Armada (Spanish Navy in the Civil War and WW2)

Torn apart by a civil war

The case of the Spanish Navy during the interwar is one of a fleet from a major player torn apart by a civil war. The only closest example could be the American Secession war, at a very large scale, or more recently, the French case in WW2 where the fleet was split between the Free French and Vichy loyalists. But the case of the Armada is unique, in which modern cruisers, destroyers, gunboats, submarines and aviation were involved in a modern in-fighting between the Republicans and Nationalists.

This story is about the state of the Spanish Armada after WW1 (where the country remained neutral), new construction programs and modernizations, and of course the divide between the two sides from 1936, ships captured, battles, and losses until 1939. This will be concluded by the Armada under Franco during WW2 and naval programs of that era.

The state of the Armada in 1918

Spanish Battleship Espana

In 1908 the Spanish Government set up the shipbuilding and armaments company Sociedad Española de Construcion Naval (SECN) with the primary purpose of reconstructing the Navy after its heavy losses in the Spanish-American War of 1898. To provide finance and expertise a 24.5 per cent share of this company was sold to the three British firms of Vickers, Armstrong and John Brown, who provided not only modern designs but also skilled overseers for the Spanish yards. In 1925-29, a wave of retirements saw a large part of the "old armada" going to shipbreakers: Pelayo, a 1890s battleship, the cruiser Emperador Carlos V (1895) in 1933, The Cataluna class Princesa de Asturias and Cataluña (1896 and 1900) in 1929, the Rio de la Plata (1898), rebuilt as a minelayer, in 1929, the Estramadura (1900) in 1930, the Reina Regente (1906) in 1929.

Reina Regente
Cruiser Reina Regente (discarded in 1939), here in 1912.

Former destroyers of the 1898 spanish-american war generation were also discarded: The four Audaz class Ausaz, Osado, Proserpina and Terror in 1924-31 and the pre-ww1 Bustamante class Bustamante, Cardaso and Villaamil in 1930-32. Torpedo Boats of the 177 tons 1912 type were also discarded for some in 1931-32 (1, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12). One was lost during the civil war (N°3 see below) and the other discarded either in 1939 or during and after WW2. The oldest Spanish submarine, Isaac peral (1916) was hulked in 1930 and renamed A0. Laurenti-Fiat Type submarines of 1917, the 217 tons Narciso Monturiol, A3 and Cosmo Garcia were discarded in 1930. However the 1921-23 Holland type B class were still in service for most of the civil war (see below).

The oldest gunboats of the 1910 Recalde class (Bonifaz, Lauria, and Recalde) were discarded in the 1930s but Laya took part in the civil war, sunk in action in 1938 (see below). The more modern 1922, 1314 tons Castillo class (Antonio Canovas del Castillo, José Castalejas, Eduardo Dato) were also active during the civil war and scrapped mush after ww2.

Articles list

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Interwar rebuilding

Almirante Cervera
The Almirante Cervera class was a take on post-ww1 British design, and the last Spanish light cruisers to enter service. Older cruisers of the pre-ww1 design generation would be completely rebuilt like the Navarra in 1937-38 and the Mendez Nunez during WW2.

Shipbuilding facilities were provided at Ferrol and Cartagena, and all subsequent major Spanish warships were built in these two yards except for the destroyer Churruca, launched in 1925 at a new yard in Cadiz. The rebuilding programme began slowly, but between 1922 and 1930 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers and 12 submarines were either completed or put in hand.

The world depression brought a halt to further plans and greatly delayed the completion of those ships still under construction; before the Spanish economy had recovered from this setback the Civil War brought a complete halt to further naval expansion.

ARA Cervantes, former Churucca, sold to Argentina in 1927 as well as the Galiano. This class comprised 18 ships in all, built in three groups, a considerable effort for the Spanish naval industry. They were conform with the British 1915 Scott class flotilla leaders. Battleship España in 3D

The Spanish civil war (1936-39)

Nationalist flagRepublican Flag
Spanish Civil War ships

Cases of civil wars when ships on both side fought in battle it quite rare, especially in modern times. There were a few occurences of in-fighting during WW2 between Free French and Vichy French naval forces, or die-hard Fascists of the "Social Republic" against Italians fighting with the allies, but they saw little naval clashes. However to find naval battles of the scale of the Spanish civil war, the only equivalment that come to mind was the Secession war, 74 years before. In this battles, Battleships, cruisers and destroyers were engaged, mostly in order on one side (mostly the nationalists) to disrupt merchant traffic and any reinforcements to the Republicans, clashes resulting of opposite squadrons sent to intercept this raiding force.

Blas de Lezo
Spanish cruiser Blas de Lezo in the 1920s. The Rif war in Morocco saw the Spanish navy carrying out close support coastal operations, often combined with aviation obervation provided by the Dedalo, first Spanish seaplane carrier.

The Spanish Navy's primary functions were the defence of the Spanish coast and the Balearic and Canary Islands, trade protection, and commerce raiding. Cruisers and destroyers were provided to fulfil all these requirements and were backed up by gunboats, for coast defence and escort duty, and submarines, for commerce raiding. Providing a balanced and modern force was however hampered by Spain's weak financial position, and the considerable disruption of a civil war, which both limited the number of ships that could be built and resulted in extended construction times.

