✠ WW1 Austro-Hungarian Naval Aviation

K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps


Main seaplane models

✠ Lohner E (1914)
✠ Lohner L (1915)
✠ Oeffag G (1916)
The Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen or Austro-Hungarian "aviation troops" also called Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops was its regular air force, the equivalent of the German Luftreitskrafte. It dwarved literrally the naval aviation corps (K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps), and the latter shared resources and manufacturers with the regular air force. Yet, the Austro-Hugarian Navy (KuK Kriegsmarine) nevertheless featured an independent air force as the K.u.K. Seeflugwesen (Imperial and Royal Naval Air Corps), repeteady requested by the Navy which wanted independent operations, reflected by the monopoly of the Army over aviation, for its operations in the Adriatic.

It was eventually granted by Imperial decree and funded in August 1916. and later rechristened. Naval officers who received their initial pilot training at the airfields of Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria became the first enlisted pilots. First assigned for tours aboard the Tegetthoff-class battleships but also at the Berat, Kavaja, Tirana, Scutari and Igalo airfield in Albania and southern Dalmatia, and later Podgorica in Montenegro.

In operations, air units were called "Fliks". Feltre became its main base after its capture on 12 November 1917, after the defeat of Caporetto. It joined the coastal air bases of Arsie and Fonzaso, the latter being a main station for Austrian naval aviators in that area. Naval Aviation was provided its own escort fighters, usually locally modified German planes but also local variants or domestic planes. These models were the Fokker A.III and E.III and later D.VII, Hansa-Brandenburg B.I and D.I, Aviatik D.I, Albatros D.III, Phönix D.I. The most prominent seaplane multirole fighter was the Lohner L.

Main Luftfahrtruppen/Seefliegerkorps Manufacturers

An Albatros D.III in service with the K.u.K. Seefliegerkorp. Austrian Ace Brumowksi was the corps's top ace (11 victories).

Development of the Austro-Hungarian aircraft industry

Knoller C.II
Knoller C.II

Aviatik, Knoller, Lloyd, Lohner, Phönix or UFAG are perhaps forgotten aviation names today; but during the great war they delivered dozens of planes, from fighters to light bombers and floatplanes for the adriatic. Austro-Hungary fought many nations during the war, not leas the Italians on their mountainous Alpine front or the adriatic sea, but also Serbs and Brulgarians in the east, Romanians and Russians. Fortunately for them, their opponents had limited indutrial capabilities to mass-produce planes and despite her limits, the Austro-Hungarian Aviation did wonders.

Austria-Hungary's economics were mostly rural, with a growing industry in and around the Czech and Austrian urban centers. Some brands were already famous like Steyr or Daimler, and the manufacturing of planes, outside the engine, only required woodworking and non-strategoc materials. With existing blueprints, any crafty company, even with only two or three artisans, could start as an aircraft manufacturer, turning a few planes a month.

✠ Aviatik

A German company producing for Austria-Hungary

Funded as Automobil und Aviatik AG in December 1909 at Mülhausen (Alsace, new in France). In fact its owner was Alsatian Georges Chatel, starting with the license-production of French aircraft of the Hanriot and Farman types. The first domestic design emerged in 1912, and a line of successful biplanes designed by Robert Wild soon made the renown of the company. It became soon one of the major aircraft manufacturer in the german Empire, and for practical reasons was relocated to Freiburg because of the French threat in 1914, and moved to Leipzig-Heiterblick with new large facilities in 1916.

Aviatik D.I
Aviatik D.I plan.

A large part of the production was made for Austria-Hungary. More importantly, a subsidiary was created in Vienna, the Österreichisch-Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik Aviatik. Aviatik specialized in reconnaissance aircraft like the the B.I and B.II, and the Austro-Hungarian subsidiary produced its own designs including fighters like the D.I, and a number of prototypes. The company ceased any operations in 1919 following the treaty of Versailles, with no prospect of civilian reconversion.

Aviatik BII
Austro-Hungarian Aviatik B.II on the Eastern Front near Ostrozets, Wolhynien in 1916.

Aviatik Models

Aviatik BIII
Austro-Hungarian Aviatik B.III downed on the Eastern Front.

Aviatik floatplane
Austro-Hungarian Aviatik floatplane conversion, date and model unknown.

✠ Knoller

The Knoller story: How to not do it

In 1914, Austro-Hungarian aviation was in sorry state, with many old planes from various manufacturers and origins stacked together, no tactics or proper school and this lack of coherence conducted the Army and its aviation corps branch to urge the adoption of homogeneous from various manufacturers. The first step was to order in 1915 eighty-six Hansa-Brandenburg B I aircraft, manufactured later up to 335 at Fischamend arsenal, but they were soon obsolete. So there were powerful solicitation throughout the Empire for more proposals from many manufacturers and in fact no less than 125 prototypes were tested, but few made it to production runs. One of these upstarts was the "Knoller Program" which until the provided resources for the development and production of trusted two-seater warplanes.

