Spanish destroyers: Pioneers

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada - 25 destroyers (1885-1947)
From Audaz to Alvaro de Bazan:

Argentine ARA Juan de Garay & Cevantes of the Churucca class (1926)

Agreed: Audaz is only arguably the very first destroyer, and Alvaro de Bazan was a frigate, although of the size and capabilities of a destroyer. Anyway, this a tradition spanning from 1885 to this day, of destroyers built in Spain. There is no ww1 Spanish destroyer section planned for the close future, so this post will start with these early development, prior to WW1, and WW1 Spanish destroyers as well. HD Profile of the Churruca class HD Profile of the Churruca class (Conway's)

The bulk of this subject is to cover Spanish destroyers types, with a short overview of their armament. There will be nothing on tactics since they differed little from that of the Royal Navy prior to WW2. For actions, see the generic WW2 Spanish Navy for battle actions involving Spanish destroyers; A short overview of their career is also part of each study.

An Iberian flair for innovation

There are several fields that were explored by talented engineers and inventors over the years in Spain: -The invention of the submarine is shared by Spain with a few other nations but Ictineo was the first ever to feature an Air independent steam engine, by Narcís Monturiol, and Isaac peral the first electric submarine. For more see the Spanish Submarines page.
-Spain also invented the autogyro, and ancestor of the helicopter, and also invented the first helicopter-carrier (Dedalo).
-Spain invented the Steam engine by Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont
-And Spain invented the destroyer for what we are concerned for...

Vilaamil's destructor


Technically, the Destructor was ordered by the Spanish government in 1885 to UK yards as a torpedo gunboat. She was specifically tailored to hunt enemy torpedo boats, the new threat for larger ships, cruisers and ironclads. The idea came from Fernando Villaamil, second officer of the Ministry of the Navy. He designed his own design of a large torpedo gunboat to search and destroy torpedo boat and protect the Armada.

Since UK was recognised for her expertise in light fast ships, he deposed a tender to several British shipyards and received proposals based on his specifications. In 1885 James and George Thomson of Clydebank won the contest and started the construction of "Destructor" (or "destroyer" in Spanish, one of the two possible origin of "Destroyer" with the British "TBD"). She was laid down at the end 1885 and late 1886, to be fitted out, trialled and commissioned in 1887.

Vilaamil was born from a wealthy nobles and landowners of Asturias (northern industrial Spain). However impoverished, he pursued a career in the Armada, which soon propelled him to higher rank, and ultimately the ministry. Apart the destructor and development of destroyers in Spain, he became a strong advocate of worldwide oceanic sailing as the best training for cadets and embarked in the first onboard the Corvette Nautilus in 1892-1894. Visiting Cramp in the USA he soon was aware of adopting the latest naval innovations back in Spain. Not heard, his predictions were realized during the abysmal performances of the Armada in the 1898 Spanish-American war where he commanded the destroyer Furor, where he met his fate.

Destructor, the first destroyer

Destructor - wikimedia commmons
So what made the destructor (apart her name) the first destroyer or precursor of, and not a torpedo gunboat like so many built in the 1880s ? The design by Vilaamil himself, which known torpedo gunboats designs of the time, and specifically made a lower, lighter, faster ship. In short, a torpedo gunboat/torpedo boat hybrid.

Destructor displaced 348 tons and what made her unique, was she was the first warship ever equipped with twin triple-expansion engine. They generated 3,784 ihp (2,822 kW), allowing her to reach a top speed of 22.6 knots (41.9 km/h). This made her one of the faster ships in the world in 1888, on par with Thornycroft's experimental Lighting. But she was much larger, armed with one 90 mm (3.5 in) Spanish-designed Hontoria breech-loading gun and four 57 mm (2.2 in) or 6-pounder Nordenfelt guns, and two 37 mm (1.5 in) (3-pdr) Hotchkiss guns. To this impressive artillery was added two 15-inch (38 cm) Schwartzkopff torpedo tubes with three torpedoes for each, so nine in total. The Destructor was manned 60 officers and sailors. For gunnery, speed and dimensions, her design left nothing to guessing: Her sole purpose was to hunt down torpedo boats at high seas. Therefore most authors agrees that Destructor was indeed an important precursor, if not the invention of the torpedo boat destroyer. She will be covered by a dedicated post.

Spanish Torpedo Gunboats

Since it's not the main subject here, were are going to cover the subject quickly. The Armada acquired the Temerario (1889) and Dona Maria de Molina (1896), which were all operational in 1914. The Destructor was classed officially as a torpedo gunboat, but was closer to destroyers in general shape and capabilities. Spanish TGs were larger and slower, at 562 and 830 tonnes respectively.

Temerario class (1889)

Temerario, Nueva España, Galicia, Marques de Molins, Martin Alonzo Pinzón, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón.

The first was launched at Santa Rosalia, Cartagena, the second at Arsenal de Carraca and all the others at La Graña, Ferrol. The first was laid down in October 1887. Others were launched in 1891-92 and the last, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, completed in 1894.