The latter, of course, meant that even though ships might be fully up-to-date when authorised they were often out-of-date when actually commissioned. On the outbreak of the Civil War on 17 July 1936 the major part of the Navy was under the control of the Republican Government but the majority of naval officers supported, the Nationalist cause, the command and organisation of the ships fel mainly to lower deck personnel, considerably weakening its effectiveness.

Early in the war the Nationalists captured the naval bases at Ferrol and Vigo together with the battleship España and the cruisers Cervera, Canarias and Baleares, the last two still incomplete at that stage. Indeed, after securing Ferrol in Galicia, the Nationalists in July lost many troops during the in-fighting which happened in the harbour while 30 officers had been shot by hundreds of sailors loyal to the Republic. The latter fought hard and eventually surrended, short of ammunitions. The Nationalists were able to seize no less than the bulk of the Spanish fleet, battleship España, cruisers Almirante Cervera, Canarias and Baleares, Navarra, a destroyer, torpedo boats and gunboats.

Blas de Lezo Pasaia 1924
One of the two ships of the class Blas de Lezo sailing from the port of Pasaia to the African coast in 1924

The Spanish Republican Navy could still count by then to enforce it on the battleship Jaime I, three light cruisers, 14 destroyers, and five submarines. This was more than enough on paper, as the Nationalists could not count on their weak aviation to strike. In 1937 the Nationalists would be able to complete the Baleares and Canarias and purchase four destroyers and two submarines from Italy. Their tactic from 1937 was to operate the same blockade against Republican-held coastline, with limited effectiveness.

The Republican fleet took the logical step of blockading the Straits of Gibraltar to prevent the transport of General Franco's army by sea from Morocco to the Spanish mainland. However, for some inexplicable reason they departed for the Bay of Biscay in September 1936 leaving only two destroyers in patrol. Canarias and Cervera cleared the Straits by sinking Ferrandiz and damaging Gravina, allowing Franco to transport 8000 troops by sea for the assault on Madrid. This was the only major effort involving warships during the Civil War, and neither this nor subsequentevents were particularly spectacular. Both sides concentrated their naval energies on protecting their seaborne lines of supply while secondary duties directed towards attacks on commerce (usually by submarines) and bombardments and other harassing tactic on the coast.

In the end for July 1936 the Spanish Army of Africa was still isolated in Spanish Morocco but they would manage to airlift their troops from Africa to Andalusia with the help of the future axis powers, Germany and Italy. This was the first airlift of troops in history. But Franco was decided to lift the blockade and cross in force the strait in August with a convoy of merchant ships, carrying 2,500-3,000 soldiers. This ended with a naval engagement with the only Republican destroyer present, in vain because of local aviation. The Republicans would lost their control of the sea between Morocco and the mainland for the remainder of the war.

The most significant naval battle, off Cape Palos ocurred during the night of 5-6 March 1938, but was short and indecisive. It happened occurred only because the two forces involved had run into each other accidentally. The only concrete result of it was the sinking of Baleares.

Battle of Cape Spartel (29.09.1936)

This early battle of the civil war was a crucial victory for the Nationalists as it broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, allowing Franco's troops to receive supplies from Germany. In September a Nationalist squadron in Ferrol, comprising Almirante Cervera and Canarias, were ready to take on the Republican blockade. They engaged a squadron of Republican destroyers on the western end of the Straits at 6:30 am. Gravina was caught off Cape Spartel, Almirante Ferrándiz off Ceuta, duelling with the Nationalists.

Without surprise, Almirante Ferrándiz was sunk by Canarias in the Alboran Sea, after duelling for about 40 minutes, and Gravina was badly hit twice by Almirante Cervera off Morocco but was finished off by the Canarias's main guns from (20 km; 13 mi). Ferrándiz sank 18 nautical miles south of Calaburras, with thirty-one survivors rescued by Canarias, and 26 by the French liner Koutubia, including captain José Luis Barbastro Jiménez. That was a brave nut unequal fight. At no point the Destroyers tried to close the distance and try to torpedo both ships.

Battle of Cape Machichaco (04.04.1937)

The Basque armed trawler Nabarra - Source: Shipbucket, from

Four armed trawlers of the Basque Auxiliary Navy named Bizcaia, Gipuzkoa, Donostia and Nabarra sailed from Bayonne (France) to escort the transport ship Galdames. Canarias sailed from Ferrol (Salvador Moreno) to intercept her. However during the night, the Galdames had its lights and radio turned off for safety and lost sight of the Bizcaya and Gipuzkoa. The next morning, the trawlers were now warned of the coming Canarias, and Galdames eventually spotted them and was reunited with her escort. The trawlers's captains had a reunion and decided to lure out Canarias close to the Biscay coast, taking advantage of the coastal batteries.

