Clemenceau class Aircraft Carriers (1957)

French Navy (1957)
For this 14 of july 2022, French national holiday, here is the Clemenceau class carriers: Clemenceau and Foch were the first purpose-designed aircraft carriers in France since the Joffre class in 1938. They were somewhat inspired by the modernized Essex class, and became the only CATOBAR carriers in Europe in the late 1970s. They were decommissioned in 1997 and 2000, although Foch was sold to Brazil as Sao Paulo and served for another 17 years.

In short, the Clemenceau class were practically the only French carriers active for most of the cold war. France however had operated before they were completed the former British Dixmude (ex- HMS Bitter C3 converted escort vessel) until 1960, Arromanches (ex- HMS Colossus) in 1946-74, and Lafayette (ex-Langley) and Bois Belleau (Belleau Woods) both fast light carriers of the Independence class in 1950-63. They were replaced by FS Charles de Gaulle (R91) after a long study for a nuclear carrier class planned since 1982.

Grumman F-14A Tomcats from VF-14 (USS JF Kennedy) fly over FS Foch (R99) in the Carribean Sea 1 May 1990 during an exercize

Design development

PA 28, the early draft

Since the old Béarn to the point of being deactivated, France in 1945 started studies for a replacement, in part based on studies already done for the purpose-built Joffre class. This led to a first design, called the PA28 Aircraft Carriers (1947). The initial "Clemenceau" was a secret project woekd on in occupied France, as an improvement over the late 1930s Joffre design.

It was planned to built it as soon as the war ended. By August 1947 the design was approved, construction ordered, to be laid down at Brest as "PA28". Design-wise, it was in part inspired by British light carrier design. The straight flight deck was armoured, both hangars were offset to port, two lifts 15 x 10 m carried 12 tons installed forward and aft of the island and to stop planes, seven arrestor cables. Launches used two steam-driven catapults.

The propulsion system was basically twice the one used on the Mogador class large destroyers, for 105,000 hp and 32 knots. The AA rested on eight twin 100 mm turrets fore and aft, six twin 57 mm (So 24 in all) and 45 aicraft carried. As planned, a mix of Piston engines Fighters SNCASE SE 580 and Jets SNCAC NC1070. In 1949, after a change of minister, the design was revised and considered already outdated, while recent US upgrades planned on WW2 shown a new path more favourable for heavier jets. The PA28 was cancelled in 1950.

Specifications: 15,700/20,000 tons, 214/230 m oa x 25.4m/36 x x 6.5 m, 2 shaft Parsons turbines, Complement: 1800.

PA 54, a brand new 1953 design.

By the early 1950s, the French Navy had no less than four aircraft carriers in service, all dating back from the war: The most modern and larger was Arromanches, ex- British Colossus, followed by rather small vessels, the escort Dixmude (hms Biter) and two Independence class (Lafayette and Bois Belleau). All were fine for piston engine aircraft, but way too small to operated modern aircraft, jets in particular.

To ensure France remained independence in aicraft carrier construction two modern fleet carriers were planned, the first being about 35,000 tons each, comparable, but smaller than the Audacious-class carriers. Built from scratch would be the occasion of taking on the latest ideas in aircraft carrier design: They would be equipped at the onset with an angled flight deck, steam catapults and mirror landing aid now widespread in US and British carriers. They would operate a new generation of French designed jets as well.

The previous PA 28 being cancelled, the initial draft for the new carriers was prepared by the Naval General Staff in 1949. It asked for four aircraft carriers of 20,000 tons, delivered in two phases. After a meeting 22 August 1949, the Supreme Council of the Navy asked for six. On 15 July 1952 however amidst economic hardships, the French Navy looked for a total of up to five for the whole French Union that would not all be available to NATO.

According to RCM 12 after the Lisbon Conference of 1952, France was asked to have a carrier ready at NATO's request on the first day, two on the 30th and three at 180, which implied laying down three keels in close order. However, plans changed gradually and by 1953 the Navy reorganized it's strenght around just two tasks forces to cover all her needs, which implied only two aircraft carriers.

PA 54 was budgeted in 1953 but delayed until November 1955. She was in between named "Clemenceau" after PM Georges Clemenceau nicknamed the "tiger", in charge from 1917. Next was PA 55 Foch, budgeted FY1955, and also delayed until February 1957. She was named after the WWI French entente generalissimo, Marshall Ferdinand Foch.

