York class heavy cruisers (1929)

United Kingdom (1928) - HMS Exeter, HMS York

The last British heavy cruisers

Development of the "Class B" - York design

The County class is generally known as Washington cruiser design "Class A" cruiser, reaching the top of what could be done within the 10,000-ton range. However already when they were designed in the 1920s it was thought of a second-rate cruiser design called "Class B", already with budget constraints in mind, before the 1929 crash. The displacement of 8,500 tons needed to do many drastic changes in the final design, which was approved in 1927. It was even before the global stock market crisis. Based on these limitations, the engineers did wonders.

The York class was afterwards found as a very convenient design by the admiralty in a context of budget-constraints. The tonnage was the first concern. The large, roomy hull of "County" was scrapped and the final design returned to a more classic forecastle model, shorter by more than almost twenty meters. But the most significant sacrifice was a turret 203 mm (so six 8-in guns instead of eight).


HMS York in 1930

The tonnage saved was about 4000 tons, traduced as real savings for the tax payer, however this weight savings also served to better concentrate and distribute the armor. The Exeter protection was in the end ultimately thicker and more effective, although still weak to face aircraft bombs as the York demonstrated later. Moreover, despite the limited size available, the engineers were able to cram into the compartments the same powerplant, four boilers in two boiler rooms, four Parsons geared turbines, for 80,000 shaft horsepower in total.

As a result according to the weight saving, the design speed was 32.5 knots, faster than the County class by one knot. So in the end, with the loss of two main guns and some range, the York class was faster and better protected. The reductions in cost were £250,000, compounded by a manpower reduced by 50.

The Exeter class design

The York was launched in 1928 and completed in 1930, followed by the Exeter in 1931.
The latter differed in having a hull wider by 2.5 cm. Normal hull size was 540 ft (160 m) between perpendiculars and 575 ft (175 m) o/a, and the ship was 57 ft (17 m) wide, and had a 17 ft (5.2 m) draught. Also the Exeter was 8,390 tons standard/10,410 tons full load, had a complement of 630 and her magazine box citadels was covered by 5–1 in thick plates. Her onboard aviation was better with two Fairey Seafox (later Supermarine Walrus), thanks to two fixed catapults. HMS York indeed had a single Fairey Seafox operated by a single rotating catapult. None had hangars.

The two ships were particularly set apart by their superstructures, totally different. The York had masts and funnels angled to the rear and a very tall bridge designed to clear the aircraft catapult planned to be placed on the original design on the "B" gun turret, installed in 1931 but later removed. In fact in Conway's, both ships are treated as separated entries.

The class was however limited to that two ships, which were in essence, the last British heavy cruisers. The Surrey class, which derived from the Yorks, and reconciliated with the "eight-eight" battery, was never ordered (see below). All the next cruisers were light ones, according to London treaty limitations.

Paper projects: The Surrey class

Surrey class design

The Surrey class was planned under the 1928-29 program for completion in 1932, but they were cancelled on 14.1.1930, right after the financial crisis and in parralel to the London naval treaty. Indeed, Great Britain was permitted 15 heavy cruisers with a total tonnage of 147,000, and had already reached her cota with the County class.

They were basically four turrets versions of the Exeter. They shared the same hull elongated from 175 to 183 m (575 to 600 feets) and the forecastle was continued to "X" turret, which used the upper superstructure deck as a superfiring position. They displaced in theory 10,000 tons standard still, for a planed 12.664 tons FL, and their armour was later judged totally inadequate. They would have been given a reduced machinery, four Parsons turbines fed by 6 admiralty 3-drums type boilers rated for 60,000 hp, enough for a design speed of 30 knots.

Protection-wise they were given a 5-1/2 in belt protecting the machinery spaces and extended 9 feets below the lower deck, 2-1/2 in thick on 1-1/2 in plating. Closing bulkheads were extended for a further 5 feets. 3 in protected the magazines, while the turrets, trucks, ring and bulkheads, steering gear, were 1 in thick. In addition to a secondary armament of four 4 in/45 QF Mk V HA, 16 Bofors 'Pom-Pom' (two octuble) and 8 TTs, they would have carried two seaplanes on rotatable catapults each side behind the funnel N°2. They would have been named HMS Northumberland (planned to be laid down at Devonport) and HMS Surrey (planned to be laid down at Portsmouth), but work on the design stopped on 23.8.1929. Modified Surrey design
A modified Surrey design at the end of the 1930s. The complete reconstruction of the London also give clues about the possible 1940s design.

Powerplant

Despite a redued macinery space, better proytected and compartimented, both Class B heavy cruisers had eight Admiralty 3-drum water-tube boilers feeding four shafts Parsons geared steam turbines for a total of 80,000 shp (59,700 kW). Top speed as designed was 32.25 knots down to 30.25 knots (56.02 km/h) fully loaded. Their range was 10,000 nmi (20,000 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h, helped by a provision of 1,900 tons of oil fuel.

