Petropavlovsk class battleships (1894)

Petropavlovsk, Poltava, Sevastopol

Victims of the Russo-Japanese war

Poltava on a postcard

The Petropavlovsk class also known as the Poltava class, and consisted in three pre-dreadnought battleships ordered for the Imperial Russian Navy. They followed the Imperator Aleksandr II class, 9000 tons ships built in 1885–1891 for the Baltic and armed by a single 12-in turret (305 mm) and four 9-inch (229 mm) and eight 6-inch (152 mm) guns. Much larger at about 12,000 tons, with standard symmetrical armament of twin turrets forward and aft, 12-in and a classic secondary battery of 6-in guns.

Their origin laid in the ambitious program ratified by the Tsar to counter the growing threat of the German Navy, which in 1882 called for 16 battleships being built over 20 years for the Baltic Fleet.

But in 1890 the program was behind schedule and the director of the Naval Ministry, Vice Admiral Nikolay Chikhachyov, proposed a mix of first and second class battleships, plus coastal ones to make for the numbers. The Petropavlovsk were the first of the 1st class battleships in this program, rated at 10,000 tons and first Russian flush-deck battleships.

The Petropavlovsk were inspired by the British Royal Sovereign class, while making use of French model turrets while the Naval Technical Committee (NTC) adopted the Indiana-class battleships artillery layout. The secondary artillery was thus distributed in twin turrets and the rest in barbettes. The danger of torpedo boats being considered at the time, no less than twenty-eight revolver 37 mm guns were completed by twelve 47 mm of the superstructures.


The class was Characterized by an upper sloped hull connected to a flush deck, with a vertical protection was extended to 66% of the length of the vessel and horizontal protection guaranteed by a turtle-back ranging from 50 to 76 mm while her waterline armor belt was 12–16 inches (305–406 mm) thick. The main turrets were overall protected by 10 inches (254 mm). Secondary turrets were protected by 5-in (127 mm) and the conning tower was 9 in (229 mm) thick. The overall protection did not exceed 370 mm (at the belt, likely to minimize the impact of a torpedo). It was to be done all nickel Harvey steel, however Russian manufacturers were quickly found unable to fulfill the order in quantity and quality, therefore it was ordered from Bethlehem Steel, USA instead, causing some delays in construction. They had a partial double bottom, while their hull was divided into 10 watertight transverse bulkheads.

Battleship Poltava - Brasseys 1902
Diagram of Battleship Poltava - Brasseys 1902


Their designed specifications also included a top speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph), maximum draught of 26 feet (7.9 m) and 3,750 nautical miles (6,940 km; 4,320 mi) range. They were propelled by two shafts connected to two vertical triple-expansion steam engines from Hawthorn Leslie, the whole system being fed by 14 cylindrical, coal-firing boilers. In total they were rated 10,600 indicated horsepower (7,900 kW). 16 knots as designed were surpassed by Petropavlovsk on trials at 16.38 knots (30.34 km/h; 18.85 mph). Range in wartime allowed 3,750 nautical miles (6,940 km; 4,320 mi) at 10 knots, by carrying 1,050 long tons (1,070 t) each.

These VTE (vertical triple-expansion) steam engines, were fed by 16 boilers on Sevastopol. Their working pressure was 8.8 atm (129 psi), for 10,600 indicated horsepower (7,904 kW). Poltava reached 16.29 knots reach in trials at 11,213 forced heat horsepower. Sevastopol's powerplant was locally built and on trials she was able to reach only 15.3 knots (28.3 km/h; 17.6 mph) at 9,368 ihp despite having two more boilers.