Detailed design

These were a class of multi-role aircraft carriers, in order to replace all WW2 era ships provided until then. They took everything that was appealing to the admirakty from the British and US models but in the end for their general appearance, they leaned more strongly to the latter. This was overall a small but effective design, like a mix od modernized Essex SCB-27C or even a Forrestal (also in construction at the time) but on a smaller scale for the latter. At the time, missile development was less advanced than in the UK or the US and thus, an all-gun armament was retained. The designers did not anticipated later additions making the ships top-heavy and requiring bulging the hull to solve stability issues.

The Clemenceau-class were conventional CATOBAR designs, launching standard jets through catapults. There was bi debate about the issue. There was a continuation of WW2 designs, years before any STOVL prototype was even in the works. Helicopters were also not a thing for power projection and thus a conventional park was though of from the beginning. At 22,000 standard tonnes and 32,780 max fully loaded, the two Clemenceau class were half the size of a Forrestal, and comlparable to WW2 Essex class, or the unbuilt Malta class. They measured 265 m (869 ft) overall at flight deck level, for a beam of 51.2 m (168 ft) and Draught of 8.6 m (28 ft).

Crew: Number of officers: 80, Number of petty officers: 500, Number of quartermasters and sailors: 800


Rudder wheel aboard Clemenceau

Clemenceau's (PA 54 class) powerplant was classic. At the time, it is not clear if the French Navy knew the US were working on nuclear powerplant for their carriers and submarines, but in France its development was just started and lack funding. Its adoption was out of question. The radical impulse in the French nuclear program, also carried out for propulsion, started in 1958 under the impulsion and unrelentless drive of De Gaulle. Therefore since 1954 it was envisioned a classic powerplant, taking example of the one planned for the Gascoigne class fast battleships. It consisted two sets of the latest Parsons geared steam turbines fed by 6 Indret boilers. It was quite remarkable for a ship of this size with a figure of 63,000shp per shaft only surpassed only by USN super carriers.

Engine control panel

After their 1978-1980 refit the PA 54 had the following:
-Four propeller shafts (diameter)
-Four RB geared steam turbines
-Six massive double-ended small tubes oil-fired with injectors, very high pressure boilers
-Grand total output 126,000 shp.
-Top Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h) (32.5-33 knots on trials)
-Range as planned: 7,500 miles/18 kts or 3 500 miles nautical @ 32 knots
-2 alternative diesel power unit (2000 KW)
-2 turbo-alternators (2000 KW)

As of note, the range was short, compared to larger USN carriers at around 10,000 nm, but it was fit for the Mediterranean and a good achievement for their size.


The passive protection consisted in some classic armour, with the following:
-Fully Armored flight deck 2-in (45 mm)
-Armored boxes above the machinery space: 2.5-in (50 mm)
-Box around the ammunition holds: 1-in (30 mm)
-Citadel: Sides, bulkheads and deck of the hangar: 2-in (51 mm) of reinforced plates.


For 1954 when they were first studied, missile development was in its infancy in France, and thus, guns were retained for thes carriers at the start. It comprised only a single type: The new French turret developed as a universal gun, eight 100mm in sponsons, two fore and aft on both sides, in sponsons. This classic configuration was coherent with British and US practices of WW2 and the 1950s. Although lesser-hitting than US pattern 5-in guns, they were faster-firing. These successful models updated in 1964 and 1968 were also used by the Bundesmarine, and the Navies of Belgium, Portugal, Turkey, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Bulgaria. As of note, four turrets replaced by two missile batteries and finally the last four replaced in 1997 by two SADRAL systems. In the 1980s also five cal.05 Browning M2HB (12.7 mm) machine guns were installed for close-in defence, intimidation and training.

8x 100 mm

100 mm M68 on Foch after decommission

First generation M53. 55 cal., firing a 100 x 700mmR HR fuse shell. In brief:
FS Clemenceau main guns turrets

Stern sponsons details. FS Clemenceau waiting to be BU.