First to fight, Gipuzkoa spotted the Nationalist cruiser 30 kilometers (19 mi) north of Bilbao, and later was hit on the bridge, forward gun but replicated when close enough. Badly beaten, she escaped towards the coast, coastal batteries repelling the approach of Canarias to finish her off. Later she would assist the Estonian transport Yorbrook. Meanwhile the other trawlers tried to attack the cruiser. Donostia was hit and retired to a French port where she was interned. Nabarra faced the enemy for almost two hours but sunk. Gipuzkoa was also badly damaged and retired to Portugalete. In the end, Canarias captured the survivors of Nabarra and the transport Galdames, which failed to deliver its supply to the Basques.

Battle of Cape Cherchell (07.09.1937)

Principe Alfonso
Cruiser Principe Alfonso (renamed Libertad) which took part in the fight, scoring many hits on the Baleares. Despite of this, the convoy was lost and the commander sacked.

The Nationalist heavy cruiser Baleares (Manuel Vierna Belando) and Spanish Republican light cruisers Libertad and Méndez Núñez (Commander Miguel Buiza) clashed off of the Algerian city of Cherchell, in the early morning hours of 7 September 1937. Baleares crossed (without searching for it) a Republican convoy (two cargoes, escorted by cruisers and destroyers). The biggest danger for the convoy was not Baleares itself, but Nationalist shore-based aircraft that might have appeared when the Nationalist cruiser had radioed the convoy's location. Because of this, the four destroyers quickly broke off the engagement and continued to escort the merchant convoy.

Steaming ahead, Libertad and Méndez Núñez engaged Baleares, destroying the Nationalist heavy cruiser's furing control and therefore disabling the main guns direction, but the crews were able to repair the damage and resume the fight in the afternoon. Libertad scored two more hits on the Baleares which then limped off to wait for the arrival of Canarias. However the Republican convoy wasr attack by Nationalist aviation, Italian bombers of the Aviación Legionaria (Regia Aeronautica), but they failed to score any hit. However the fight caused the captains of the two freighters to panick, change course south, one running aground in Cherchell, the other taking refuge in Bona, interned by French authorities.

Convoy de la Victoria (05.08.1936)

Destroyer Galiano
The Republican destroyer Alcala Galiano, which tried to stop the convoy but was repelled and later badly hit by aviation.

This was the second clash in the straits of Gibraltar: A Nationalist convoy comprising a gunboat (Dato), a torpedo boat (T19) and a coastguard ship (Uad Kert) escorted four transports loaded with troops from Africa. This was about 3,000 men plus their heavy equipment and weapons, sailing from Ceuta. Over them were flying a composite squadron made of five Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers, three Fokker F.VIIs, two NiD.52 fighters, two Dornier Do Js, and several Breguet 19s.

Destroyer Lepanto, chased of Gibraltar by the British Authorities was driven back by Nationalist aviation and only Alcalá Galiano could engage the convoy. There was a gunnery exchange, but the destroyer did not close to torpedo ranage and retired, without seriously stopped the Convoy, which arrived as planned Algeciras in the early morning. However Dato mistook the British Destroyer HMS Basilisk, which looked like the Spanish one (same design), which almost trigerred a diplomatic storm. Alcalá Galiano was retiring towards Málaga for repairs and supply when she was attacked en route by Nationalist aviation and bombed, loosing 18 while 28 more were badly Wounded.

Battle of Majorca (16.08.1936)

The conquest of Nationalist-held Balearic islands was a strategic step to renew the blockade for Madrid's government, from the atlantic. Plans were made early in August for a seaborne attack, Palma and Cabrera were hit by air attack and a poorly executed expedition against Cabrera from Menorca failed. Eventually later 400 Catalan militia occupied Cabrera while Bayo's expedition failed due to internal political dissentions.

However on August 16, he would launch a large amphibious assault supported by the Spanish Republican Navy, a force of 1 battleship, 1 light cruiser, 2 destroyers and 3 submarines. They ecorted transports loaded with some 8,000 militias and 10 artillery pieces. Almost unopposed, they landed at Punta Amer and Porto Cristo. Facing them, the Nationalists could only provide 3,500 men, including 1,200 regulars, 300 Guardia Civil, and about 300 Falangist volunteers. They were assisted by three bombers and fighters but lacked artillery or even mortars and machine-guns.

The Republicans were able to eventually deploy their artillery and pushed 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) inland. However from August 27 the situation reversed completely thanks to Italian reinforcements, notably a whole squadron which destroyed Republican aviation and was able to provide a solid support during the counterattack. On September 5, the Republicans retreated and the island fell back to Nationalists hands, followed later by Ibiza, Majorca, and Formentera.

Battle of Cape Palos (05-06.04.1938)

Battle of Cape Palos

The largest naval battle, but also the last of the civil war, saw a Republican victory, but to no avail in the larger strategic picture. The Repubicans deployed 2 light cruisers and 5 destroyers and 2 Nationalist heavy cruisers (Canarias class) and 1 light cruiser (Cervera), three destroyers led by Vice Admiral Manuel Vierna Belando. They made a sortie from Palma de Mallorca, in order to act as a distant escort of a convoy from Italy. The same day, Admiral Luis González de Ubieta sailed from Cartagena with the cruisers Libertad and Méndez Núñez plus five destroyers. Both forced met by chance during the night of 5–6 March 1938.

