonnes. Four were 295 tonnes, four were 400-404 tonnes, and one 451 tonnes.

Their size ranged from 56 to 63 meters, their larger size was meant to accomodate the extra staff (crew 46 to 52), with their map tables and communication equipments. Their usual armament was three torpedo tubes, and six hotchkiss guns.

The single D9 (1894) was the most interesting of the lot, along with larger dimensions, it had three 50 mm QF Hotchkiss guns (adopted by the whole serie in 1893), and the beginning of a "trawler" bow. D1 and D2 were used for coastal defence patrols or training tasks in ww1.

V44 in battle
V44 in battle at Jutland as painted by Willy Stower in 1917. The V44 and V82 has been given postwar to the UK in war reparation, used as target practice vessels and sunk in Portsmouth harbour.

Their partly visible remains had been examined by archeologists (see The Independent article)

Build-up of this force

The German naval act of 1900 asked for no less than 16 TBDs divisions (later "half-flotillas" of 6 ships each), or 96 ships, in 1906 pushed to 144 ships or 24 half-flotillas, half in reserve with 60% nucleus crews.

However these series were ordered to gain time in different yards, resulting in considerable changes in modifications, tonnage details, dimensions, even armament, which made for quantities of sub-classes.

This all can be summarized however into the 1898 type, 1906 type, 1911 type, 1913 type, and the "Zestörers" or destroyers, first to be named so. As part of the mobilization programme, they were much larger ships, first based on a model built for Russia, as well as domestic models, however too late to be engaged en masse.

Nomenclature by Shipyards

B: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg - 9 ships
G: Germaniawerft, Kiel - 58 ships
H: Howaldtswerke, Kiel - 24 ships
S: Schichau-Werke, Elbing - 135 ships
V: AG Vulcan, Stettin and Hamburg - 109 ships
Ww: Wilhelmshaven Imperial Shipyard - 1 ship

V99 blown up by a mine in 1915
V99 blown up by a mine in 1915 (Bundesarchiv)

Development was incremental, mostly from the 1906 type, with small changes in displacement, deck arrangements, and propulsion. In the fiscal years 1903 to 1907 the turbines were subjects of all attention and comparative tests done.

Next year, an all-turbine propulsion was chosen for all boats. At some point there were requests for better speed, range and seaworthiness, and a serie was built, but the fleet officers were displeased with this evolution and asked for nimbler ships and better manoeuverability.

Therefore, the 1911 ships were scaled down, and lost some seaworthiness in the result.

These V1 series were named "admiral Lans' cripples" and not a success. By 1913 it was back to larger designs, but they swapped to oil-burning only.

S132
The German large high seas TB S132 underway while in US service circa 1920.

There was also an evolution in gunnery, from the 8,8cm/30 to the 45 caliber model for the range and penetrating power. The 1915-16 ships even went to the 10,5cm/45. Excellent seaworthiness and armament proved to the admiralty that size do actually matter and these ships were already more than a match for British destroyers. By 1916-18, a new serie with 15.2cm guns was started but actually only two ships made it in operational service. By their size and configuration they had closed the gap with their British equivalents, but it was too little, too late.

Many TBDs went either as war reparations, were scrapped, or served for some time with the Weimar fleet in the 1920s.

German ww1 destroyers
A general overview of WW1 German destroyers

S90-125 class Destroyers (1898-1904)


The T-108 in 1914.

Called "Torpedoboote Zestörers" (destructive torpedo boats) these vessels perfectly matched their nomenclature to their function. The term "destroyer" was then used in any marine without mentioning their main weapon, the torpedo. It was not a true homogeneous class, but a collection of small series generally built Schichau, Elbing, the specialist of these crafts. These were the first German destroyers.

Here can be distinguished seven sub-series, the S90 (12 units), S102 (6), G108 (6, by Germaniawerft), S114 (6), S120 (5), the sole S125 and S126 (6 units). These made for seven squadrons in all. They were inspired by the torpedo-boats D9 and D10, all had two boilers, three torpedo tubes, partly in the center including a behind the forecastle, feature deployed to all other German destroyers until 1918.

They were rearmed during the war with 88 mm quick firing guns and classified as destroyers ("T"). Losses of the war: Five sunk in battle, one scuttled in Tsing Tao, one hit a mine, two lost by collision.