Richard Knoller, the founder, was actually a professor at the Technical University in Vienna, and seen as an aviation expert, already working with the Aviation Arsenal of Fischamend. Due to his backing, the project got credentials quite rapidly. However the program also underwent considerable time pressure, but went through three stages, with the development of the Knoller B I, C I and C II. Thöne & Fiala aircraft works started in January 1915 on the Knoller B I, a biplane plagued by initial delays, so much so the first flight only occurred on 13 November 1915. And this experience revealed numerous issues with the airframe.

Many improvements took plane until new tests were carried out by January-April 1916 helping to identify more agility and structure problems. But the B.II ultimately went through a forty-three production even though it was obviously not ready for it, from July 1916.
Knoller C.II
Meanwhile, starting already in late 1915 work began on a more powerful Knoller C.I was devised at Phönix works with the Aviation Arsenal, solving numerous technical issues delaying the first flight to April 1916, followed by more issues so much that these planes appeared to be a wasted investment, only countered by Knoller’s own reputation. Therefore after another serie, the military maintained their trust and ordered the development of the Knoller C.II, which, again, accumulated problem of its own.

Only by the spring of 1917 the Parliament got wind about what was happening with the "Knoller Program" and the issue was raised by Count Adalbert Sternberg, which publicly revealed the the development mess which had been until then stubbornly pursued, and obtained a vote for killing the program. In this enterprise, the Aviation Corps commissioned 185 Knoller aircrafts of all models between 1915 and 1918 which were all more or less unusable aeroplanes, or at least for training, but even were dangerous in this role.

Between considerable delays in the supply of more effective aircraft of a more sound design and the scarcity of resources, time and money were wasted. This could be a scenario familiar to us since this wastage appeared in time of war when the state's funds are allocated in emergency in such way, large open to any idea or submission.

Aircraft Industrial records

Thee Knoller as seen above were devised and produced, but without much success.

Knoller B.I (1916)

Knoller B.I
Knoller B.I photo, credits flyingmachines.ru

The first plane in this lineage had exceptionally a wireless wing design (warren-truss wing cellule). But this observation biplane later denominated by the Army Knoller B.I proved on first trials structurally disastrous. The fuselage twisted so much that it added stress and deformation to the outer wings to the point of rupture in flight. Therefore many modifications were made to the first and second prototype, not with that much gains in performances although some issues were solved.

After the fifth production machine called 35.85 the Fliegerarsenal Fischamend ordered ten more aircraft (35.86 to 35.95) but only the first was shortly flown showing all its potential for disaster. The army then ordered the whole batch to be placed in storage, although some sources claims they were used some time for training. On december, 31, 1915, Aviatik earned a contract for 32 Knoller B.I more. However the first of this serie, 35.01 yet had again a cortege of structural issues and nearly crashed after a brief flight. The second one had its elevator horns rupturing while the the observator seat of the 35.07 wet through the fuselage and were grounded. In the end only 4 aircrafts ended for training and tests only.

Knoller B.I wings palette
Knoller B.I from wings palette

Knoller C.I (1916)

Knoller C.I - Aviadejavu.ru
The Knoller C.I, credits Aviadejavu.ru

The Knoller C.I was a reconnaissance aircraft defined as a conventional biplane design with staggered wings, while the pilot and observer were seated in tandem in an open cockpit and an upper swept back wing. Production took place at Phönix, but only a small numbers saw the light as the army was already interested by the Knoller C.II. The same problems that had plagued the B.I also grounded the C.I and there were no record of active use, or even proof they actually flown.
Crew: 2, pilot and observer
Dimensions: 8.5 x 12.70 x 3.30m (27 ft 11 in x 41 ft 8 in x 10 ft 10 in) x Wing area: 36 m2 (387 ft2)
Weight: Empty 780 kg (1,720 lb)
Engine: Austro-Daimler 120hp 6-cyl, 120 kW (160 hp)
Armament: 2x Spandau 8mm MGs

Knoller C.II (1917)

Knoller C.II
The Knoller C.II 119.15 at Prague museum

Prof. Richard Knoller designed the two-seat reconnaissance Knoller B.I manufactured by Aviatik (35 with a 100 hp Mercedes engine) and subcontracted by Thöne & Fiala. In the summer of 1916, the KuK Luftschifferabteilung commissioned Albatros from Vienna, Stadlau, to convert this biplane into a fighter, equipped with a 160 hp Austro-Daimler engine, which gave series 25, slightly redesigned in mid-1916. Aviatik and Lohner also entered production with the series designated Knoller C.II. In September 1916, the first arrived at Aspern. Lohner offered in its final letter from October, 10, 1916 to built the Knoller C II with a 160 hp Austro-Daimler and deliver 24 planes ar each 28,000 crowns each, and another 24 at 32,000 crowns each.

