Irene class protected cruisers (1887)

SMS Irene, Prinzess Wilhelm

The first German protected cruisers

Irene and Prinzessin Wilhelm (Prince William) were built respectively at Vulcan (Stettin) and Germaniawerft. They were the first cruisers ("Kreuzer") in the German Navy. And the first protected cruisers in Germany. Still second class as they appeared, they were quite an improvement over the late 1870-1880s Bussard class, later reclassed as gunboats. At that time, German "avisos" (dispatch vessels) ruled, and the Irene class were at that time denominated "cruiser-corvettes".

Design

Both cruisers were quite long at the time, at 98.90 m (324 ft 6 in) long (waterline), up to 103.70 meters (340 ft 3 in) overall. Beam was 14.20 m (46 ft 7 in), draft of 6.74 m (22 ft 1 in) for a standard displacement of 4,271 metric tons (4,204 long tons), and 5,027 t (4,948 long tons) fully loaded. The hull used transverse and longitudinal steel frames. The outer hull was covered with wooden planking backed by Muntz copper sheathing, all to prevent fouling. The stem was a solid piece of bronze below the waterline, the ram was made in and iron above it. The Irene class were excellent sea boats, before the wind, handy and seaworthy even in high seas. They lost little speed when turning hard (both had their steering controlled by a single rudder.) with little roll and pitch making them excellent artillery platforms. However in heavy seas they usual only sailed at nine knots, suffering from structural weaknesses in theit forecastle. Their transverse metacentric height was .69 to .72 m (2 ft 3 in to 2 ft 4 in).

Their compound steel armoured deck amidships was wooden sheated for colonial operations in tropical waters. The crew consisted in 28 officers and 337 enlisted men, and they carried smaller boats: Two picket boats, one pinnace, two cutters, one yawl, and two dinghies.

SMS Irene in 1890 - IWM
SMS Irene in 1890 - IWM

Irene class powerplant

Irene's propulsion rested on two horizontal 2-cyl. double-expansion steam engines (VDE) with steam was provided by four coal-fired fire-tube boilers. This power was transmitted to a pair of three-bladed screws, 4.50 m (14 ft 9 in) in diameter. SMS Prinzess Wilhelm's one differed slightly in having 4.70 m screws, with four blades. Also her boilers came from AG Germania instead of Wolfsche as on Irene. The exhausts were truncated and ducted into a pair of funnels. Total output was 8,000 metric horsepower (7,900 ihp), enough for 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph). The ship's range according to their expected colonial duties was about 2,490 nautical miles (4,610 km; 2,870 mi) at 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph), a figure common at the time, due to the limitations of coal. Both vessels also had two electrical generators, for SMS Irene, rated for 23 kilowatts (31 hp) at 67 volts and for Prinzess Wilhelm (later, as it was the same at first) three generators for a total of 33 kW (44 hp) at 110 volts.

Armament

Irene and Prinzess W. had the same main battery, which consisted of four 15 cm RK L/30 guns, all in single pedestal mounts and with shields. For stability they were fitted in sponsons fore and aft for broadside fire, but the two forward and two aft could fire in chase and retreat. This was a common feature inherited from central batteries on ironclads. Each of these Krupp guns were supplied with 400 rounds total. They could hit in theory a target at 8,500 m (9,300 yd).

The battery was completed originally by short barrel 15 cm RK L/22 guns in single mounts alongside the broadside. Their range was limited to 5,400 m (5,900 yd) as well as their arc of fire, around 80°. To fen off torpedo boats attacks, the ships also carried six 3.7 cm revolver cannons, of which four were installed in fighting tops and the rest on the upper deck. For close combat, both ships also carried three 35 cm (13.8 in) torpedo tubes. They had eight reloads. Two of these tubes were mounted on the deck (with traverse) and the third was fixed in the bow and below the waterline.