Blueprint HMS York

Armament

The main armament comprised six 8-inch (203 mm) Mark VIII guns in three turrets rather than eight. These artillery pieces were mounted on Mark II mounts, which was designed to be 20 tons compared to the previous Mark I of the County-class but turned out to be heavier in the end. It however allowed a 80 degrees elevation, like the previous model. With special ammunitions, the York were indeed able to direct heavy anti-aircraft fire. This did not helped the York however against plungin Stukas. But mechanically this proved very complex by for little gain and a very rare use. On her side, HMS Exeter used a more conventional Mark II* mount with a 50 degrees elevation.

The secondary armament comprised four 4-inch (102 mm) QF Mark V guns, two AA 2-pounder guns and two triple banks with 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes on each broadside, like for the County class. The HMS York received in 1933 two additional Bofors 40 mm and several 20 mm Oerlikon guns in 1941. The Exeter was almost entirely rearmed after her duel with Graf Spee (see notes).

Protection

The A-class design cruisers may have been roomy and with a considerable range, they were "paper cruisers" in the sense of many areas were left totally unprotected and others were lightly armored. By contrast the York class included a 3-inch thick (76 mm) belt 8-foot-deep (2 m) high, plus an armoured lower deck linked to the top edge. The belt rose to 4 inches (100 mm) over the magazines, and extended above the belt with 2.5-inch (64 mm) crown.

The turrets faces and crowns were protected by 2-inch (51 mm) armour while the sides had 1.5 inches (38 mm). The barbettes below and ammo wells connected to the magazines and powder charges deep inside were 1-inch (25 mm) thick. The radio station was protected by 1-inch.

The belt was shorter, as the amidship magazine of the previous class was removed, and the space between turrets was largely reduced also. The armour scheme was in the end at least equivalent to the previous class but better over the machinery.

HMS Exeter 1939 HD

The York in action

Built at Palmers Shipbuilding & Iron Company, Jarrow, HMS York was laid don on 16 May 1927, launched 17 Feb 1928 and completed on 6 June 1930; She became flagship of the 2nd Cruiser Squadron until 1934 under captain Richard Bevan and the 8th Cruiser Squadron, North America and West Indies Station. In 1935 she sailed to the Mediterranean, patrolling during the second Italo-Abyssinian War, and in 1939 she was back on the American station.

Atlantic

Her first task was to escort a convoy from Halifax, Nova Scotia. HMS York was assigned early in the hostilities to Force F at Halifax to hunt down the German raiders. She was refitted in Bermuda in October-November 1939 and returned in home waters. She entered the drydock for a refit from December to February 1940, and was back in action with the 1st Cruiser Squadron of Home Fleet. She intercepted the Arucas, a German blockade runner in the Skagerrak Strait in March 1940. The crew scuttled her before she could be captured.

She fought in Norway, escorting troop ships according to Plan R 4, and in April she towed to safety the badly damaged destroyer HMS Eclipse. She also escorted a convoy carrying the 1st Battalion of the Green Howards to Åndalsnes and Molde with HMS Manchester and HMS Birmingham, and later evacuated allied troops from Namsos in May 1940.

Battle of cape Passero

Then was sent mediterranean, arriving at Alexandria in late September with the 3rd Cruiser Squadron. After escorting a convoy around the Cape of Good Hope she was back to escort another convoy to Malta, one of the most dangerous route in the Mediterranean. She did not participated in the Battle of Cape Passero, but sank the disabled and abandoned destroyer Artigliere on 13 October, already badly hit by HMS Ajax the previous evening.

In November, York took part in Operation MB8, and Operation Judgement, the attack on Taranto which crippled the Italian fleet for the remainder of the war and inspired Pearl Harbor. She later returned to escort duties, ferrying trrops from Alexandria, Egypt to Piraeus, Greece. She again escorted reinforcements to Malta. She was part on a major sortie of the Mediterranean squadron from Alexandria on 16 December, which conducted air strikes on Italian shipping and airbases on Rhodes. She shelled Valona during this operation.

Battle of Crete

Operation Excess: In January 1941, York escorted a force bound to Suda Bay, Crete, and later covered operations in the Eastern Mediterranean. She escorted there a composite force, with the tanker RFA Brambleleaf and four Flower-class corvettes; She was back at Alexandria on 16 January, but returned in Suda bay in early February.

She was anchored in Suda bay (North of the ridge) for preying on Italian shipping an convoys. During the defense of the island on 26 March 1941, she was attacked by Flotilla Decima Flottiglia MAS commandos at night. The attack came from six Italian explosive motorboats of the MAT type. Each pair attacked a particular ship. One sent the tanker Pericles by the bottom. HMS York was hit amidships, flooding both boiler rooms and one engine room and killing two in the process. The cruiser was forced to ran aground to not sink competely.