According to the performance of the Aviatik 30.10, maximum setup weight was under 700 kg. After inquiry because of the high surcharge, the company Lohner tried to cross the test cell with the type Aviatic 18.5 which represented 1500 hours of work but only 380 hours on the Lohner cell. The offer was approved by the Austro-Hungarian War Department with Decree 5/L3568, of 8 december 1916, registered on January 4, 1917 in the Commission Book No. 80, page 164. According to the final letter, the schedule included the following completions: 1 test plane ready on the 13th October 1916, then 2 on the 21st, then another three on Oct. 28, four on November, four on November 11, four on Dec. 23, four on Dec. 30 and the last four of the series on January 6, 1917.

Knoller C.II
The Knoller C.II 119.15 at Prague museum

The first 24 Lohner-Knoller C.II, Ba.19 were equipped with a 180 hp Austro-Daimler. The first completed aircraft of Aviatik (Ba 36) was delivered in September 1916 but only tested in Aspern on 10 February 1917 and revealed fatal structural problems: The wings collapsed in flight and the plane crasehd, killing the crew. They were solved by inscreasing the surface struts and fitting an additional fuselage strut. The first Lohner aircraft with this innovation and a 160 hp Austro-Daimler was the 19.25, prototype for the Ba. 119.

However as more accidents happened with this fighter aircraft, the War Ministry received instructions from the parliament to stop further work on the Knoller series in June 12, 1917. The Knoller C.II was a conventional reconnaissance biplane design, with staggered wings, pilot and observer seating in tandem in an open cockpit, but no defense MG. The upper wing was slightly less swept back and the fuselage was made of plywood with skinned fabric wings and the interplane struts were made of steel, placed in a warren truss configuration. Three batches of 25 planes were delivered respectively by Aviatik, Lohner, and WKF. The only surviving C.II is now on display at the National Technical Museum in Prague.
Crew: 2, pilot and observer
Dimensions: 8.54 x 10.37 x 3.02 m (28 ft x 34 ft x 9 ft 11 in), Wing area: 30 m2 (323 ft2)
Weight: Empty 695 kg (1,630 lb)
Engine: Austro-Daimler 185hp 6-cylinder 138 kW (185 hp).
Armament 2x Spandau 8mm MGs.

Knoller 70 (1918)

Knoller 70
Despite the cancellation of the program, the Knoller was still undergoing improvements. The model 70 single-seat biplane was started in late 1917 but was tested in 1918, followed quickly by an order for ten pre-series aircraft for additional evaluation. The Knoller 70.01 was the first of the only two prototypes completed, at Fliegerarsenal Fischamend. The wings were unstaggered with single bays with an inherent ability to "flex" on-the-fly with speed, reducing drag. Struts and bracing were both under and above the aircraft which fuselage had a large spinner added to the nose. The tail had a single vertical fin with mid-set horizontal planes while the undercarriage was a classic tail-dragger arrangement.

The plane was 7.98m (26.2 feet) wide for 6.37m (20.9 feet) long and 2.86m in height (9.4 feet). It was propelled by a Hiero 6-cylinder, water-cooled engine rated for 230 hp giving a top speed of 149 mph (239 kph) which is quite good. Th Knoller 70 was also armed by two 8mm Schwarzlose machine guns, synchronized and placed on the engine hood. The 70.01 first flew on November 23rd, 1917 but took some damaged and was repaired, ailerons being fitted at the upper wing members and it went into more tests in the spring of 1918, sadly undergoing a crash landing. The 70.02 ended testings in September 1918 but the next month where it was ready for orders, the armistice came out.

Knoller 70 drawing
Profile of the Knoller 70.01 (from wingspalette.ru)
Dimensions: 6.35 x 8.00 x 2.85 m(20.83 x 26.25 ft x 9.35 ft)
Propulsion: Hiero 6-cylinder water-cooled 230 hp - Speed: 149 mph (240 kph; 130 kts)
Armament: 2 x 8mm Schwarzlose machine guns mounted over the nose and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades

✠ Lloyd

The Magyar Aircraft Company

Lloyd (which will survived up to the Hapag-Lloyd company) was a short-lived aviation manufacturer which started production of reconnaissance/trainer biplanes, and until the end of 1917 delivered about 360 planes of the C-type, which nomenclature meant a two-seater reconnaissance and multi-purpose plane (so used also to patrol and do some light bombing and strafing attacks).

The Company was developed in the Transleithanian part of the realm, by the Magyar Lloyd Repülőgép és motorgyár Részvény-Társaság or Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft and Motor Works, Incorporated. The Lloyd C.II and derivatives like the the C.III and C.IV were reconnaissance aircraft based on the 1913 C.I design, conventional wood and canvas two-seats biplanes with swept-back wings.