There was a revision in design as the first choice was a mix of 6-in and 8-in guns. It was decided in the end to go full 6-in (152 mm). Their designed metacentric height was 5.43 feet (1.7 m) which mad them stable and good seagoing ships.
-Main Guns: These Canet guns were housed in two twin-gun turrets, forward and one aft as usual at the time. They were designed to fire once every 90 seconds, but in reality, this was down to 2.4 min, much lower than many battleships of the time.
-Secondary guns: The battery consisted in twelve Canet 6-in (152 mm) quick-firing (QF) guns, half in twin-gun turrets placed on the sides and the remainer in unprotected embrasures on the sides of the hull amidships.
-Tertiary armament comprised twelve single 47 mm (1.9 in) Hotchkiss guns and twenty-eight single Maxim 37 mm (1.5 in) guns. The Maxims, also called QF 1-pounder pom-pom were recently developed to fire on approaching torpedo boats. They had a ~300 rpm (cyclic) rate of fire, with a Muzzle velocity of 1,800 ft/s (550 m/s) and a practical range at 3000 yards and less.
Torpedo armament: The battleships carried two caliber of torpedo tubes, four 15-inch (381 mm) torpedo tubes above water and two 18-inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes underwater also on the broadside. In addition 30 mines could be carried, stored on deck rails and dropped at the stern.

A Career cut short by the Russo-Japanese war

all three ships after completion were transferred to the Pacific Squadron from 1900, based at Port Arthur. Four years later the Russo-Japanese War abbreviated their career as all three ships participated in the Battle of Port Arthur on the second day of the war.

Petropavlovsk survived only to sink two months later, hitting mines laid by the Japanese. Sevastopol and Poltava took part in the Battle of the Yellow Sea in August 1904. They survived, although crippled, and took refuge in the harbor, to be sank or scuttled at the end of the Siege of Port Arthur when the Japanese, having secured the heights, started pounding the area.

If Sevastopol was a total constructive loss, the Poltava was salvaged by the Japanese and incorporated into the Imperial Japanese Navy as Tango. In Japanese service, she participated in the Battle of Tsingtao in late 1914 but now as an ally of the triple entente she was sold back to the Russians in 1916. The latter renamed her Chesma to free her name for a dreadnought, and she became the flagship of the Russian Arctic Flotilla in 1917.

By then her fate took a new twist as she fell in the hands of the Bolsheviks among the crew. However Chesma was in allied area, and was soon seized back the British in early 1918. Abandoned and left without crew she was left unharmed, not scuttled, only to be seized back by the red army. Due to their age they decided to scrap her in 1924.


The three units were sent to the Pacific fleet, their intended operation area. At Port Arthur, Petropavlovsk and her sister-ships were the spearheads of the fleet, bearing the mark of Admiral Makarov. The Petropavlovsk attempted a raid off Port Arthur at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war but hit a mine (of unknown origin - the Russians also laid mines).

Battleship Petropavlovsk sunk by a mine


while the other two were hit hard during the Battle of the Yellow Sea. Refugees at Port Arthur, they were shelled by Japanese Howitzer of the siege army. What was left of a devastated Sevastopol was scuttled in the harbor on January 2, 1905.

Sevastopol at Kronstadt in 1900
Sevastopol at Kronstadt in 1900

Poltava (Tango, Chesma)

The only survivor of the class, the Tchesma, was formerly laid down as Poltava, from a name of a famous victory in 1709 against Sweden, between Peter the Great and King Charles XII. She was was the first Russian battleship to use Krupp cemented armor from Germany. Perhaps more than other battleships of the same class, the Poltava suffered shortages of skilled workmen, many design changes and delivery of the main armament after a long delay, making her schedule slipping until construction time reached six years; Altough not obsolete by that time, the advantage of her protection was already commonplace. After her last trials ended in 1899 she was sent to the Baltic fleet, together with Sevastopol and she was the first Russian battleships fitted with a Radio, by September 1900, in the Russian Navy.

Sevastopol at sea

1905: The Poltava at war

The two sister ships departed both on 15 October for Port Arthur but had to stop at the Suez Canal in order to unload their equipment, ammunitions, fuel and supplies in order to reduce their draft enough to slip through. Poltava eventually reached Port Arthur on 12 April 1901, and Sevastopol joined her the following day.