But at this point, the Nationalists had reached their autonomy limit and leaved earlier, leaving the cruiser without protection. An advantage the Republicans were quick to recoignise. Until then as previous clashed showed, Destroyer captains rarely tried torpedo attacks. This time, a Republican destroyer fired torpedoes (but missed) at midnight. The Nationalists went on without changing course, waiting for daiylight to count on their superior heavy artillery, but with the Republicans chasing them.

About 02:15 the forces clashed again, at about 5,000 m (5,500 yd) allowing the Republican cruisers to hit their Natonalist adversaries. In the panic, one officer apparently shot a star shell, illuminating the Nationalists, grealty helping the Republican gunners. As a result, the heavy cruisers Canarias and Balears started to take punishment whereas three Republican destroyers detached from escorting Libertad made a stealthy move towards the Nationalists's cruisers, eventually launching each their whole torpedo loads.

The Sanchéz Barcáiztegui, Lepanto, and Almirante Antequera hit Baleares between 'A' and 'B' turrets, right into a magazine that exploded. The cruiser broke in two and sank. He was alone then, Admiral De Vierna sending his two surviving cruisers out to join the convoy. There was nobody at first to take care of the survivors of the Baleares, of which 765 likely drowned. Howevr Kempenfelt and Boreas rescued later about 441. The battle was a propaganda coup for the Republicans and Luis González de Ubieta was awared the prestigious Placa Laureada de Madrid while ships were awarded the Distintivo de Madrid.

However, if the Nationalists were now reduced to a single valuable warship, the convoy has been saved and the strategic situation worsened on land. The Republican Navy failed to press their advantage and the Nationalists eventually replaced their loss with the brand new rebuilt cruiser Navarra. In addition, the latter praised the heroic behaviour of Manuel de Vierna y Belando, which decided to stay alone to save the fleet and sank with his ship.

The Civil War ended on 28 March 1939 with Spain in a disrupted and greatly depleted condition. Financially she was very weak and subsequent plans to reinforce the Navy were hampered by considerable delays in the provision and construction of new ships, due not only to limited funds but also to fluctuations in the availability of those funds. This situation was to continue with but little improvement until Spain received US assistance in the 1960s (See below for the situation during ww2).


During the Civil War the Basque Government, which was allied to the Republican cause, ran its own small naval force. It was complete independent of the main Spanish Fleet and consisted entirely of small mercantile conversions, mostly armed trawlers and coastal fishing vessels, employed as gunboats and minesweepers.

Destroyer Ciscar
Destroyer Ciscar of the Basque Navy (cc)

One of these vessels, Donostia (ex-mercantile Virgen del Carmen), was originally a purpose-built British naval trawler, George Darby of the Castle class built in 1918. She took part in a fierce and desperate fight off Cape Machichaco (04.04.1937) as well as the Nabarra, which sank in the process. The largest ships in the force were the auxiliary vessels Guernica and Galdemes (3717t), and the deep-sea trawlers Bizkaya (both 1,190t), Nabarra (1,204t) and Guipozco which was sunk by aircraft in 1937 but was salvaged by the Nationalists and repaired and renamed Alava until the end of the war; Nabarra was sunk and Galdemes captured by the cruiser Canarias in Mary 1937; Guernica was sunk by a Nationalist auxiliary warship in 1938. There were other vessels of less than 400t, of which about 7 were lost from various causes.

Outside classic naval battles, ships losses reflected all the varieties of naval warfare possible: Gunnery duels with coastal fortifications, mines, and air attacks. Submarine warfare was limited due to the lack of this type on both side, but active, also against merchant traffic, which went on unescorted and on an individual basis, at least for non-Spanish ships. Indeed exports and imports never ceased during the war.

And Soviet hardware was delivered more quickly and efficiently by both sides through cargo ships rather than by railways. There is no doubt a train convoy of Italian or German tanks and artillery would have been blocked by French authorities.

Bou Iparreko
Basque armed trawler (Bou) Iparreko -LA MARINA DE GUERRA AUXILIAR DE EUSKADI.1936-1939. source See also the Basque naval museum in San Sebastian

Republican Naval Forces in 1936

On paper, the Republican (legitimate) navy was overwhelmingly superior to the few ships the Nationalists were able to catch on their way to Spain. But soon, with the capture of coastal areas, arsenals and ports fell into their hands and naval balance began to shift, up to a point where the Nationalists were able to cause serious disruption in Republican shipping up to dully fledged naval battles (see above).

Battleship Jaime I

Two Spanish battleships in Ferrol, probably Alfonso XIII and Jaime I

Jaime I was the last Spanish battleship completed and entering service, long after the end of WWI. She participated in the Rif war and in 1936, was listed with the Republican Navy. However Jaime I and other ships were alerted or Franco’s coup. Crews mutinied against officers generally sympathetic to the Nationalist cause and they stayed under Republican control. Jaime I will soon attack Nationalist coastal cities, shelling Ceuta, Melilla and Algeciras. She entered Algeciras and sank the gunboat Eduardo Dato. She was damaged however by Nationalist air attack at Málaga on 13 August 1936. In May she was drydocked to repait her bow and attacked several times there, delaying the completion of repairs.