Lloyd designers Wizina and von Melczer created a reduced wingspan and wing area but increased weight for the C.II, and added a 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine gun placed on a semi-circular mount for the observer.

Lloyd C.V
The Lloyd C.V was already an obsolescent reconnaissance plane in 1917.

Fifty of these were built by Lloyd plant of Aszód, and another fifty by WKF in Vienna. The C.III only differed by its 160 hp (120 kW) Austro-Daimler engine, and was produced by Lloyd and Wiener Karosserie und Flugzeugfabrik (WKF), with circa 50-60 planes. The C.IV was virtually identical to the C.III, however the C.V was a completely new animal, compact, heavier, and with an unusual wing configuration.

About 144 were delivered, 96 powered by an Austro-Daimler engine, and 48 by WKF with a Benz engine. They experienced a short service on the front line before being relegated to training or rear-lines patrols or reserve. They also served after the war with Poland, Hungary and Ukraine. The Polish ones called "Veneer" still flew by 1924.

lloyd FJ
The Lloyd FJ was an odd solution to fire above the propeller.

The C-Series was quite conventional but the company also designed some of the strangest-looking planes of the Great War. One was a fighter, called the FJ and 40.05, never past the prototype stage. It was very unorthodox as a fighter/recce biplane in 1915 but never went beyond testing and development.

The solution retained by the company was to provide an excellent field of view of the gunner, by raising him above the upper plane. It was a trade off, waiting for the machine gun synchronization to be invented. The FJ was not unique in its approach by placing the machine-gun above the main wing, but it was unique in that the pilot was raised to the same level, instead of just having to stand and fire, while having the steering locked between the legs. This system in theory allowed the pilot to correctly aim the plane and fire over the propeller.

The over-sized nose section filled the entire space between both wings, giving the machine gunner an excellent field of fire. The pilot however sat behind and his own forward field of vision was cluttered. The model FJ first flew in January 1916 and tested but needless to say, the Army rejected it outright. The Lloyd 40.05 was later converted as a single seat fighter, with a 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine gun in gun pod, but again the Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen also rejected it. With its very large frontal engine hood, it had a lot of drag and was too slow for a fighter, and unstable, while at the same time dangerous to fly, and especially to land.

Luftkreuzer I
The strange Luftkreuzer I was an answer to the Italian Caproni, with imaginative features which proved too much for its center of gravity...

This did not prevented the company to try this idea on yet another plane, this time after receiving in January 1916 a blueprint for a "flying cruiser" or Luftkreuzer I (type I, LK), later identified as Lloyd 40.08 and later the Luftkreuzer II (type II, LV) or 40.10. This was a response to the Italian Caproni bomber, driven by a powerful central pusher engine and two smaller tractor engines.

It was a triplane with unequal span wings, with a total area of 110 square meters. In addition to a fuselage placed between the mid-wings and upper wing, which add a vertical front machine gun post in the same fashion than the FJ fighter, a stream gondola for the bomber was placed between the mid-wings and lower wings. The upper front part was roomy enough for two gunners with an excellent observation field, and provided with an illuminator.

Completed in June 1916 the first skycruiser made engine testing at Aszód airfield which detected it was too heavy on the nose, with a too high gravity center and its landing gear proved too weak. A third wheel was added to the undercarriage, and the maiden flight took place in October 1916. Oberleutnant Antal Lany-Lanczendorfer was the test pilot but its not even known of it really took off.

The Fliegerarsenal later ordered the reduction of the bomb load, to save on the take-off weight and in December additional chassis rails were installed in the main undercarriage. In March 1917 Lloyd revision the airplane shown to the Army, but it was rejected and the 40.08 airframe was stored, and later in January 1918 moved to Cheb while the Sky cruiser program was terminated.

Lloyd would also test two experimental fighters, one was the FJ 40.15 (which could have been -if adopted- the Lloyd Dr.I) a triplane, with a very specific configuration. Indeed the mid and upper planes were almost connected to the fuselage, which was tall enough to allow the pilot to see above the upper wing, while the lower wing was placed right behind the undercarriage. On the latter Lloyd FJ 40.16, a biplane, the two wings were connected to the fuselage.

This also gave the pilot a much better forward field of view. But in that second prototype, the lower wing was placed way more at the rear and each one had its one pair of struts connected to the fuselage. Perhaps too unorthodox for the KuK Luft. both were also rejected.