SACP Crotale EDIR systems (52 missiles)

Crotale system (here on FS Tourville)

This system was installed during the 1980s refits on both carriers. The Crotale EDIR (Ecartométrie Différentielle Infrarouge) works with the radars DRBV 15 and DRBV 51B/C. Guidance rests on auto alignment and fuse detonation. Each system comprises three elements, the launch turret equiped with a Thomson Ku-band Target Pointer and 8 canisters. Under the turret launcher is the FCS comprising a radar data display and digital compruting system with display. The third part is the storage area, behind the deck and tailored for 18 spare missiles, with a lift for a full 30 minutes reload (all eight missiles). This is a derivative of the 1971 design Crotale R-440 in use in many armies. The Chinese PLAN also used its own derivative version on the Type 05212, Type 053H313 et Type 054A vessels.

Sadral SATCP systems

Installed in 1997. This system derived from the short SAM (barery larger than a MANPAD). This Mount comprises 6 Mistral missiles with an automatic fire control of the FCR or EO systems. They carried a 2.95 kgs payload to 930 m/sec or Mach 2.71 via infrared homing to any target in the vicinity of 6 km. Short range indeed. This system was merely adopted for the last refit of FS Foch destined to the Brazilian Navy, replacing the remaining 100 mm guns for and aft in combination with the Crotales.


Both were equipped with the following systems over time:
-Radars DRBV-20C, DRBV-23B, DRBV-50, NRBA-50, CCA.
-Fire control radars: two DRBI-10, two DRBC 32A, two DRBC 31D
-SQS-503 sonar (fixed), removed in 1980
-ECM suite ARBR-16, ARBX-10
-Docoy launcher: 2x Syllex Rocket Launcher
-CCS: SENIT-1 Central Combat System
-Satnav: Syracuse, Fleetsatcom

Aviation Facilities

The landing area is 165.5 m (543 ft) long, 29.5 m (97 ft) wide angled at 8 degrees off of the ship's axis. The flight deck was 265 m (869 ft) overall and its forward aircraft elevator was a side one, placed to starboard, as placed on US carriers, while the rear one was also placed the deck edge.

The ships had a single BS-5 steam catapult forward, both 52 m (171 ft) long at the bow, and a single BS-5 waist catapult on the angled landing deck. The hangar measured 152 m (499 ft) by 22 m (72 ft) fwd and 24 m (79 ft) aft, 7 m (23 ft) high, leaving plenty of room to spare for the parked aviation.

They also carried 1 800 m³ tons of jet fuel and 1100 liters (400 m³) of aviation gasoline (avgas) plus 3 000 m³ of ammunition for her air group alone. This was a far cry to the capacity onboard US supercarriers though and designed for shorter and less intensive deployments.

Air Group

French Aeronavale
French Aeronavale, 1980s air group.

Super-Etendard and F-8 aboard Clemenceau

1950-60s: The first commissioned air group only comprised 40 aicraft, half that on US supercarriers of the time. The mark comprised SE.20 Aquilon 202/203 jets, Étendard IVM/P fighters and the Br.1050 Alizé ASW planes.

In 1967 Clémenceau had aboard six F-8E(FN) superiority fighters, 18 Étendard IVM attack aicraft and 8 Alizé ASW piston-power aircraft.

In 1977, she had ten F-8E(FN) Crusader fighters, still sixteen Étendard IVM and four Étendard IVP for reconnaissance, six Alizé ASW and an helicopter park of two Super Frelon heavy SAR and two light Alouette II SAR and liaison helicopters.

In 1983, FS Foch still carried her six F-8E(FN) crusader fighters, alonsgide fifteen Super Étendard and three Étendard IVP plus five Alizé and six Super Frelon helicopters.

Their last 1990s air group at the time of the Gulf war comprised ten F-8E(FN) fighters, sixteen Super Étendard, three Étendard IVP, seven Alizé and two Alouette III.

The Dassault Rafale was the designed replacement for the F8 Crusader, but development dragged on so much the F8 was kept until their decommission, despite modifications made to operate the Rafale M ("marine").

Alouette III used for SAR in the 1970s

PA 58 (Verdun class), the successor "atomic carrier"

As soon as the Clemenceau class was approved, the admiralty planned its next class, much larger in order to operate large jets able to operate nuclear strikes. Known as PA58 it was advanced enough for the Navy to have named the lead ship FS Verdun. Much larger than the PA54 (Clemenceau) they reached 45,000 tons, twice as much as the PA54, looking at the first Super-carriers like the Forrestal class. The ship reached 286 m overall, and was 34 m wide for 58 m wide flight deck, much more than the Clemenceau. It was still much smaller than the US carriers and the air group, much reduced in comparison.