In June 1937, an accidental internal explosion devastated her. Although there were suspicion of sabotage, the crews of the battlehips, which get rid of their officers was quite lacking discipline and drills. Teams failed to contain the fire, which spread to the whole ship and the explosion mught have been accidental indeed, due to carelessness. She was written off after it was found repairs would be impossible and too costly. On 3 July 1939 she was unlisted and broken up in 1941 while her guns found their way in various uses until the end of the war.

Espana class battleships

Blas de Lezo class cruisers (1922)

Mendez Nunez class - Author's illustration profile

Built under the February 1915 naval law, these two ships were closely based on the British 'C' class design light cruisers, and were laid down at Ferrol Dyd in March and September 1917, but due to the lack of supplies, and shipbuilding parts construction dragged on. They were launched in 1922-23 and completed in 1924-25, already obsolete. They received 12 boilers, of which six were oil-fired and the rest coal and carried 780 tons of the latter for 492 of oil.

The class was to comprise four ships, but the last two were cancelled in 1919. In 1926, Blas de Lezo supported the transatlantic flight from Spain to Buenos Aires of a four-man Spanish Air Force crew (led by Ramón Franco) in the Dornier Do J Wal. Blas de Lezo was later gounded on the Centrollo Reef of Cape Finisterre at speed on 11.7.1932, relfloated, and later sank in deep water.

Mendez Nunez which participated in the same exercizes was also badly damaged but survived. She was based in Equatorial Guinea when the Spanish Civil War broke out. She returned home to join the Spanish Republican Navy but at the end of the war, following the 1939 Cartagena Uprising she was interned in Bizerte and seized by French authorities. The ship was later asked for by the new regime and took in hand in 1944 for a complete reconstruction as an AA cruiser (see later).

Alfonso class cruisers (1925)

Alfonso class
Alfonso class - Author's illustration profile

Still under the February 1915 law, three cruisers designed by Sir Philipp Watts based on the British "E" (Enteprise class) light cruisers then in construction were provided but construction was postponed until several years after. Principe Alfonso indeed was only ordered on 27 July 1922 at Ferrol DyD, followed by Almirante Cervera in October 1925 and Miguel de Cervantes in May 1925, basically using the same basin. Contrary to the British "E" class, their engines compartments were closer together and better spaced, so the intakes ended in two equal funnels and the ships were regarded generally as more coherent and elegant than their British counterparts.

The other big difference was their artillery of eight 150 mm guns (6 in) spread in twin and single turrets. The three twins were in the inner hull (B, X positions and center, behind the aft funnel) and two singles on the outer hull, fore and aft. The hull also was different in which it was narrower but longer, and additional AA gun provided and the superstructure modified. However the machinery was identical to the E class and armour was also the same, with the same scheme, repartition and thicknesses.

Miguel de Cervantes off Cartagena in the 1930s
Miguel de Cervantes off Cartagena in the 1930s
Miguel de Cervantes off Cartagena in the 1930s, by Francisco Martínez Asuar (cc).

The ships were relatively fast, Alfonso achieving 34.7 knots on trials with 83.000 hp (80,000 nominal) on forced heat. Outside their eight main guns, they also had four single 102 mm/45 AA (4 in), and two 3-pdr AA (76 mm) and two triple banks of 533 mm (21-in) TTs each side, 12 total. No provision was made to carry a reconnaissance plane. All three (Alfonso, Cervera and Cervantes) were launched in August 1925, May 1927 and February 1930 respecively. At that time their design was already dated, as they had no real turrets but shields for their main artillery. In 1931, Alfonso was renamed Libertad by the new regime. When the civil war broke out, all three were in Republican hands, but Cervera.

They participated in several actions (see above details), but Miguel de Cervantes was torpedoed, and not sunk by the Italian submarine Torricelli in 1936. She was repaired and returned to service until 1939. Both her and Libertad were interned in Bizerte and later returned to Franco's Navy. Almirante Cervera was docked at Ferrol when she was captured by the Nationalists in 1936, then commanded by Captain Juan Sanchez-Sandalio Ferragut (not Farragut !), which was executed by the crew. Nicknamed the "Dandy of Biscay" she teamed up with battleship España and destroyer Velasco to enforce a blockade from Ferrol. Her career does not fit here and like other Spanish units will be studied in detail in a dedicated post.

Alsedo class destroyers (1922)

Ordered by the same Navy Law of 17 February 1915 as the Blas de Lezo class cruisers, the first unit, Alsedo, was laid down in 1920 in Cartagena DyD, like the Juan Lazaga and Velasco. They were launched in 1922 (October), 1924 (March) and 1923 (June) respectively. They were loosely based on the British Nimrod class. In the interwar, they received four 20 mm oerlikon guns in replacement for their old 2-pdr. They participated in the civil war on the Republican side and survived. Velasco famously sank the Nationalist-held submersible B2 off Cape Penas near Santander on 19 August 1936. Under Franco's Navy in 1945 they received two Deep Charge Throwers while the complement rose to 86. There was a proposal at some point to replace the 'Y' gun (between the funnels) by a German 88 mm AA but this never materialized. They were eventually stricken in 1957 and 1961.