German TBDs in US LOC Custody
Displacement and dimensions: 388-474 tons standard, 420-490 t FL; 63-65 x 7 x 2.7 m.
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 TE engines, 2 standard boilers, 3900-6500 hp and 26.5 to 28 knots
Crew: 57-61
Armament: Three 50 mm guns, Three 450 mm TTs.

Destroyers type G137 et S138 (1906)


The S138 in 1914.

These 12 units Germaniawerft were modeled on the "prototype" G137. The design was developed from the S138 series but differed only by a few small details: Increased width, reduced draft, reduced length, smaller tonnage, power and top speed but an armament which remained rigorously identical. This is the machinery that went on with two most notable differences: G137 experimented 6 Parsons turbines associated with propellers and 3 - 4 standard boilers, while the series was using two vertical triple expansion machines.

They were launched from September 1906 to October 1907, the S138 to S149, the G137 was launched January 24, 1906.

S138
S138

The G137 moreover had two low pressure turbines and two high pressure for cruising. It served as training ship in 1914, and in 1916 was was renamed T137 and remained assigned to the instruction until 1921.
The G138 series lost only two ships in action, the S138 (mine in 1918) and S143 (mine in 1914), the other served in the Reichsmarine as destroyers and were removed from service from 1920 to 1928.

Two other were kept into service, renamed Pfeil, and Blitz, and were used as radio-controlled target ships, remaining into service until 1933 and 1945.

Displacement and dimensions: 533t, 684t FL; 70,7 x 7,8 x 2,75 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 TE engines, 2 standard boilers, 11,000 hp and 30.3 knots
Crew: 80
Armament: One 88 mm gun, three 52 mm guns, Three 450 mm inline TTs.

Destroyers type G132 (1906)


The G132 in 1914.

Destroyers of the G132 class inaugurated a more solid construction compared to the G108s. Germaniawerft approached thus Schichau to produce ships with more open sea abilities. Within this class of 5 ships, G132 to G136, there were few weapons variants, the first having four 52 mm guns and two other ships with one 88 mm gun and two 52 mm guns. None were lost in mission during the war and they met the demolition torch in 1921.

Displacement and dimensions: 414t, 544t PC. 65,7 x 7 x 2.6 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 VTE engines, 4 standard boilers, 7,000 hp and 28 knots
Crew: 69
Armament: Four 52 mm guns, three 457 mm TTs (simple)

Destroyers type V150 (1907-08)

These 10 destroyers were built at AG Vulcan, Stettin, launched in August 1907 and July 1908. Vulcan for the first time, previously known for its destroyers made for the international market, introduced a cannon on their forecastle.

For the first time, these destroyers relied on these guns rather than the 52 mm short barrel, too weak against the latest destroyers in service. Yet very active, they do not wiped losses operations, otherwise the V150 after a collision.

Two were transferred to Great Britain in war damage and the other remained in service in Weimar's Reichsmarine. In 1939, some were classified as destroyers but participated in operations. (A loss, three transferred for war damage in the USA and USSR).

Displacement and dimensions: 558t, 691t PC ; 72,5 x 7.8 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 engine VTE, 4 standard boilers, 10 500 cv. and 30 Knots max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns or SKL/35, three 450 mm TT inline.

Destroyers V161-162 (1907-08)


The G197 in 1914.

This unique unit built in Vulkan, Stettin was the 13th of the fiscal year 1907, but also was designated V162. The V161 had two AEG Turbine and standard boilers, but dimensions and tonnage were virtually identical to the V150. The 88 mm guns were KL/30 rather than SKL/35.

The V161 survived the conflict and was awarded in war reparations to UK which had it scrapped. The V162 series consisted of only three units, all three launched in May 1909. They were two meters longer and 10 cm wider, were equipped with AEG Mames turbines.

Tonnage was greater than their 33-32 knots speed. However, operational radius was clearly increased, from 2815 to 3960 km. From there, the German Imperial Navy class definitively adopted turbines for its destroyers. The V162 hit a mine in August 15, 1916 and the other two were scrapped in 1920-21. The following S165 by Schichau were virtually identical.