Despite it's atomic strike capabilities, nuclear power in France was not advanced enough to fir the new carrier with a nuclear plant, and thus, Steam turbines on 4 shafts for 200,000 shp and 33 knots was the solution chosen. Parking size on deck was larger, aircraft handling improved, with two larger, heavy capacity (22 tonnes) lifts, two large catapults forward and the same angled deck as the PA54. Armament comprised from the start two Masurca SAM systems on side sponsons plus eight 100 mm guns fore and aft of the flight deck on sponsons. The SAMs were placed just like on the Kitty Hawk class.

The air group was a repeat of the Clemenceau class, but with the addition of a squadron of Mirage IVM navalized version of the French atomic bomber. The Mirage IVM weighted 20 tons and so required new lifts and catapults. The rest comprised a park of Alizé ASW aircraft and Etendard fighter-bombers plus SAR helicopters for a total of 50 aicraft. In 1960, the admiralty considered the many delays and budget issues with the project, and eventually downgraded it without the Masurca SAM. Considered this time irrelevant, the program was terminated in 1961.

The result of these studies was the adoption of a nuclear strike aboard Foch and Clemenceau, carrying the AN52 nuclear bomb, which was brough to the objective bu a Super-Etendard, despite its limited range. A brand new carrier, this time nuclear-powered was announced in 1980 with the PAN program. Delays accumulated as discussions of a partnearship with the Ryla Navy which had broadly simlar requirements, although on a conventional basis. In the end, the Charles De Gaulle (R91) diverged considerably from the joint French-British project and PAN 2 was cancelled in the post-cold war budget cuts.

Infographics from wikimedia CC, Yannick Le Bris, from DCAN plans via Martine Destouches from Châtellerault archives.

⚙ Clemenceau's 1961 Specs

Dimensions9,085 t, 11,100 t FL
Displacement 180.5/187m x 20.3m x 6.5 m
Propulsion2 CEM Parsons geared steam turbines, 4 boilers,
Performances877,000 hp, 33 knots, range 4,000 nm
ArmamentEight twin 127 mm M1958 DP, ten twin 57 mm M1951 AA guns
SensorsRadar DRBV 20A, DRBI 10

Clemenceau refits & modernizations

1966: Clemenceau had bulges fitted (like Foch).
1978: Lifts capacity increased to 20 tonnes and SENIT-1 CCS and SENIT-2 CCS installed
1986: Four 100mm/55 removed for 2x8 Crotale Navale SAM (36 R440) installed, as well as the radars DRBV-20C, DRBV-50, NRBA-50 and two Syllex decoy chaff launchers. The DRBV-15, and NRBA-51 radars were installed and Sagaie decoy RL, displacement rising to 27,307/32,780 tonnes.
1992: Two twin Simbad SAM (8 Mistral).
1997: Four 100mm/55 removed and 2x6 Sadral SAM (24 Mistral) installed and later two 30mm/82 OTO Breda-Mauser Model F for the Brazilian Navy.

Foch refits & modernizations

1966: Same as Clemenceau: Bulges added
1980: From July 15, 1980 to August 15, 1981, Foch had a major overhaul in Toulon: Internal quarters installations, living quarters, flight deck, propulsion system with 2 additional boilers, SENIT 2 satnav system and television network proving infos to all departments, inertial unit for Super-Etendard reclalibration, bunkers layout fit to house the AN 52 tactical nuclear weapon.

1987-88: From February 1987 to June 1988 Foch received two Crotale EDIR replacing the four aft turrets, and a DRBV 15 radar, 2 chaff EW Sagaie system and the Syracuse + Inmarsat satnav and transmission systems, modernized SENIT with links 11 and 14, CSEE DALLAS laser/IR camera landing assistance system, SNTI intercom, Minicin inertial navigation unit and ammunition bunkers fit to manage the ASMP cruise missile. The the fixed SQS-503 sonar was removed.

1993: Foch had some mofifications on the launching system to test the Dassault Rafale Marine, taking place in April 19-20 this year. For better NATO operability she was also fitted with the US Fleetsatcom transmission system, 2 OE-82 antennas and the AIDCOMER system.