Loyd models

✠ Lohner Werke

From coachbuilding to war planes and back

Founded in 1821 by German Heinrich Lohner in Vienna, this coachbuilder or wagonmaster became quite renowned in Europe and beyond, producing 500 to 900 vehicles yearly, some for the Crown heads of Norway, Sweden, and Romania in addition to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, so much as to be granted the official title of k.u.k. Hofwagenlieferant ("Royal carriagemakers"). From the 1880s through Ferdinand Porsche, electric carriages were built, and from 1905, the firm joined Daimler to form the the Österreichische Daimler Motoren Commanditgesellschaft Bierenz Fischer & Co.

In 1909, the firm started manufacturing reconnaissance aircraft for the Austro-Hungarian army. They also started a series of flying-boats for the Navy, which eventually were copied on Italian Macchi planes. Lohner also produced aircraft for the Spanish Air Force, but abandoned aircraft production for good after World War I and returned to trams and coachbodies manufacturing.

Aircraft Industrial records

Lohner Type AA (1916)
Lohner AA 111.01
Lohner AA 111.01

In 1916 Lohner-Werke was awarded a contract from the Luftfahrttruppen to produce a single seat fighter. It was to be designed around the 185 hp Austro-Daimler six-cylinder inline engine. The first airframe was denominated serial number 111.01, and on in September the 10.20 was showncased at Aspern. This was a single-bay model with equal-span wings, I-type struts, the empennage was a conventional horizontal stabilizer and an abbreviated all-moving rudder. The plane was rather short and stubby, but made of laminated wood. This structure was strong enough to carry two synchronized Schwarzlose machine guns.

Early ground trials shown bad yaw control and a larger rudder was installed while the fuselage was lengthened of 20 cm. The Lohner 10.20 flew on 29 December 1916 but later crashed in February 1917 because of stability problems. Repairs and extensive modifications were made at the factory, giving the 10.20A, with the fuselage 6.35m (20ft 10in) long and "I" type struts replaced by twin struts with wire braces. Also the tail was redesigned with a fixed vertical fin and larger rudder. On 6 June 1917 however the plane was completely destroyed in another crash. The second prototype 111.02 was also called 10.20B, having the 10.20A tail surfaces but a deep dorsal fin and its I struts reinforced by inclined V-struts. Its flew at Aspern on 2 June 1917 and the Luftfahrttruppen ordered official trials until October. The third prototype (111.03) had twin struts with wire braces and the dorsal fin was enlarged to cope with the stability problems. It flew on 28 June 1917, and was tested until October but lacked performance compared to contemporary german models, so the program was terminated by the Luftfahrttruppen, Lohner-Werke being given a licence for the Aviatik (Berg) D.I. instead.
Lohner AA 111.03
Lohner AA 111.03

> Length: 6.35 m (20 ft 10 in), Wingspan: 7.60 m (24 ft 11 in), Height: 3.00 m (9 ft 10 in), Wing area: 20.00 m² (215.28ft²)
> Empty weight: 623 kg (1,373 lb), Max. takeoff weight: 946 kg (2,085 lb)
> Engine: Austro-Daimler 6 water-cooled inline 6-cylinder 137.95 kW (185 hp)
> Performances: Top speed: 193 km/h (120 mph), Range: 386 km (240 mi), Time to 1000 m (3,280 ft): 2.66 min.
> Armament: Two synchronized Schwarzlose 0.3 in machine guns

✠ Phönix

History of Phönix Flugzeugwerke

Contrary to much aircraft manufacturers, Phönix ("Phoenix") was formed in March 1917 as an Austro-Hungarian plant based in Vienna first building licensed production of the Albatros and Brandenburg models.

During its short span, in close collaboration with lloyd, the company would built only two planes, a fighter and a multipurpose biplane. But the fighter was of such quality that it rose at the very top of Austro-Hungarian charts. It was the second design based on the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I which was until then built under licence.

It was a single-seat biplane fighter with many improvements over the original design. This model was declined into the D.II and D.III sub-variants and used long after the war under the name J.1 with the Swedish air force. This was probably the best Austro-Hungarian fighter of the war, flew by its most prominent aces like Kurt Gruber, Roman Schmidt, Karl Teichmann, Godwin Brumowski, Benno Fiala Ritter von Fernbrugg, Franz Gräser, Karl Nikitsch, Frank Linke-Crawford and József Kiss.

Phönix D.I
The compact, stubby Phönix D.I was a pure dogfighter, fast, very agile and resilient.

On the other hand the C.I was derived from the license-built Hansa Brandenburg C.II as a two-seat reconnaissance and multipurpose biplane. Its gunner had an excellent, unobstructed field of fire and it was fast, propelled by a 230 HP Hiero engine, able to bring it to 175 kph with a climbing time to 1000m under 4 min 30 sec.

96 were manufactured, first tested in Vienna at Aspern and placed into service from the spring of 1918, remaining in service until the end of the First World War. After the war, Sweden built 30 more of these under license, still in service until the late 1920s.