Displacement and dimensions: 639 - 739 tons FL, 73,9 x 7,9 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 AEG turbines, 3 standard boilers, 10,100 cv. and 32 Knots max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, three 450 mm TT inline.

Destroyers of the V180 class (1909-11)


The 11 units of this class were built in Vulkan AG, and had a virtually identical hull than previous V162s, however, the arrangement of the tubes was different, with two tubes in line at the rear and two side tubes in front, a sensitive configuration because of their very low free board.

They were a little heavier, had higher draft, their guns were two 88 mm. The last entered service in 1911. Three were sunk, five offered as war reparations in 1919 and the other demolished.

Displacement and dimensions: 650t, 783t PC ; 74 x 7,9 x 3.1 m
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 AEG turbines, 4 standard boilers, 18,000 cv. and 32 noeuds max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, four 450 mm TT inline and sides.
V43
SMS V43

Destroyers V1 class (1911)



From these series built in Vulkan, Stettin, the Hochseeflotte was moving towards a new type of destroyer smaller because it was believed firmly the rule of maneuverability in line of battle without listening to complaints about their lack of reliability in heavy weather (force 6 winds, where guns and torpedo tubes become unusable).

Distribution of torpedo tubes remained the one adopted with the S176, two in line at the rear and two on the sides behind the forecastle. The quarterdeck was raised, but the hull remained very low and cramped.

Top speed remained unchanged at 32 knots. These six units launched from September 1911 was followed by two additional ships launched in 1913, following the V5 and 6 in replacement of the original purchased in urgency by Greece at war against Turkey. Outside the V4, torpedoed and sunk on June 1, 1916, the others served in the Reichsmarine until 1928-30.

Displacement and dimensions: 569- 697 tons FL, 71,1 x 7,6 x 3,1 m
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 AEG turbines, 4 standard boilers, 17,000 cv. and 32 noeuds max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, four 450 mm TT inline (2x2).





Wow's details of V25

Destroyers S165 class (1910)


S166 en 1916

These four units were built at Schichau and originally sold to Turkey, along with two old battleships. But in order to keep intact the workforce Schichau was forced to replace these by producing four other units, which became the S165 to S168 replacements.

They closely derived from standard V161. The first two became Royal Navy war reparations (scrapped immediately), the S167 was scrapped in Kiel in 1922 and the S168 served some time in the Reichsmarine of Weimar before being scrapped in 1925.

Displacement and dimensions: 665t, 765t PC; 74,2 x 7.9 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 Schichau turbines, 4 standard boilers, 17,500 cv. and 32 knots max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, three 450 mm TT inline.

Destroyers G169 class (1908-1910)


S166 en 1916

These 8 ships of this group were built at Germaniawerft, Kiel, launched in December 1908 and February 1910. Apart from the G173, they had three propellers and turbines with different arrangements, which changed the position of their chimneys and their torpedo tubes.

The G171 sank in 1912 after a collision, and was therefore no longer referenced in 1914. The G172 hit a mine in July 1918, three more were granted to Great Britain in war damage, and two others took a few years more of service in the Reichsmarine.

G169
SMS G169

Displacement and dimensions: 670 tonnes 777 t PC ; 74 x 7,9 x 2,8 m.
Propulsion: 3 screws, 6 Parsons turbines, 4 standard boilers, 15,000 cv. and 30 knots max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, three-four 500 mm TT inline.

Destroyers G192 class (1908)


S166 en 1916

Six destroyers of the G192 class were akin the 1910 type, very close to the units of the S165 and S176 classes, descendant of the V161 class, the prototype of 1908. The G194 was the only one being rammed by HMS Cleopatra.

The others were assigned in war reparations to UK and scrapped, while the G196 survived MEMC test-building in the new Kriegsmarine. She survived the Second World War and was awarded to Russia who used a few years as the Pronsitelnyi. The G7 class was essentially similar.

Displacement and dimensions: 660t, 810t FL 74 x 7.6 x 3.1m
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 Germania turbines, 4 standard boilers, 18,200 cv. and 32 knots max.
Crew: 84
Armament: Two 88 mm KL/30 guns, four 500 mm TT inline.