1995-97: From September 1995 to September 1997 she had her last radical upgrade before being resold to Brazil: The while propulsion system was modernized; New boilers and control systems, and two Sadral SATCP systems installed to replace last turrets forward and aft port and starboard plus the latest SENIT 8/01 (SARA) combat system.

✚ Read More/Src

Shipbucket rendtition by Vossieln via


Short construction video footage in US news of the time
Comparison with HMS Audacious
100 mm gun on
The 100mm on

On bbc news 2009
Kagero Book/topdrawings


❏ John Gardiner Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1947-1995 (1978, reedition 1990)
❏ Boniface, Patrick (September 2015), "Clemenceau carriers", Ships Monthly: 46–49
❏ War Machines Encyclopedia, Aerospace Publishing Ltd, London, 1984, p.476
Plans: ArromanchesLafayetteDixmudeJoffreBearnFoch

The models corner:

Heller 1:400

1:400 Foch Heller's starter kit
. The company also proposes a full 3-ship pack sea supply including Clemenceau/Foch, a Durance class tanker and Dupetit-Thouras class Frigate. Or FS Charles de Gaulle.

The famous 1:400 Heller Kit (likely out of stock). It was also poposed by HP-Models at 1:700, Progresswerk Nürnberg 1:400, Shizukyo (SK) 1:1000, Blue Ribbon Collectors Series, but also Heller, Lodela and ADA XIEDA at 1:1750 for wargaming.Query

Marine Alouette III from FS Clemenceau

FS Clemenceau (1957)

The construction start date dates from May 26, 1954 and the assembly of the first prefabricated elements (at the Brest arsenal) began in December 1955 at basin no. 9 in Laninon (DCAN). Launched on December 21, 1957, the Clemenceau carried out its first sea trials on November 23, 1959. Admitted to active service on November 22, 1961 and assigned to the aircraft carrier group (ALPA), she immediately sailed for Toulon where it will be based initially.

From January 29, 1962, she participated until February 5 in the BigGame NATO exercise, with the US Sixth Fleet (USS Saratoga and USS Intrepid aircraft carriers), in the Western Mediterranean, as an anti-aircraft carrier. submarine, then he continues, from March 9 to April 2 with the NATO exercise Dawn Breeze VII, in the Gibraltar area.

Ckemenceau's deck between Upgrades, in 1970 and 1990

During her long career, Clemenceau took part in the majority of French naval operations: Between 1959 and 1997, FS Clemenceau underwent like Foch numerous modifications, among which the the "Crusader Capability" in 1966, “nuclear qualification” on December 10, 1978 with five AN-52 bombs and medium-range ASMP cruise misiles from 1993, 2 "Crotale" EDIR systems in 1985, modernization of its propulsion and detection system. In 1960s and 1970s, the two aircraft carriers were often moored side by side at the "aircraft carrier berth" in Brest's harbor.

She sailed on all oceans and seas of the world. At the end of her career, she cumulated one million nautical miles, 48 times around the globe, having spent 3,125 days at sea, with 80,000 hours of air operation, more than 70,000 catapult launches.

In 1983, she also disrupted a long tradition as the first Marine Nationale seagoing vessel to greet female personnel on board. The three women were an Army doctor, senior master military secretary and first quartermaster. Of course this will change on the long run and peak to around 20% recently.

Faithful to another long-held tradition of Marine Nationale, while anchored in Toulon, she welcomed on board many painter artists like Maurice Boitel, Gaston Sébire (official painter of the Navy) and others. Her Junior Officers' Wardroom was decorated with an oil on canvas by naval painter Mathurin Méheut. Filmmaker Pierre Schoendoerffer, which immortalized the French Indochina war, and was himself a navy veteran, also sailed on board in 1981, from Brest to Hamburg.

Clemenceau, overhead view, in 1981

Throughout her lengthy career, the "clem" as she was popularly known by her crew and the French public at large, participated almost all major French naval operations. From 12 January to 5 February 1962, her firdt test was NATO exercise BigGame with the US 6th Fleet, in the western Mediterranean. There she acted as ASW aircraft carrier. From 9 March to 2 Aprilshe took part in NATO's Dawn Breeze VII, in the Gibraltar zone.