Phönix C.I
The C.I was a sturdy and fast multipurpose biplane

Phönix Models

✠ Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik AG (UFAG)

History of UFAG

This first Hungarian aircraft manufacturer was funded by Freiherr Karl von Škoda in Budapest during the war. It first manufactured Lohner aircrafts under licence, and developed its own reconnaissance model, the C.I. Originally there was already a company founded in 1912 by the financial magnate Camillo Costiglione from Trieste, which owned several manufacturers prior and during the war: in Vienna, Albatros Werke and Phönix Flugzeugwerke, in Berlin, Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeugwerke GmbH. UFAG manufactured licensed products such as the Lohner B.II (39 in 1915), Brandenburg C.I. (330). Compared to the that about 186 Ufag C.I were built.

Ufag C.I, Summer 1918, Italian Front. From the Autumn (v.15 n. 3) 1974 issue of Cross & Cockade Journal. Charles Gray photograph. (Pinterest)

Thin Bloudek Era

Between 1916 and 1918, Slovenian engineer Stanko Bloudek headed the factory design team. He was the only one in charge on the construction of the Ufag C.I., a two-seat reconnaissance bomber adopted at the end of 1917. The aircraft was also used on the Greek and Balkanic front. Along with the Balaban workshop technical manager of the factory, they worked on an helicopter-like airship project. Specialized literature mentions the project as the "Balaban-Bloudek helicopter". The aircraft had an hexagonal propeller on its vertical axis, but having many problems with directional stability, the program was eventually canceled.

The next factory project was a single-seater fighter, which was supposed to be competitive in terms of maneuverability. But the would-be fighter lacked a powerful engine to compete. Therefeore, the Ufag D.I. was supposed to be a monoplane with a wing span of 8.5 m and 380 kg empty weight. Due to the breakup of Austro-Hungaria in 1918 however, all work ceased even before the completion of the first prototype. The factory produced over a thousand aircraft during its three years of activity. At a ceremony in the company on the exact 1000th aircraft manufactured, Stanko Bloudek was photographed in front of a decorated plane with the registration number 161.121 for a memorial image of this event.
The Ufag (Or Oefag) C.I was a good all-around multipurpose biplane manufactured by UFAG and Phönix to a total of 166 planes

Ufag, since 1915 was only producing licenced combat aircraft, of the imperial German Jacob Lohner Werke und Sohn and Hansa & Brandenburgischen Flugzeugwerke GmbH; Eventually capitalizing with facilities, tooling, and this experience, the company decided to create its own design, given to Stanko Bloudek engineers team. In 1917 the C.I was developed (C.I was the Idflieg designation assigned to multi-purpose reconnaissance aircraft). After the initial three prototypes flew before the end of 1917, production was authorized as the plane was deemed suitable for the required role. Since the facory was already nearly at full capacity, the order was passed onto Phönix Flugzeugwerke, under licence.

The C.1 was a traditional two-seat biplane made with a plywood structure and steel tubes covered with canvas. This fuselage had a square section, and was characterized by two open cabins in tandem. The observer one had a 190° ring machine-gun. The tail ended in a traditional single fletching model, with rudder and horizontal planes covered in canvas, the latter braced and triangular. The wing configuration was a of an equal span planes (upper and lower wings), but the upper one was slightly higher and connected to the fuselage by struts and fitted with ailerons; The lower one was further back to the rear; Both surfaces were connected by a pair of parallel tubular struts, integrated by tie rods in steel cables.

The landing gear was of a simple traditional type with a tubular frame under the fuselage and large wheels connected by a rigid axle, and a support shoe at the back. For propulsion, the C.I was fitted with a locally-produced Hiero 6 engine, a 6-cylinder, water-cooled, rated for 230 PS (169 kW). It was combined with a fixed pitch, two-blade wooden propeller. The armament consisted of two or three Schwarzlose MG M.07/12x8 mm caliber machine guns, one on the forward hood and the second at the rear, operated by the observer.

Ufag C.I Blueprint (Unknown origin)

Operational use

The Ufag C.I was introduced in the first months of 1918 and after a positive evaluation, gradually assigned at least two Fliegerkompanie of the k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppen, Flik 47/F and 58/D, in which it was used for reconnaissance, including high altitude photography until the end of the war.

Dimensions: 7,50 m x 10,50 m x 2,90 m. 22,0 m² wing area. Weight: 750 kg empty, 1 050 kg maximal take off Propulsion: Hiero 6 cyl. 230 PS (169 kW), 190 km/h, 3 h autonomy, ceiling 4 900 m Armament: 2-3 Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 cal. 8 mm machine guns.