While the bulk of her hull remaied out of the water her armament was not fully operational. Submarine HMS Rover was used as a makeshift dynamo to procure her electrical power, ensuring her AA batteries remained operational, whereas the Luftwaffe dominated the area. It was the Luftwaffe indeed that took the task of finishing her off the following days. Raid after raid Stukas pounded the cruiser to oblivion, with 50 kgs to 500 kgs bombs. But where she was, the cruiser was still up but damaged well beyond repair. The British themselves, deciding the general evacuation, blew her remains up on May 22, 1941.

HD picture of the York in May 1941

The Exeter in action


HMS Exeter off Solo coco, circa 1939

HMS Exeter was one of the most battle-harneded cruiser of the Royal Navy during world war two. She participated in three naval battles, in very difficult circumstances. On the first, she duelled (it's right, with at first the help of two light cruisers) the Graf Spee, considered as a dangerous "pocket battleship" bearing six 280 mm cannons. A movie as made of this epic duel. On the second, against a whole squadron of IJN heavy cruisers during the two Battles of the Java Sea.


HMS Exeter anchored at Balboa harbor, 24 april 1934

The battle of Rio de la Plata

For his part, the Exeter, also in the Force H participated in the hunt for Graf Spee, accompanied by two light cruisers, and distinguished himself in the famous Battle of Rio de la Plata. Severely damaged, she struggled to Port Stanley for rough repairs, then the metropolis, where he remained in repairs and overhauled nearly 14 months.

Aftermath



She received in 1941 new tripod masts, rangefinders and firing telemeters, and a reinforced AA with eight 4 in/102 mm in double turrets, sixteen 40 mm Pompom in two octuples mounts, and a modernized mounts with more elevation for her main 8 in guns (203 mm). Thus parried, she quickly passed the Suez Canal to reach the Far East, and joined the Composite ABDA fleet under the command of Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman, trying to oppose the Japanese. After the fall of Singapore, she joined Java, the last allied stronghold before Australia. She tried to oppose the passage of a convoy of 40 IJN ships of the invasion force, heavily guarded by four heavy cruisers and 15 destroyers. The challenge was to ward off the fall of java, potentially opening the doors of Australia.

First battle of the Java Sea

During the first battle of the Java Sea, the Japanese, whose morale was excellent, began an artillery duel while their destroyers approached for a massive torpedo attack. HMS Exeter received a 8 in shell from the Nachi in her engine room and was reduced to 16 knots, compromising the cohesion of the Allied force, ut she survived the onslaught. Two days later, she was again facing the Japanese heavy cruisers Nachi, Myoko, Ashigara and Haguro, each with four 8 in guns more than her. She endured a deluge of shells but was saved only by the resolute action of her escort, the destroyer HMS Electra. With the arrival of the night, the Dutch ships were sunk, and the HMS Exeter, badly damaged, forced to flee again, joining Surabaya.



Temporarily repaired, she tried to join with escorting destroyers the port of Ceylon. But the cruiser lacked sufficient repairs, and could only reach 23 knots. On March, 1st at dawn, she was spotted by Japanese aviation, and later caught by four Japanese cruisers. HMS Exeter and her escort, destroyers HMS Pope and Encounter, faced a new Japanese attack for two long hours before being destroyed along the destroyers. She capsized but refused to sink, and it was eventually decided to scuttle her. During these preparations, a Japonese destroyer approached and torpedo her at point-blank range. She exploded and sank, taking away the rest of her crew. Survivors were picked up by an enemy squadron and suffered the same terrible fate as the other British forces trapped in the Far East in death-riddled POW camps.



HMS York specifications

Dimensions175 m x 18 m x 5.2 m draught (full load).
Displacement8390 t. standard -10 410 t. Fully Loaded
Crew630
Propulsion4 shafts Parsons turbines, 6 Admiralty boilers, 80,000 hp.
Speed32.5 knots, Range 10,000 nautical at 14 knots.
Range
Armament6 x 203 mm (3x2), 8 x 102 mm MK VIII AA (4x2), 16 x 40 mm AA (2x8), 2 x 533 mm TTs, 8-10 x 20 mm oerlikon, 1 seaplane.
ArmorBelt 75 mm, turrets 60 mm, ammunition magazines and citadel 120 mm.

Links/sources

http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-06CA-York.htm
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1922-1947
https://www.world-war.co.uk/profiles3.php3
https://uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/1187.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York-class_cruiser
http://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/2e-guerre-mondiale/royal-navy-2egm.php#crois


HMS Exeter in September 1939 during her duel with KMS Graf Spee (author's illustration).


HMS York in Suda Bay, Crete, May 1941 (author's illustration).

Naval History

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Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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