-From January 1968, Clemenceau took part in the large research for the recently disappeared submarine Minerve, in the Mediterranean. Contact was lost just 25 nautical miles from Toulon, her home port. On 22 July 2019 French Defence Minister Florence Parly announced her wreck had been discovered, and causes of her loss now more clear. That was also a great relief for the crew's relatives, so many yeasr after the event. Minerve's wreck is now a grave site.

-Also in 1968, Clemenceau was deployed for the first time to the south Pacific. She assisted to preparation and detonation in French Polynesia of Canopus, first French hydrogen bomb. As the centerpiece of Alfa Force she assumed the defence of two atolls where at that time was assembled more than 40% of the entire French navy in tonnage. Clemenceau as flagship directed forty ships. This was at the time also one of the largest fleet in the pacific, outside the US 7th fleet and JSDMF. However at the time, De Gaulle decided to keep France out of NATO and she no longer took part in joint exercizes.

-In 1974–1977, Clemenceau was deployed off the African coast and Indian Ocean. She took part in Operation Saphir I and Saphir II to defend the recently obtained concession of Djibouti, transformed into a naval base.

-In 1983–84 saw her deployed off the Lebanese coast during the Civil War, rotating with Foch and providing constant air support to French peacekeepers operating within the Multinational Force in Lebanon and the United Nations Interim Force (UNIFIL) in what was called Operation Olifant.

Super-Etendards launched from FS Clemenceau in 1980s operations.

-In 1987–1988 she took part in Operation Prométhée in the Gulf of Oman, as observer and to protect trade in the red sea during the Iran-Iraq war. The Promethée battle force, called Task Force 623, centered around Clemenceau, also comprised the mine counter-measures support ship Loire, the fleet tankers Meuse, Var, and Marne.

-In 1990, she took part in Operations Desert Shield & Operation Desert Storm. Under escort of the missile cruiser Colbert and the tanker Var, she carried 40 army antitank helicopters SA-341F/342 Gazelle and transport SA-330 Pumas, plus trucks. The French side of the 1991 campaign was called Operation Salamandre in the Red and Arabian Seas until the liberation of Kuwait.

-In 1993-1996 Clemenceau experienced three tours of duty off the former Yugoslavia: Operation Balbuzard in support the UN troops. She also later took part in Operation Salamandre in the Adriatic Sea. Her later years were less impressive and she remained mostly in the Mediterranean for her last sorties in between maintenance rounds, which proved more difficult as time passed.


In Brest, 2008, before being transferred to UK for scrapping.

On 31 December 2005, Clemenceau left Toulon and sailed to Alang in India to be BU, despite ecologist protests about improper disposal. On 6 January 2006, the Supreme Court of India denied access to Alang and the ship was boarded by activists held by Egyptian authorities when transiting the Suez Canal. Eventually the French Conseil d'État ordered Clemenceau back to France, and the British Graythorp yard near Hartlepool was tasked to scrap her in far better conditions. It started on 18 November 2009 and ended in late 2010.

FS Foch (1959)

F-14 Tomcats from USS JF Kennedy above FS Foch during a joint exercises in 1990.

In brief

In 1992 for the first time she deployed the Dassault Rafale for its first tests, after deck modifications made in preparation to and operate it. These tests went on in 1995-96 after further deck modifications.

Combat history

Etendard IVM and Super-Etendard aboard FS Foch in 1983

Her "near-duel" in which her French F-8 Crusaders had a serious confrontation was On 7 May 1977: Two Crusaders on patrol were interecepting for an exercizes French Air Force (4/11 Jura squadron) F-100 Super Sabres stationed at Djibouti. The flight leader initiated a dogfight but quickly called his wingman for help as it happened these were not the expected French jets but two Yemeni MiG-21 Fishbeds. Master armament was switched to "on" but, but after a few passes, all four fighters wisely disengaged.

Super Etendards launched from Foch off Lebanon, 1983
Super Etendards launched from Foch off Lebanon, 1983

In October 1984, Foch took part in Operation Mirmillon off the coast of Libya due to the Gulf of Sidra crisis (International waters claimed by Libyan leader Khaddafi). She flew many sorties, spotted Lybian jets but unlike US Navy's F-14s, never was closed enough to engage Libyan jets, most of which were Mig-21 and 23.

