Russia (1893), Battleship

Navarin (1893)

The four-funneled battleship

One of the rare Russian battleships which was sunk in action in 1905 rather than captured or shelled in Port Arthur, the Navarin was singular in more than titles: Besides four funnels in two tandem pairs because of her unusual machinery arrangement -which had her nicknamed "Zavod" (factory)- she was also heavily armoured. But machinery flaws created massive construction delays while costs rose and the Navarin was already obsolescent when in service by 1895, whereas the first trials took place in... 1891 (before launch).

Navarin 1897

Built in the Franco-Russian Works of Saint Petersburg, she remained unique. Ordered 24 April 1889, laid down on 31 May 1890 and launched on 20 October 1891, in service by June 1896. The admiralty specified she was capable of operating "in all European seas and by its coal capacity to reach the Far East." It seemed a perfect fit requirement for the upcoming battle of Tsushima, where precisely the Western Russian fleet was obliged to make a perilous and long journey throughout the globe to reach Port Arthur, trying to lift the siege. The design was also revised with the replacement of the original main artillery by more powerful guns of the same caliber, while the secondary artillery rose from six guns to eight guns. The ship name "Navarin" came from the naval battle of Navarino which took place in 1827 against the Turks, supporting the Bulgarians and part of the Greek War of Independence.


Painting by artist Vladimir Emyshev

Design of the Navarin

Typical of the pre-dreadnoughts of that time, the Navarin was wide, slow, heavily armored and armed with the usual twin turrets with 12 in artillery, secondary 6-in guns and light anti-torpedo boats guns.

Propulsion

Powerplant of the Navarin was somewhat eccentric, with a pair of three-cylinder, vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving a propeller shaft. Total output (as designed) was 9,000 indicated horsepower (6,700 kW). Steam came from 12 cylindrical fire-tube boilers. Pressure was 9.4 atm (952 kPa; 138 psi). What really made it special was the localization of the the four boiler rooms, arranged in two pairs abreast. Therefore each had its own independent funnel. This very unusual arrangement resulted in two pairs of funnels and the ship soon earned the nickname "factory" (Zavod).

However on trials, the constructor was shown even after firing the first batch of boilers, in May 1891 the designed steam pressure could not be met. The enquiry revealed numerous flaws in their construction, as Russian production fundry standard were still quite low at that time. The admiralty therefore requested the yard to replace the boilers at their own expenses, and this delayed the tests until August 1893, two years after.

Still at that stage, steam pressure was found inadequate. Again, the factory was asked one more year to rectify these issues. The final sea trials took place in... November 1895. She reached a top speed of 15.85 knots (29.35 km/h; 18.24 mph), still a bit less that design requirements (16 knots) but at that stage these figures were accepted anyway. One of the key requirement, the range, however was met, as Navarin carried up to 1,200 long tons (1,200 t) of coal in numerous compartments that also acted as supplementary ASW protections. At full load this traduced by 3,050 nautical miles (5,650 km; 3,510 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). This was however only a fourth of the required radius to join without stop the far east: In 1905 the Russian fleet's trip was 18,000 nautical miles (33,000 km) -agreed with some imperities, as to be banned from using the Suez Canal.

Armament

schematics of the Navarin
Armor scheme and schematics

Navarin was armed with two pairs of 12-in (305 mm) Obukhov Model 1886 35-caliber guns. They were mounted twin-gun turrets fore and aft of the main superstructure. Both were powered hydraulically and the forward one had a 243° firing arc, 214° for the rear one. Top rate of fire was measured as two minutes 22 seconds. Standard light HE shells were 731.3-pound (331.7 kg) at 2,090 ft/s (637 m/s). Individual provision was 80 rounds per gun, so 320 total, including armor-piercing and dummy exercize rounds.

The secondary armament was not particularly impressiven, with only six 6-inch (152 mm) guns, Pattern 1877, 35 caliber. They were were mounted in superstructure's casemates and their standard 91.5 lb (41.5 kg) shells's muzzle velocity was 2,329 ft/s (710 m/s). They could reach a target up to 8,170 yards (7,470 m) afar at 12° elevation. Total provision was 1,600 rounds.

Light tertiary and anti-TB armament was made of two calibers:
-Fourteen QF 47 mm (1.9 in) Hotchkiss guns, all mounted in the superstructure. Their shell was a standard 3 pdr (1.4 kg) model, existing the muzzle at 1,867 ft/s (569 m/s).
-Eight Maxim QF 37 mm (1.5 in) guns, light and commapct enough to be mounted in the fighting tops. Four were left apart to be installed in the forward position of boats for amphibious assaults. Their shells were 1 pdr (0.45 kg), 1,319 ft/s (402 m/s).
Also for close-quarters, Navarin carried six 15-inch (381 mm) torpedo tubes, all positioned above water in a typical "lozenge" formula (one bow, one stern, two abreast). Provision was 12 reloeads.

Protection

Compound armor was used on all the ship for vertical surfaces but regular nickel steel for the gun turrets. The waterline armor belt was a remarkable 16 inches (406 mm) thick, reduced to 12 up to 14 inches (305–356 mm) above the magazines, covering 228 feet (69.5 m) on 7 feet (2.1 m) in height, tapered down to a 8 in (203 mm) for the lower edge. Better still, the upper belt section was 18 inches (457.2 mm), originally above the waterline, but sine the ship was overweight, it fell below. Tranverse bulkhads 14–16-inch (356–406 mm) closed the citadel box.