During the night of 8/9 February 1904, IJN destroyers made their famous surprise attack. Poltava mairaculously escape any torpedo ht, so she was ready to make a sortie the following morning. However the IJN Combined Fleet (Vice Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō) catch her after being spotted by the protected cruiser Boyarin. Tōgō at first shelled coastal defenses with main guns, only engaging Russian ships with his secondary guns. This was a poor decision as well-protected Poltava was hit several times with little effect. In return, she fired 12x 12-in and 55x 6-inch shells on the Japanese. Both fleets withdrew and the Poltava was back in Port Arthur for summary repairs and providing care to three wounded sailors.

Postcard Poltava

On 13 April, Tōgō successfully lured out a part of the Russian Pacific Squadron, but Vice-Admiral Makarov (Petropavlovsk) spotted the five Japanese battleships and turned back o safety but doing so and his flagship struck a mine and sank in two minutes. Tōgō went on shelling Port Arthur while the Russian sorties at night to lay more minefields, which will claim two IJN battleships in May.

Rear Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft took command of First Pacific Squadron and sortied for Vladivostok on 23 June, but was interepted by the IJN squadron and turned back. Meanwhile, Poltava led a fleet of cruisers and destroyers to shell Japanese coastal poistions on 9 July 1904. She engaged Japanese ships on her return but failed to sink any while being only slightly damaged. She would land the same month many of her 47 mm and 37 mm guns to bolster the port's defensive lines against Japanese troops.

On 10 August, Wilgelm Vitgeft thrown all his assets in another desperate attempt to reach Vladivostok, this time in force. The IJN combined fleet waiting for him engaged the battle line in what became the Battle of the Yellow Sea. The duel started shortly after 12:55. Poltava was sixth in line, and at 14:45 she started duelling with Asahi. However soon Mikasa turned her guns on Poltava too. The duel went on, Poltava damaging Mikasa and the cruiser Nisshin.

However the Japanese broke off around 15:20 and turned to starboard, creating a gap to make their gunnery accuracy talk but mostly for a brief respite, exert damage control, distribute supplies and taking care of the wounded. At around 17:35 they came back to gunnery range and the duel resumed, this time concentrating on the back of the line, where Poltava was. The latter was hit several times, but Turret problems made the Japanese retire again to work out these problems. They went back at 18:30, Shikishima and Asahi concentrating fire on Poltava. When flagship Tsesarevich's conning tower was obliterated, the vice admiral was killed and orders no longer came. The crippled battleship turned, followed by the entire squadron, which had severe consequences on opening their line and weakening their own firepower.

Poltava had to manoeuver tighlty to avoid hitting the now stationary, crippled flagship, and the line was in disarray at least until Rear Admiral Prince Pavel Ukhtomsky took command and ordered the line to return to Port Arthur; But only Pobeda, Sevastopol, Pallada and Poltava catch the signals, the others missed them and it took some time for them to realize what they had to do. Meanwhile Poltava was hit by a further 12-14 12-in shells, mostly directed at her superstructures, loosing most of her secondary batteries. Poltava, Tsesarevich and Peresvet eventually limped back to Port Arthur under siege.

Battleships of the petropavlovsk class
All three battleships at anchor in Port Arthur

The last phase of this episode was dictated by the siege. Japanese Third Army led by Baron Nogi Maresuke eventually took a good firing position and carried there 120 mm howitzers that could fire indirectly on the anchored ships. Poltava therefore was hit on 18 August. However by September she resumed firing on Japanese positions, spending nearly her entire 12-in ammo supply and a large part of the 6-in one. Three of her guns has been deposed to reinforce the defensive lines, as the remainder of her tertiary artillery.