SMS Irene by James Scott Maxwell
Caricature of SMS Irene by James Scott Maxwell

Protection

Protection, as said above, rested on compound steel armor. The bulk of the protection tested in the armoured deck, above the waterline, making them early protected cruisers. This main armor deck had two layers, 20 mm (0.79 in) and 30 mm (1.2 in) (total 50 mm). Its sloped downward to the belt reached 20 mm and 55 mm for 75 mm total. The coaming protecting the vitals was 120 mm (4.7 in) in total, backed with 200 mm (7.9 in) thick teak to absorb hits energy. The conning tower had walls 50 mm thick, and the roof was 20 mm in thickness. There were 10 watertight compartments to deal with torpedo hits, and a double bottom on 50% of the hull's total length. In addition, all the sides compartments below the waterline were equipped with cork cofferdams to contain flooding. For the time they were built, from 1886, this was a very potent and innovative combination.

Construction of the two Kreuzer Korvette

SMS Irene, named after Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, sister-in-law of Kaiser Wilhem II. She was the first protected cruiser in the German navy, ordered under the contract name "Ersatz Elisabeth". She was laid down at AG Vulcan (Stettin) in 1886, launched on 23 July 1887, and fitted-out on situ to be commissioned on 25 May 1888. Her sister ship SMS Prinzess Wilhelm ("Prince William") was ordered under the contract name "Ersatz Ariadne". She was laid down at Germaniawerft shipyard (Kiel) the same year but launched later on 22 September 1887, and after fitting-out was commissioned on 13 November 1889, more than a year and seven months afterwards. There is no doubt for historians about the name of the class, attributed to Irene as a the clear lead ship.

Modifications of the German protected cruisers

First modernization came in 1893, before their Asiatic service, but its nature is unclear. As artillery progressed fast, they were taken in hands in Wilhelmshaven at their return from the Asia squadron between 1899 and 1905 (by combining the two ships) for a refit. Their armament was improved with four brand new 15 cm SK L/35 guns in single pedestal mounts in sponsons fore and aft, which range reached 10,000 m (11,000 yd). This was completed by the removal of all short barrel 15 cm guns, replaced by right QF 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/35 guns. Three were aft each side of the rear mast, one amidship between funnels and the last one in a bow barbette. Also to deal more efficiently with TBs, six 5 cm (2 in) SK L/40 QF guns were added on the decks. The mast had a thicker base, supporting fighting tops in which were mounted QF guns, whereas other were installed either side of the bridge forward or the rear superstructure aft. The crew composition was also changed, with 17 officers while enlisted men grew to to 357. Irene was taken in hands at Wilhelmshaven for another refit, in 1903-1907, and Prinzess W. in 1899-1902.

SMS Irene after refit in 1900
SMS Irene after refit in 1900.

Specifications in 1905

Dimensions103.70 m (340 ft 3 in) oa x 14.20 m (46 ft 7 in) x 6.74 m (22 ft 1 in)
Displacement4,271 t (4,204 long tons), Full load: 5,027 t (4,948 long tons)
Crew27 officers and 337 sailors
Propulsion2 shafts, 4 × fire-tube boilers VDE, 8,000 PS (7,900 ihp)
Speed18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph), Range: 2,490 nmi (2,870 mi) at 9 knots
Armament4 × 150, 8 × 105, 6 × 37 mm, 3 × 350 mm TTs
ArmorDecks 50-75 mm, gunshields 50 mm, Conning tower 50 mm

Service

SMS_Irene.png

Both Irene and Prinzess Wilhelm saw extensive service due to their active life; Irene at first was a prestige ship in the Navy and often escorted Kaiser Wilhelm II's yacht on European cruises, so it's became famous as a showship, also frequently visited by foreign dignitaries. Irene also served in East Asian waters as Prinzess Wilhelm, notably taking part in the capture of Kiaochou Bay in 1897. They were at the basis of the future East Asia Squadron which was created around them. Both were present in the Philippines in 1898, the admiral hoping to seize another base there. After modernization the ships were still active in 1914, although retired from front-line duties. Irene was converted as a submarine tender and served until the war ended, while Prinzess Wilhelm was a mine hulk and was also scrapped after the war.

SMS Irene

A postcard of the Asian squadron showing SMS Irene.
A postcard of the Asian squadron showing SMS Irene.