The lower casemate was 218 feet (66.4 m) long, 8 feet (2.4 m) high with 16-in sides It was closed by 16-inch transverse bulkheads. The upper casemate was 5 in (127 mm) thick. The turrets were 16 in (406 mm) thick on the frontal arc. The conning towers on both ends of the casemate had 12 inches (305 mm) walls. The armor deck range from was 2 in (51 mm) over the lower casemate up to 2.5 inches (64 mm) thick above the main armor belt.

The Navarin in action

After years-long delay the ships was in service with the Baltic Fleet in 1896. She sailed for a goodwill cruise in the Mediterranean from August that year, visiting the Piraeus in October but was soon ordered to join Sissoi Veliky and race to the Far East in early 1898. She was at Port Arthur in March, taking part in the Boxer Rebellion repression two years after. Together with her mate Sissoi Veliky and cruisers she was back to the Baltic on 25 December 1901. She was in September 1902 taken in hands for a refit, cut short when Russo-Japanese War broke out in February 1904. She however had the tome to be fitted with brand new 4.5-foot (1.4 m) Barr & Stroud rangefinders, and telescopic gun sights plus German modern Telefunken radio. She also received four extra 3-in (75 mm) guns, taking place of superstructure top four 47 mm guns relocated on both turret roofs.

By October 1904, she departed for Port Arthur with the ad hoc Second Pacific Squadron (Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky). At Tangier, she was part of the splitted forces proceeding through the Mediterranean and Suez Canal, heading for Madagascar to join the lighter cruisers, racing along the coast of Africa. Both forces met at Nosy Be on 9 January 1905 and later sailed to Camranh Bay, (French Indochina) in March 1905 and then joining forces with Rear Admiral Nikolai Nebogatov's 3rd Pacific Squadron and Vladivostok in May.

Navarin was part of the second naval division with older ships, under von Fölkersam (Oslyabya, Navarin, Sissoi Veliky, Admiral Nakhimov). However Von Fölkersam died from cancer on 26 May and Oslyabya's captain took his place.


Stern view of the Navarin, 1896. Source

Aerial view of Port Arthur
Aerial view of Port Arthur, with Navarin and the gunboat Bobr in 1899 or 1901

On 27–28 May Navarin apparently was not heavily engaged, at least in the early part of the battle of Tsushima However later that day she was third last in the line of battle, and concentrated fire took its toll. She was badly hit by four main caliber shells on the waterline. This caused massive flooding aft. Her quarterdeck sank to the level of the aft 305 mm turret in the evening at 21.00. The captain ordered a full stop for the teams to repair her, but unfortunately at that time, the fog has lifted and despite the night falling, she was spotted and attacked by Japanese torpedo boats. They probably launched all their torpedoes and hit the Navarin one or two times. According to "Clouds above the Hill: A Historical Novel of the Russo-Japanese War" (Volume 4) by Shiba Ryōtarō, Admiral Suzuki's TBDs Asagiri fired a torpedo volley at 600 m and Shirakumo at 400 m, leaving to chance to the crippled, semi-submerged ship to change course. Sissoi Veliki almost sank too.

Navarin painting
Painting of the Navarin sinking, by artist C. Schon - "Battle of Tsushima Strait, the Sinking of the Russian Battleship Navarin" Giclee Print by C. Schon at AllPosters.com

Despite this, heavy light artillery fire repelled the Japanese ships, badly damaging one of these ships, while the teams succeeded in preventing more damage and Navarin was soon able to sail again. However around 2 o'clock in the morning, she was again spotted and caught, this time by the Fourth Destroyer Division, already damaging the Sissoi Veliki. Rather than engaging her by artillery and torpedo fire, they simply laid a string of mines ahead of her course, four mines linked with cables whih ensured the prow would draw the mines onto the ship to detonate.

Two of these "flying mines" indeed ended as such, hitting the Navarin. This time, the damage was enormous and no damage control could be achieved, she capsized and sank, carryong with her all of the crew but the 70 men lucky enough to be on the deck or nearby an access when she sank. However only three were alive when they were found, some 16 hours later, either by a Japanese torpedo boat or a British merchant ship because of the cold and exhaustion. There has been also allegations of Japanese TBs firing on them when crying for help. But this was a dramatic end anyway. The wreck has never been found as no expedition to uncover the true extent of the damage on the ship was done.

Navarin class specifications

Dimensions107 x 20.4 x 8.4m (351 x 67 ft x 27 ft 7 in)
Displacement10,206 long tons (10,370 t) standard
Crew24 +417
Propulsion2 shafts TE engines, 12 Cyl. boilers, 9000 ihp
Speed15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) (16 knots as designed)
Range3,050 nmi (5,650 km; 3,510 mi) at 10 knots
Armament4 x 305 (2x2), 8 x 152, 14 x 47 mm, 12 x 37 mm, 6 TT 450 mm
ArmorWaterline belt: 12–16 in (305–406 mm), Casemate: 5 in (127 mm), Turrets: 12 in (305 mm), CT: 10 in (254 mm)



Schematics of the Navarin

Read More: Conway's all the world' fighting ships 1860-1905
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Navarin
Model of the Navarin by Jim Bauman
google Books Russia Against Japan, 1904-1905: A New Look at the Russo-Japanese War
The Navarin unusual sinking at reddit.com
Kombrig Model kit
Fentens paper model of the Navarin
History of the Russo-Japanese War By Sydney Tyler
modelyard Russian ships plans

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Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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