In October 1904 however, the Japanese managed to bring 280 mm howitzers on the coast and started to shell the harbor at will. Poltava was hit twice. Worst still, in December the capture of 203 Meter Hill, allowed the Japanese to bring their artillery in direct fire positions, overlooking the harbor. Soon afterwards they shelled the Poltava, taking five hits, three penetrating the deck and setting ablaze the torpedo room and aft 47 mm magazine. But fire damage control proved impossible as the flooding system was damaged and the fire spread to the ammo room, making the propellant charges for the 12-in shells explode. This tore down a gaping hole in the hull bottom, and the ship sank straight in 45 min. Fortunately without massive casualties. Port Arthur capitulated on January 1905.

New career as IJN Tango

Japanese engineers refloated Poltava on 22 July, after much preparatory work. She was sent for repairs and rearmament at Maizuru Naval Arsenal, and renamed Tango, an ancient Japanese province (Kyoto prefecture) as a 1st class battleship. On 29 August she was officially back into service. She participated in a review of captured ships on 23 October 1905 and later returned for extra repairs and refits until November 1907 and later at Yokosuka Nyd.

IJN Tango

Modifications included the removal of the fighting tops, 16 Miyabara water-tube boilers were installed, the 12-in breeches were replaced by Japanese-built ones, the four 152 mm guns in casemates were replaced by six Japanese 150 mm/45 guns and the light armament revised to ten QF 12-pounder 12 cwt and four 37 mm Hotchkiss, four 18-in aw Torpedo Tubes while the crew was now 668. This long refitting prevented her to be active again until 1911.

Chesma in WW1

She was not long classed as a first-line battleship, re-classified as a 1st class coast defense ship in 1912. She participated the next year in large scale exercizes and afer the war broke out, she was part of the 2nd Squadron (Vice Admiral Kato Sadakichi). She joined a combined fleet sailing to Tsingtao, coordinating her fire with the Imperial Japanese Army, destroying German fortifications. The Germans surrendered on 7 November 1914.

Return to motherland Russia as Chesma

In 1916, the Japanese and Russians were allies against the central Empires. Since the Tsar desperately needed to reinforce the Baltic and Black Seas fleets, he asked the Japanese government to sell back Russia their former captured ships. Therefore Tango departed for Vladivostok, arriving on 2 April while the following day her name was changed to Chesma (after the 1770 battle) when a new crew took her and the Russian Imperial ensign was raised again. She joined later the Allied fleet off Salamis, pressuring the Greeks to surrender their fleet to the allies.

battleship Chesma

In December 1916, Chesma sailed out of the Mediterranean up to UK for her machinery to be overhauled at Birkenhead (Cammell Laird yard), while her main deck 150 mm and 12-pdr were removed. She would receive four anti-aircraft guns and was back to Aleksandrovsk, Murmansk Oblast, on 16 January 1917. Soon the revolution of February broke out and meanwhile she was assigned to the White Sea Fleet. Her crew eventually rebelled and took control. But her poor state and management made her inactive when Allied landed at Murmansk in March 1918. She was captured by British troops which converted her as a floating prison in April 1919 for Bolshevik prisoners. She was abandoned and re-captured by the Red Army in March 1920. But her state was such she was sent to Archangelsk on 16 June 1921 and stricken in 1924, broken up soon afterwards.

Chesma in 1921
Chesma in 1921


Displacement: 11,350 t standard
Dimensions: 112.70 x 21.3 x 7.8 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft VTE, 16 cylindrical boilers, 11,250 hp. and 16.5 knots max.
Armour: Blockhouse: 203, Decks: 50-76, Belt: 370, Turrets: 305-254-120 mm
Crew: 630
Armament: 4 x 305 mm (12 in), 8 x 152 mm (6 in), 2 x 76 mm AA (3 in).

Links, sources
Conways all the world's fighting ships 1860-1905

Author's illustration of the Chesma

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

Faceboook Feed

Twitter Feed


Support us on Patreon !

Youtube naval encyclopedia Channel

Go to the Playlist
Tank Encyclopedia, the first online tank museum
Plane Encyclopedia - the first online warbirds museum
posters Shop
Poster of the century
Historical Poster - Centennial of the Royal Navy "The Real Thing" - Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now !

Battleship Yamato in VR

Virtual Reality Section