Irene was the first protected cruiser built by the German navy and started her duty on 25 May 1888, joining the armada sent in UK to celebrate the coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm II. At her return she was assigned to the frontline 1st Division, alongside the ironclads Sachsen and Baden and casemate ironclad SMS Oldenburg, and served as as a reconnaissance and screening ship. Prince Heinrich commanded the Division, and SMS Irene was his flagship. Training manoeuvers were made in the North Sea (Rear Admiral Friedrich Hollmann) and both divisions went into the Mediterranean for the winter cruise, escorting the Kaiser's yacht SMS Hohenzollern to various ports for official visits, notably Turkey and Italy, Athens and Venice. They were back in Germany in April 1890.

In August a new escort started for Irene, this time to participate in the Cowes Regatta. Both cruisers later sailed to Helgoland, just transferred with a ceremony from Britain. The entire German fleet paraded at this occasion. By late November 1894, SMS Irene sailed to Casablanca, showing her guns after the murder of a German businessman there. She was sent in Asia, becoming the fulcrum of German naval presence there after the First Sino-Japanese War. She became the flagship of the new Asian division under Rear Admiral Paul Hoffmann, with three older cruisers. In 1895, SMS Prinzess Wilhelm joined her, as well as the rebuilt SMS Kaiser, the cruiser Cormoran, corvette Arcona, and gunboat Iltis. This force was a reflection of the Kaiser's will to be present in the regio,, disputed by great colonial powers of the time, hoping to make some territorial gains.

In 1896, Otto von Diederichs arrived at the head of the East Asian Cruiser Division and in 1897, Irene was refitted in Hong Kong and was back in the fleet on 3 December. So she missed Von Diederichs seizure of the Kiaochou Bay concession, one of the greatest achievement of the Cruiser Division so far. With new reinforcements, this fleet became the famous East Asia Squadron. Irene was the flagship of the 1st Division of this new Squadron and in the spring of 1898, she was in Shanghai for maintenance. Of course, the squadron was present during the Spanish–American War that year. SMS Irene was sent in Manila after the Battle, on 6 May. In June she was joined by Kaiserin Augusta but several days later, SMS Irene stopped in Manila Bay by the American revenue cutter Hugh McCulloch.


The revenue cutter Mc Culloch

In July, Rear-admiral Diederichs dispatched Irene to patrol the waters of Subic Bay and to evacuate potential nationals during the Filipino insurgency. Off Isla Grande, she encountered the Companie de Filipinas, a recently insurgent ship threatening the Spanish garrison at Isla Grande. The rebel commander called fora parley onboard Irene, but Captain Obenheimer informed him he considered any hostilities as piracy under international law. This was enough to dissuade the insurgents of any action, as their ship was no match for the cruiser. Captain Obenheimer wold later inspect the Spanish garrison and later, the rebel base in Olongapo. Irene evacuated noncombatants from Isla Grande and met on her way the American warships Raleigh and Concord, making a salutation, but the American press back home made this encounter a near fight.

This prompted Diederichs to retire Irene from the area and deflate growing tensions of the German presence in these waters. She debarked her passengers to Manila and departed the Philippines for good, relieving Arcona in Kiaochou. She conducted training there but was back to Manila in November for a brief stop, replaced by Kaiserin Augusta. She steamed back to Germany in 1901 and two years later was extensively refitted at the Imperial Shipyard of Wilhelmshaven. She was recommissioned in 1905 but stayed in home waters for reduced training, and was eventually stricken before the war, on 17 February 1914 like her sister ship. It was decided to convert her as a submarine tender in Kiel. In 1916, she was transferred to Wilhelmshaven, and was anchored there until the end of the war. Due to her age and role, she was excluded by the peace talks and on 26 November 1921, sold for scrap, BU in 1922 on situ.

SMS Prinzess Wilhelm



SMS Prinzess Wilhelm was the second protected cruiser of German navy and her service started, after a crash cruise and training in 1888-89 by the large scame maneuvers of 1890, playing the opposing force with several corvettes. By September 1892, she was in Genoa as Germany's ambassador for the 400th anniversary of the voyage of Christopher Columbus, only German ship there. In 1894 the autumn maneuvers took place, in which SMS Prinzess Wilhelm was the reconnaissance flotilla's flagship. In January 1895, she sailed to joint Irene in Asia and reinforce the Cruiser Division. By June 1896 she was in the cruiser division, under command of no other than Alfred von Tirpitz. In November 1896 she was in long maintenance for her powerplant issues.