Churucca class destroyers (1926)

Destroyer Jose Luis Diez
Destroyer Jose Luis Diez (1928), first group.

Still provided under the same February 1915 naval law, Nine ships (first batch) and seven (2nd batch) were ordered, and later designed as close copies of the Scott class destroyer leader. There were little differences between the two batched, launched at Cartagena (but Churucca (1) at Cadiz), in 1926-33. Two were sold in 1927 to Argentina, Alcalà Galiano and the Churucca, the name being repeated to two other destroyers of the same group. Second batch destroyers had a greater fuel storage and modified gun mountings with larger shields. Displacement was 1536-1590 standard and up to 2087-2175 tons fully loaded. Standard armament was 5-120 mm guns (4.6 in), 1x 76 mm AA, and 2x3 21-in TTs (533 mm), plus two DC throwers.

Most were active during the civil war on the Republican side, three torpedoed and sank the Cruiser Baleares. Ferrandiz was sunk by the Canarias, Ciscar by aviation at Gijon and later refloated and repaired by the Nationalists, and Diez, badly damaged by the Canarias, took refuge and was interned in Gibraltar. The last batch was composed of the Alava and Liniers, but construction was suspended and resumed much later during the latter part of WW2.

Churucca class
Churucca class DDs - Author's illustration profile

B class submarines (1921)

C class submarines

Part of the February 1915 naval law, built at Cartagena they were based on the Holland design, but modified by the British and under licence by Electric Boat Co. These 1290 tons FL boats had 533 mm (21-in) TTs instead of the puny 450 mm of the previous 'B' class, with two more, but sacrificed some diving and underwater speed (16/8.5 knots). They counted on 2,000 bhp Vickers engines and 750 shp electric motors and received a forward deck gun, 76 mm (3-in).

Launched in 1927-29 they were in service with the Republicans and C1 was sunk by aviation off Barcelona but later salvaged, C3 sunk off Malaga by an Italian submarine, C5 lost in the bay of Biscay. C6 was damaged by an air raid and later scuttled to avoid capture, C2 and C4 underwent a refit in France which ended too late and they were surrendered to the new regime after the end of the war. Meanwhile, the older 'B' class submarines (launched 1922-23, 494/715 tons, 62.5 x 5.6 x 3.4 m) derived from the Isaac peral, a Holland-type of 1916, were also in Republican hands. Four were scuttled in Cartagena and Pormon at the end of the war in April 1939, while B5 was sunk by an aircraft in 12.10.1936 and B6 in 19.9.1936. B2 was later refloated and used to reload batteries until 1948.

Jupiter class minelayers (1935)

The Jupiter as completed, wearing neutrality bands during WW2. These 2,100/2,600 tons ships 100 m long (12.65 x 3.50 m) were propelled by two shafts Parsons turbines and two Yarrow boiler for a total of 5000 shop, enough to reach 18.5 knots. They could carry 264 mines and in supplement to their four 120 mm, 2x 75 mm and four 20 mm AA guns, also carried two DC throwers. They were dual-purpose vessels launched in 1935-37 at Ferrol and completed in 1937-38. Their guns were in superfiring positions and the mines ran on four rails in a fully covered mine deck, launched from transom doors. Vulcano and Jupiter were modernized in 1959-61 as Frigates and they were reclassified as frigates, stricken in 1972-77. Little is known about their civil war service, which was short due to their late completion.

Gunboat Calvo Sotelo (1934)

This gunboat was ordered by the Mexican government as Zacatecas, built at Echavarriera y Larrinaga (Cadiz). She was requisitioned when the civil war broke out by the Republican government and pressed into service only in August 1938. Specs: 1,600/2,000 tons FL, 92.35 m oa x 12.20 x 3.05 m, 4x 102 mm, 2x 75 mm, 3x 20 mm AA. She served under Spanish color until 1957. Eventually her sister-ship Durango ws delivered to the Mexicans.

Seaplane tender Dédalo (1901)

Dedalo Autogyro
First helicopter carrier ? An autogyro taking of from Dédalo; This was in effect the first rotorcraft to take off and land on the deck of a ship, 7 March 1934.

This auxiliary ship was hardly the first Spanish "Aicraft carrier" as the type arrived much later during the cold war, but it was used operationally both during the Rif war. However she was already disposed of during the civil war (laid up for disposal in 1935 in Sagunto), sunk by Nationalist aviation to avoid her conversion back as a seaplane carrier. She was the former Neuenfels, a merchant vessel of 1901 converted in 1922 to accomodate an airship, two balloons, and several seaplanes, complete with a hangar and cranes. The airship had a mooring mast installed at the forward end of the forecastle. She was refloated in 1940 and scrapped in Valencia.

Illustration of the Dédalo in 1922 by Erlenmeyer, 2015 (CC).