Operation Dragon Hammer, 1992
Operation Dragon Hammer, 1992

During the Yugoslav Wars in the summer of 1993, winter of 1994, and summer 1994 she was in close support of UN operations, deploying her F-8 Crusaders to encfoce the no fly zone, and Super Étendards. Later in 1998 she deployed the same super-etendards for close strike missions over Serbia in 1999. She lost no planes, despite two SAM being launched one day. However she had to be withdrawed earlier than expected after four continuous months, longest yet, in part due to problems with her catapult system. and sadly other sites reports also a mutiny in 1999 as cause for her departure. It indeed happened, but its story was amplified by a disgruntled former (Ret.) officer, which faslely reported to the press at the time that 60 volunteers of Maghrebi descent took the captain hostage in the cafeteria to protest against French raids on several sites in Kosovo, considered holy for the Muslim.

Replenishment at sea (RAS), called in french RAM (RavitAillement en Mer)

This had been debunked since in Cols Bleus Magazine, the official navy review. Instead of the alleged commando operation, a few gendarmes solved the issue, and six sailors (not of Maghrebi decent) only were ousted of the ship because of their conduct, and repatriated to Hyères NAS. There was indeed general discontent of some recently enlisted young recruits after a four-month non-stop deployment with only two short stops in Trieste, during Operation Trident. Sadly this fake new is still found on some websites.

In 2000, Foch made her last deployment. She led Task Force 473 on a four month around-the-world tour. In fiction she appeared in the 1995 film "Crimson Tide" with American journalist Richard Valeriani playing himself aboard reporting. Foch also appears in Tom Clancy's 1986 novel "Red Storm Rising".

As São Paulo

sao paulo

Foch was in disposal until September 2000, afetr negociations with the Brazilian government, interested in acquiring her. She was purchased eventually for US$30 million with no air group and recent Mistral SAM additions. She was to replaced the WW2 Minas Gerais after 40 years of service. Previouslt Bazil also approached Spain for a new built US$500 million or acquiring Dédalo. 23 second-market upgraded AF-1 (A4 Skyhawk) fighter were purchased from Kuwait for $70 million, combined with existing Brazilian helicopters were intended for the São Paulo air group.

Purchased while still operational, she was received in her current state by the Brazilian Navy and incorporated, commissioned on 15 November 2000. Next she trained with her AF-1 fighter group for qualificatitions and was visited while in Rio de Janeiro on 17 February 2001.

Given her age and despite her last upgrades, the new carrier (same pennant R99), had a short active life. She took part in Operations ARAEX, PASSEX, and TEMPEREX, to qualify and train the Argentine Navy's Super Étendards and S-2T Turbo Trackers. She also practice carrier-based attack missions. In 2005 she was struck by a major fire, started by an explosion killing one and injured ten, due to a rupture in the steam pipeline. The Brazilian Navy newt launched an extensive overhaul.

When completed in late 2009, she had all steam turbines repaired and cleaned, maintenance of the surface condensers, all boilers retubed, high-pressure compressors fixed, AC electrical generator refurbished, spare parts purchased and new pumps, valves and piping network replaced. Sghe received two new API oil-water separators, two water cooling units, new chemical oxygen generator, new oil tanks, new Naval Tactical Data System, closed-circuit television system, IFF transponder, MAGE system (ESM), new flight deck inspection facilities and new Optical Landing System processing unit and complete overhaul of the aircraft catapults.

Her 12 A-4 Skyhawks were upgraded by Embraer for $140 million as the AMX and F-5EM. They gained the new Elta 2032 radar and carried the MAA-1B, Python 4, and Derby AAMS. Marsh Aviation converted her four S-2T Turbo Trackers to AEW planes to be later delivered. This was added to six S-70B Seahawk helicopters purchased in 2008. However even so after her recommissioning in 2010, her service life was cut short. São Paulo suffered another major fire in 2012 and by September 2016 repairs were still going on when the commander of the Brazilian Navy, Admiral Eduardo Leal Ferreira announced a radical overhault of her old propulsion systemand replacement of catapults. But it was never done as of 14 February 2017, she was announced decommissioned due to budget constraints. It was formal on 22 November 2018 and since 2020, there is an ongoing French effort to turn her into a museum back in France.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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