By June 1897, Rear Admiral Otto von Diederichs took command of her Division and with Irene, and Arcona was stationed in Chefoo for gunnery training. Diederichs raised his mark onboard the modernized ironclad SMS Kaiser, and held a series of ceremonial visits with his captains. In July, Diederichs was on Prinzess Wilhelm for a state visit in Peking and negotiations for a permanent naval base. He tried to obtain the port of Kiaochou, but this was refused. He took his time mater to report extensively on the Taku Forts, guarding the entrance to Peking.

In October, Diederichs planned to rotate his ships for maintenance and Prinzess Wilhelm was to be sent in Shanghai but instead he conducted both Prinzess Wilhelm and Kaiser to Kiaochou for an autumn gunnery training. Prinzess Wilhelm was to be stationed in the port during the winter, but when this was denied by Chinese authorities, Diederichs used as a casus belli the murder of two German priests on 6 November in Shangtung. Her planned with his two ships a full attack on Kiaochou, shelling the fortification, and later joined by SMS Cormoran. By 10 November, the attack was ready and planned for the night of the 12. The three ships formed a battle line that was to surge into the harbor on the morning of 14 November. Crews also were to form a landing party and complete the seizure of the harbor just before the intense shelling started, with some 700 officers and men. They were landed on the main pier in the harbor and the Chinese were caught completely by surprise. In two hours it was folded and Diederichs had the Chinese commander, General Chang was arrested and forced to order a withdrawal of his forces while the Imperial flag was raised. SMS Prinzess Wilhelm fired a 21-gun salute. The landing party remained as a garrison while and several 3.7 cm guns of the cruisers were landed to provide defensive artillery.

SMS_Prinzess_Wilhelm-Irene

Diederichs requested reinforcements and a second division was authorized, in what became the East Asia station, stationed in this newly seize port. Prinzess Wilhelm became flagship of the 1st Division of this new Squadron and in November, Diederichs became vice admiral with overall command of German naval forces in Asia. Chinese forces at the end of the month tried to retake the port; but were rebuffed by Prinzess Wilhelm's and Kaiser's strong artillery support. General Chang was arrest after attempting a subversion of the German occupation. After the Chinese rout, 50 men from Prinzess Wilhelm's were sent as a defensive party at Chi-mo to fend off Chinese raids there.

In the Spring of 1898, as the Spanish-American war just was about to end, Manilla was now in US hands, and SMS Prince Heinrich became the admiral's flagship as kaiser was sent in maintenance to Nagasaki. Kaiserin Augusta was sent in Nagasaki, as temporary flagship and later Prinzess Wilhelm and Kaiser joined her to sail in June for the Philippines with Irene and Cormoran. Prinzess Wilhelm coaled in Mariveles en route and embarked additional crew from the transport Darmstadt. On 9 August, the American squadron ordered neutrals to leave and the Germans returned to Mariveles. SMS Prinzess Wilhelm in the Philippines for thet German nationals, replaced by Arcona in October but in November, after Kaiser ran aground Prinzess Wilhelm became the flagship. She returned in germany by 1899, was in drydock at Wilhelmshaven for modernization until 1902 but stricken in February 1914 and used during the war as a mine hulk in Danzig, Kiel and Wilhelmshaven in succession. Too old to become a prize or part of the peacetime treaty navy, she was sold on 26 November 1921, and broken in situ like her sister.

Src/Read More

Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860 -1905.
Cooling, Benjamin Franklin (2007). USS Olympia: Herald of Empire.
Gottschall, Terrell D. (2003). By Order of the Kaiser, Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902.
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels.
Sondhaus, Lawrence (1997). Preparing for Weltpolitik: German Sea Power Before the Tirpitz Era.
Röhl, John C. G. (2004). Wilhelm II: The Kaiser's Personal Monarchy, 1888–1900.
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene-class_cruiser
//www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/1ere-guerre-mondiale/Kaiserliche-Marine.php#crois

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Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Consolidated PBY Catalina
Brewster F2A Buffalo
Curtiss SOC seagull
Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas TBD Devastator
Grumman J2F Duck
Grumman F3F
Vought SB2U Vindicator
Vought Kingfisher
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N Tenzan "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Type 4 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 Type 2 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M Navy Type 90 "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 43 K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Fairey Swordfish
Fairey III

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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