During the 1960-70s, a former Independance class aircraft carrier was loaned to Spain from 1967 under MDAP, under the same name. She served until 1989 as SPS Dédalo R-01.

Ships of the Nationalist Navy

Battleship España (Former Alfonso XIII)

Espana in 1937

Battleship España was lost off cape Tres, Morocco. The name went to Alfonso XIII in 1931 after the change of regime. Completed in August 1915 she took part in the Rif war. In 1934 she was laid up at Ferrol potentially waiting for a modernization in the Italian style. But it never took place because of budget constrains. When Franco started his rebellion against the regime, España was still in Ferrol’s drydock, with the completion of her modernization nearly done.

However Ferrol soon fell to the Nationalists, and a quasi-mutiny took place with the ships present, crews taking on their officers, seizing the ships and starting battle preparations to shell Nationalist forces in the harbour. The battleship soon turned against shore batteries and the Nationalist destroyer Velasco. However there was no escape and support in the harbor was strong, leading to a "siege". Eventually the España's crew surrendered, without any hope of relief, short of water, food and ammunitions. This in-habour battle left Ferrol devastated. Both the port and captured ships needed much repairs.

After several month, España returned in active service, this time under Nationalist flag. She teamed up for her first mission with Almirante Cervera and Velasco, and started rampaging the coast, targeting merchant Republican traffic. They also took on foreign merchant ships, provoking much international indignation. But by this point, Europe was wildly divided about the subject as the war was also a class and political war. However on February 1937, while interdicting British steamer SS Consett to enter Santander she struck a mine and sank slowly enough for her entire crew to be saved by Velasco.

Baleares class Cruisers (1936)

These impressive heavy cruisers has been started during the Carlist regime, based on plans prepared by the same engineer behind the design of the British County class. However the span of contruction was such that none were completed when the civil war broke out. They were captured at Ferrol and completed by the Nationalists.

Both were a crucial asset in their fleet, since thay lacked any battleship. They became very active understandably, participating in many operations. Of the two, Baleares was the only sunk, by three Republican destroyers (Barcaiztegui, Lepanto, Artequera) off Cape Palos on 6.3.1938. Canarias survived the civil war, spend WW2 as flagship of the Spanish Navy, was modernized in 1952-53, 1960, and the late 1960s with modern electronics before being stricken in 1975 and scrapped in 1978. Read More about the Canarias class

Cruiser Navarra (1920)

Reina Victoria Eugenia was a 1920 cruiser of the prewar british "Town" class design. She was renamed Republica in 1931 and then Navarra after her 1937-38 reconstruction, in Nationalist service. This was carried out at Cadiz, where she was fitted with 8 new Yarrow boilers trunked into two new vertical funnels and the superstructure was rebuilt to include a new streamlined bridge and small vertical foremast aft. The main armament was reduced to 6 of the original 9-150 mm (6-in) guns in superfiring axial positions and AA was revised.

However when she was out again, there was little to do left and the 4857t standard, 6500t fully loaded cruiser unable to follow the more modern and faster Canarias and Almirante Cervera. She was mostly inactive also during WW2 and discarded eventually in 1956 after being used for training most of her career. More on the Navarra

Cruiser Almirante Cervera (1925)

Almirante Cervera

Captured in Ferrol, same class as the Alfonso and Cervantes (see above Republican navy). She served for the whole conflict and in 1940-46 as her sister-ships her armament was modernized, with four 105 mm, 8x 37 m, 4x 20 mm AA, new fire control, reworked, larger bridge, short pole mast and displacement up to 9660 tons fully loaded. Galicia (ex. Libertad) and Cervantes both had their central 150 mm gun replaced by a catapult and cranes for a reconnaissance plane. Their armament was modified again, with the adoption of four twin 90 mm DP and twenty 20 mm AA guns in 1946 while the TTs were removed, reaching 9900 tons fully loaded. They were stricken in 1960-70.

Castillo class gunboats (1922)

Castillo class Gunboats - Author's illustration profile The Castillo class ships were 1314 tons standard, launched 1922-23, armed with four 102 mm guns under masks, not in superfiring positions because of stability issues but rather on the same level. The class comprised the Antonio Canovas del Castillo, José Canalejas and Eduardo Dato, all launched at Cartagena after the war and their names were shortened in the 1930s. Outside their main guns they received two saluting 47 mm guns, and two Pom-Pom Bofors with carriages allowing to be used on land. All three served during the civil war on the Nationalist side, captured early on.After the war they received two 3-in AA guns.