Austro-Hungarian Floatplanes (Flugboot)

✠ Lohner Flugboot Type E (1913)

Lohner E flying boat
Lohner E flying boat

The Lohner E (the letter stood for Igo Etrich, one of the Lohner engineers) was a reconnaissance floatplane with a conventional design, biplane wings, a slight sweepback, and an engine mounted in a pusher-fashion in the interplane gap while the crew, pilot and observer, were seated in tandem in an open cockpit. 40 were produced the introduction in 1915 of the more powerful Lohner L. There were no known variants or users outside Austria-Hungary.
Lohner E blueprints
> Length: 10.25 m (33 ft 8 in), wingspan: 16.20 m (53 ft 2 in), height: 3.85 m (12 ft 8 in)
> Gross weight: 1,700 kg (3,747 lb)
> Engine: Hiero 85hp, 67 kW (85 hp)
> Performance Top speed 105 km/h (65 mph), Endurance: 4 hours, Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,120 ft)
> Armament: None (not powerful enough to carry bombs, but rifles and pisols).

✠ Lohner Flugboot Type L (1915)

This model derived from the Lohner E, a bit more powerful. It was also manufactured by UFAG, Hansa-Brandenburg and Macchi. It was a two-bay sesquiplane with a pusher engine mounted on struts in the interplane gap. Pilot and observer sat in tandem in an open cockpit, and the wings featured a sweepback.

This became a highly influential design, soon licensed for production by UFAG. It provided also the basis for other major manufacturers own designs. In Germany, Hansa-Brandenburg made a modified version, which became their own flying boat called the FB. In fact Macchi copied a captured model , known as as the Macchi L.1. It became later the basis for the whole Macchi lineage, starting with the L.2. This plane was taken as the naval air station of Porto Corsini. The derivative Macchi L.1 had a Fiat machine gun and Isotta-Fraschini V.4a engine (14 built). A restored example is now preserved at the Italian Air Force Museum at Vigna di Valle.
Operational history
Löhner L floatplane
Löhner Flugboot Type L (1915)

These Lohner seaplanes saw extensive use even before World War I and long after, as the design was sound and reliable. In particular, on 2 August 1914, some of these seaplanes took of from Kumbor and photographed the Montenegrin artillery positions. This was the first operational use of air reconnaissance in this war. On 16 September 1915, the L 132 (Lt. Cdr Dimitrije Konjović) and L 135 (Walter Železni) over Cattaro spotted the French Brumaire-class submarine Foucault, attacked it with bombs and struck it enough as she was abandoned by her crew. One of the two planes landed at sea and captured two French officers, then back to Kumbor. This was the first "kill" of a submarine by aircrafts.
Löhner L floatplane
Löhner L floatplane preserved at the Italian Air Force Museum.

The model L was declined into the R - Photo-reconnaissance version, and S - Trainer version. Outside Germany and Italy, this model was also used by Yugoslavia.
> Crew: two, pilot and observer
> Length: 10.26 m (33 ft 8 in), Wingspan: 16.2 m (53 ft 2 in), Height: 3.85 m (12 ft 8 in), Wing area: 53 m2 (570 sq ft)
> Empty weight: 1,150 kg (2,535 lb), Gross weight: 1,700 kg (3,748 lb)
> Engine: 1 × Austro-Daimler 6 6-cyl. water-cooled in-line piston engine, 120 kW (160 hp)
> Performance: Top speed: 105 km/h (65 mph; 57 kn), Range: 600 km (373 mi; 324 nmi), Service ceiling: 2,500 m (8,200 ft)
> Armament: One trainable machine gun for observer, 200 kg (440 lb) of bombs.

✠ Oeffag Flugboot Type G (1915-18)

G-9 profile, Src http://www.kuk-kriegsmarine.at/seeflieger3.htm
The Oeffag G, or Oeffag Type G (Oeffag-Mickl G) was a three-engined reconnaissance flying boat. It was built in Austria, deployed exclusively by the Kaiserlich und Königlich Seefliegerkorps (K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps) but in small numbers as only 12 were hand-built by the company and constantly improved, meaning almost all were different and the two last never complete when the war ended. Oeffag (Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik AG) funded in 1915 was led by Dipl-Ing.Mickl. The sole model, called also Grosskampfflugboot G, never reached "mass production" as being an artisanal product improved with each unit delivered.

In 1914-1915 Pulském arsenal or Pola arsenal received instruction to built large patrol flying boats, under the designation Grosskampfflugboot ("Large seaplane") which was later abbreviated simply as "Flugboot G". šéfoval Linienschiffsleutnant Maschinenbauingenieur 2. Klasse der Reserve Josef Mickla was both an Engineer and marine pilot and so took the head of the small team responsible for the project.

His original design was submitted on paper form, and approved by the admirality as a three-engine flying boat, carrying two aerial torpedoes or 800 kg of bombs and armed with a single 66 mm cannon forward. The latter was developed and produced by škoda. Thus 20 caliber gun was made 400 kg lighter to be air-carried, but it's recoil was too strong and threatened the structural integrity of the seaplane; Thus were developed a new recoil system and lower-charge dedicated HE shells weighing 5 kg expected to do some damage on Italian torpedo boats. The armament was completed by defensive machine guns.