Destroyers B97 class (1915)


B97 en 1916

These 8 great destroyers, the most powerful in service before the Hochseeflotte's S113 and V116 at the end of the war, were initiated in 1913 following an express order of Tsar Nicolas II in part to give a shipbuilding experience to St.

Petersburg under supervision of Blohm & Voss. The design was Russian, inspired by the Novik, then the most powerful destroyer of the world. It was the departure of Ilin, Kononsotoff, Gavril and Mikhail. Their turbines were then completed at Blohm & Voss when the war started and the shipbuilder proposed to the Admiralty to build four destroyers around these turbines.

V99
V99

Despite opposition from the Admiralty who argued that such vessels were not compatible with the fleet, four were quickly built, and four others, the latest launched in June 1915, approved by Von Tirpitz. Very fast, they were reclassified as "Zestörer" (destroyers) and not as Hochseetorpedoboote". The B99 was sunk in the Baltic, facing Russian ships, the B97 became the Italian Cesare Rossarol in Service, served until 1939, and the others were scuttled in Scapa Flow.

Displacement and dimensions: 1374 tonnes, 1843 t FL; 98 x 9,4 x 3,4 m.
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 AEG-Vulcan turbines, 4 standard boilers, 40,000 cv. and 36.5 knots max.
Crew: 114
Armament: Four 88 mm KL/30 guns, six 500 mm TT (2x2, 2x1), 24 mines.

Destroyers G101 class (1915)


G101 en 1916

Called "Zestörers" (destroyers) these units marked a break from the usual productions of the Hochseeflotte. Like the B97, controlled by Russia which originally had ordered the G101, these have been ordered by Argentina as the Santiago, San Luis, Santa Fe and Tucuman in 1913.
Requisitioned, they were launched in August, September and November 1914, completed in 1915 for the German navy. Besides their tonnage and higher dimensions, these had a step above the top of the half-bridge deck, and their armament was similar to the B97, while their propulsion was provided by a set of two turbines and two Germania cruise types of diesel.




Wow's rendition of the G101 class

They were slower than the B97. They had a very active career until 1918, and were taken to Scapa Flow where they were scuttled. Refloated, the G103 sank during its transfer due to bad weather in 1925, the G103 was ceded to the USA and ended his career as a target in 1920, and the other two were scrapped in 1926.

G108 and S102
G108 and S102

Displacement and dimensions: 1136 tonnes 1734 t FL; 95,3 x 9,5 x 3,7 m.
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 Germania turbines, 2 standard boilers, 28,000 cv. and 33.5 knots max.
Crew: 104
Armament: Four 88 mm KL/30 guns, six 500 mm TT (2x2, 2x1), 24 mines.

Destroyers S113 class (1918)

TBD V116
V116 design (wikipedia)

This class of large ocean destroyers will be one of the last built before the end of the war. With 12 units planned, 3 from Blohm & Voss and three from Vulcan, two were actually completed and entered service in 1918, one of the S113 class and one of the V116 class.

In many ways, these were very modern units, out of the G96 scheme, called "mobilization" class. These ships with their large dimensions and front deck more in line with the British standards, catching up with the new generation of destroyer design in 1917 and breaking with the torpedo-boat types of the past.

They caused a stir in the Admiralty as soon as the British secret services got wind of these.

It was decided to build in 1917 a series of large "Wing drivers" destroyers to counter them. These new German units were equipped with guns and torpedo tubes of larger caliber (150 and 600 mm) without equivalent in the Royal Navy, not to mention their speed. In the end, only the S113 and V116 were completed before the armistice.

The S113 which was conducting its trials the last days of the war, was immediately claimed by France as war damage, being used under the name Admiral Sénès until 1935. The V116 was offered to Italy and became the Premuda, retired from service in 1937.

Displacement and dimensions: 2060t, 2415t PC; 106 x 10.2 x 3.4 m
Propulsion: 2 screws, 2 Schichau turbines, 2 standard boilers, 45,000 cv. and 36 knots max.
Crew: 176
Armament: Four 152 mm guns, four 500 mm TT (2x2, 2x2), 40 mines.

Sources

High sea fleet boats on Wikipedia
Reddit (WoW)
German TBDs on german-navy.de
List of all German ww1 torpedo ships on navypedia.org
Kaiserliches Marine

Naval History

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Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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