Del Castillo Gunboat
Gunboat Canovas del castillo - Coll.Juan Antonio Padron Albornoz, Universidad de La Laguna (Tenerife) Source

Other Spanish Gunboats

Besides the above Spain still had a few old gunboats built during 1885-97, all except one of which (the 114t Macmahon) were discarded in the 1920s, and two discarded 1930s old river gunboats, Perla (1887, 42t) and Cartagener (1908, 27t). There were also patrol ships discarded in 1930s, eleven purpose-built armed trawlers purchased in 1922 of:
-The 'Castle' class, Uad Lucas (ex-HMS Ness), Uad Muluya (ex-HMS Waveney), Uad Ras (ex-HMS Wear), Uad Martin ex-HMS Erne) and Uad Targa (ex-HMS Test).
-The Mersey class Uad Quert (ex-HMS Rother), Xauen (ex-HMS Henry Cromvell) and Arcilla (ex-HMS William Doak)
-The Briscard class Tetuan (ex-French Grognard), Larache (ex-French Poilu) and Alcazar (ex-French Rengage).
-Cabo Fradera, a 45 tons river gunboat was captured by the Nationalists and commissioned as a patrol ship.

Uad Targa was wrecked 1.9.31 and Uad Ras was lost in 1933, whilst Uad Lucas and Uad Muluya were sunk by the cruiser Cervera on 10.11.36. The remainder were discarded between 1944 and 1965. There were also three coastguard fishery units from 1910-11, displacing 158t.

The Laya, sunk by Nationalist aircraft at Valencia, was salvaged in 1940 and scrap protection vessels, Delfin, Dorado and Gaviotab were shortened after completion by wth 1-57mm gun and with a speed of 11kts, and an ocean-going tug, Anteio, from the first world war. Dato was sunk by the battleship Jaime Primero, by then equipped for minelaying and minesweeping. Delfin and Dorado were discarded in the 1920s and Gaviota and Antelo in the 1930s.

WW2 Spanish Navy

Although neutral, Spain still kept a number of significant warhips in service, that could have taken out a blocus of Gibraltar if needed. The only participation of Franco to the axis cause was to sent a contingent in USSR, the Azul Division. They were primarily equipped by the Germans, but no Spanish ships participated in any axis operation. On paper however, this fleet was a considerable asset, at least in the eyes of Hitler in case of an attempt to takeover Gibraltar which would have far-reaching consequences for WW2.

-Heavy Cruiser Canarias (1936)
-Three Alfonso class cruisers (1923)
-Mendez Nunez (taken in hand in 1944 for reconstruction)
-Three Alsedo class destroyers (1922)
-Thirteen Churucca class destroyers (1926-33)
-Four Aquila class destroyers (ex-Italian, transferred 1938)
-Two Castillo class gunboats (1922)
-Seven 177 tons TBs (1917)
-Holland type Submarine B2 (used for training)
-Two C class submarines (1928)
-Gunboat calvo Sotelo (1934)
-Four Jupiter class Gunboat/Minelayers (1935-36)
-Two Eolo class minelayers (1939)
-40 misc. ships: M1 class CMBs, DAR ex-G5 soviet type MTBs, ex-Italian MAS transferred 1937, LT class ex-German S-Boote MTBs, locally built LT-27 class (completed from 1944 and well after the war).
In construction:
-Eight Pizarro class gunboats (1944) completed postwar
-Three D class submarines (German design, 1944), completed postwar
-Seven Bidasoa class minesweeprs (German M-Boat design 1943-44) completed postwar

Post-WW2 Spanish Navy

Franco's regime completed a number of ships which construction or refit has been suspended. They would be treated in detail in the future cold war section of the Armada. -AA Cruiser Mendez Nunez (1947) Mendez Nunez 1947
The old 1922 cruiser was completely rebuilt as an AA cruiser from 1944 to 1947: 8x 120 mm shielded, six single mounts in axis double superfiring platforms fore and aft and two both sides of the rear superstructure, 10x 37 mm in twin mounts abaft the funnels and behind, plus 8x 20 mm AA guns and six (2x3 banks) 533 mm torpedo tubes. It was said the 1941 Atlanta class was the main inspiration for this design. The bow was also rebuilt as a clipper bow, increasing lenght to 7 feets while displacement rose to 4680 tons (more on the cold war Armada section).

-Alava class destroyers (1946)
Originally the third batch of Churucca class destroyers which construction was started in Cartagena just when the civil war broke out. It was suspended and resumed in 1939, then supended again, the hulls were laid down in 1944-45 and completion made after WW2, in 1946 and 1947 for Alavia and Liniers. These 101 m, 1670 tons destroyers were modelled on 1930s British designs and completely obsolete when entering service. Despite of this, and several refits, they stayed active until 1978-80. This was not the case for the Ocquendo class, completed in the early 1960s on a completely revised design.

-Audaz class TBs (1951)
These ships were based on the French Le Fier class design TBs. These were nine ships in 1945 but completed in 1951 up to 1961. Needless to say, based on a late 1930s design they were totally obsolete in the 1960s, but served in the 1970s and for Intrepido, 1980. See the cold war section.

Read More

Beevor, Antony (2000) The Spanish Civil War.
Conway’s all the world’s fighting ships 1906-1921 and 1922-1947
Fernández, Carlos (2000). Alzamiento y Guerra civil en Galicia 1936–1939. Vol.1.
Moreno de Alborán y de Reyna, Salvador (1998). La guerra silenciosa y silenciada: historia de la campaña naval durante la guerra de 1936-39. Vol.3.
Basque ships on
Basque Navy on
The Armada on
Photo archives (

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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