Completion of the prototype, called G1, was achieved in the summer of 1915, but tests were performed without carrying a torpedo, and only using its 66 mm cannon. First static tests were performed and fixes, until it first flew by the the autumn of 1915. A unit was created for it, Flik 23 ("flight 23"). But in November it crashed in Pola, having its top wing ripped off. The main pilot (former commander, Linienschiffsleutnant Hugo Ockermüller, died, while copilot Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield, mechanic Havelka were both severely injured but survived.

G-4 with Mikuleczky und Mickl in Pola 1916. Src http://www.kuk-kriegsmarine.at/seeflieger3.htm

Despite of this development of further prototypes went on. The structure was revised, and a search for more powerful engines started as rhey were unable to carry the four tonnes of the model, even partially loaded for a proper take off. When in flight it barely reached 110 km/h and reached 600 m in altitude, flying for 45 minutes. In addition the G-1 displayed poor flight characteristics and airframe strength. G.2 was, like G.3, powered by the original 150 kW (200 hp) Hiero 6 cylinder water-cooled inline piston engines with a biplane tail unit, mounted on struts above the fuselage and triple rudders. This proved too complicated and called for a severe revision. None of the G-2 and G-3 ever really entered service as they were considered unsafe to fly.

For the new serie, from G-4 in 1916, Daimler engines were obtained, more powerful but still unsufficient. Such power just did not existed in 1916 either in Germany or Austria. In addition to the 185 kW (248 hp) Austro-Daimler 6 cylinder engines they kept the original biplane tail unit. The G-4 apparently flew with some success, but was still sluggish and needed reinforcements.

The impoved G-5 flew on 6 November 1916, but this ended as a disaster as it also failed and crashed, killing the entire crew. It happened during the ceremony of the start of the Pola Arsenal Naval Air Branch. The G-5 crashed over Fažanským on the coast. Linienschiffsleutnant Gustav Klasing, commander, Fregattenleutnant Hely Nicora, Fregattenleutnant Stanislav the ka'ba were buried with military honors.

Next came the G.8 and G.9 powered by 230 kW (310 hp) Hiero 6 engines. They had a monoplane strut mounted tailplane, single fin and rudder, and tailplane. Sturdier, more powerful, they were promising and apparently flew in 1917, although details are not known. At the time the admiralty seemed fed up with the repeated failures of Josef Mickla's workshop to deliver a workable flying boat fit for production. G.10 and G.11 were a variant of the G.9 aparently never completed, and the last model in late 1917 was the G.12 powered by 185 kW (248 hp) Austro-Daimler 6 cylinder engines, and monoplane tail unit. It was the sturdier of the lot but it's even unsure if it ever flew. The number of fully completed prototypes and resources diverged amonf sources, some arguing 9 prototypes were completed and tested, other going from 10 or even all 12.
Specifications (G-5)

Src kuk-kriegsmarine.at

> Crew: 3-6, pilot, main gunner, loader/mechanic and planned three machine-gunners
> Length: 17.10 m (56 ft 1 in), Wingspan: 24.36 m (79 ft 11 in), Height: 5.46 m (17 ft 11 in)
> Empty weight: 4,000 kg (8,818 lb)
> Engine: 3× Austro-Daimler 185hp 6-cyl. water-cooled in-line piston engines 138 kW (185 hp) each
> Propellers: 2-bladed wooden fixed pitch pusher propellers
> Performance: Top speed: 110 km/h (68 mph, 59 kn) > Range (theoretical): 500 km (300 mi; 280 nmi) > Service ceiling: Estimated 2,000 m (7,000 ft)
> Armament: 66 mm D/20 gun, 1 trainable LMG, 800 kg bombs/2 torpedoes (never achieved).

German seaplanes/floatplanes in Seeflieg. service

Src, Read More

Schupita, Peter (1983). Die k. u. k. Seeflieger : Chronik und Dokumentation der österreichisch-ungarischen Marineluftwaffe 1911-1918 (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe
https://knollerbikonstrukt.blogspot.fr/ (DE)
https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/by-country.asp?Nation=Austria-Hungary https://ww1.habsburger.net/en/chapters/procurement-campaign-1915-16-and-knoller-programme
Did you known Karl Urban is an Hollywood actor but was also an Austro-Hungarian ww1 ace ?
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ungarische_Flugzeugfabrik (IT)
https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ufag (Hu)
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ufag_C.I (It)
Broken Wings: The Hungarian Air Force, 1918-45
Google Book: Italian and Austro-Hungarian Military Aviation On the Italian Front In World war one

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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