These were locally designed and built Steel-hulled torpedo gunboats, with a 13 mm (12.7 mm or ½ inch deck armor) protective deck creating a box over the machinery and boilers. The armament was a mix: They had two 120mm/35 Hontoria M1883 gun fore and aft, and four 57/42 plus four 25/40 Nordenfelt QF guns, they also had two 356 TT with three spare torpedoes for each. Their powerplant was composed of two vertical triple expansion steam engines rated for 2600 HP total fed by to four boilers, two locomotive and two cylindrical types. Endurance was 3400 nm at 10 knots, on 106 (peacetime) to 190 tonnes (wartime) of coal but top speed as registered on trials was 19 knots.

The Temerario class vessels had a length between perpendiculars of 58 meters, a hull 6.73 meters long with a maximum draft of 3.16 meters and her full displacement, deeply loaded was 630 tons. Standard crew consisted of 91 officers, non-commissioned officers and sailors.

Temerario, postcard

When world war broke out they were barely able to sustain 13 knots, 19 when making sea trials. Their participation in the Hispano-American war wa symbolic. Galicia was sold to Venezuela in September 1898 (Bolivar). In 1918, Marqués de Molins was reboilered, having a single funnel, two 120/35, and four 25mm/40, plus the two original 356 mm TT. Apart Nueva España (ex Velox) which was discarded in 1916, and two Pinzon in 1914 the others were discarded in 1920-22, after WW1.

Marques de Molins

Nueva espana Service The Temerario class vessels saw some heavy action for some of them: During the 1898 American-Spanish war, Nueva España, Marqués de Molins, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón and Martín Alonso Pinzón and Galicia were stationed in Cuba whereas Temerario stayed in La Plata waters. Nueva España, Galicia and Pinzón skirmished with US Navy ships but were not sunk or badly damaged. After the war Galicia was purchased by Venezuela, in serviceas ARV "Bolívar" and discarded in 1920. The remainder were discarded in 1914 (the two Pinzón) in 1916 for Nueva España, 1920 for Temerario and 1922 for the Marqués de Molins.

Author's illustration of the Temerario in 1898, previously on

Displacement: 562 tonnes standard
Dimensions: 58 x 6,76 x 3,16 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 4 boilers, 2600 hp, 19 knots.
Armour: Decks and bulkheads 1,5 in.
Armament: Four Hontoria 4,7in (120 mm), four 6pdr (57 mm) QF, one 25 mm Nordenfelt Mg, two 356 mm TT.
Crew: 91

Dona Maria de Molina class (1896)

Don Alvaro de Bazan

Dona Maria de Molina, Marques de la Vitoria, Don Alvaro de Bazan. All three torpedo Gunboats were built at La Graña, Ferrol, launched in 1896-97, completed in 1898-1900. They were reasonably Fast torpedo gunboats. After modernization Marqués de la Vitoria had one funnel and María de Molina received two close funnels while Álvaro de Bazán kept her original configuration. The first two were rearmed with two 120mm/35, and four 42mm/42 plus two 57/42 Nordenfelt guns; All three were in Spain during the 1898 war and stayed in service during WW1 and the early interwar, discarded in 1926.

Displacement: 830 tonnes standard
Dimensions: 71.6 x 7,98 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 4 loco boilers, 3500 hp, 19,5 knots.
Armour: Decks and bulkheads 1,5 in, CT 6-in.
Armament: Two Hontoria 4,7in (120mm), four 40 mm Nordenfelt QF, 8 MGs, three 356 mm TTs (one bow).
Crew: 91

Filipinas (1895)

Filipinas - SRC

A single torpedo gunboat for colonial use, built at the Arsenal de Cádiz and completed in 1895. A 747 tonnes, one funnel, 70 x 8.22 m, armed with two 120 mm/35 Hontoria M1883 guns and four 25mm/42 Nordenfelt guns a single 356 TT in the bow plus three trailing tubes. She was propelled two VTE steam engines and four boilers, cranking up 4500 ihp, reaching 20 knots. Endurance was 2000 nautical miles. She was discarded in 1902.

Furor class destroyers (1896)

Furor, Plutón, Terror, Audaz, Osado, Proserpina

Furor 1896

Despite Spain became a pioneer of the type, the lack of political will prevented the adoption of destroyers sooner and adoptions of this class somehwat slipped compared to other fleets. The Audaz class became the first operational Spanish destroyer class. They were British-built, at Clydebank NY, and loosely based on the 27 knotters, standard destroyers of that time.

However, as specified by the Spaniards, they were faster and more powerful. The class comprised the the Audaz, Osado, Pluto and Porcupine, were redesigned and leaned towards the “30 knotters”. They were fitted with Normand boilers. Porcupine differed by having wo funnels. The earlier Furor, Terror and Pluto served with the Cuban squadron and were anchored in Santiago in 1898 when Admiral Schley made his fatal swoop in the. A fierce battle, leaving no chanced to the Spaniards, ended with the destruction of the Furor and Pluton.

The drama of it all was that Fernando Villaamil, which led the DD squadron, knew his destroyers were badly used by Admiral Cervera. Pluton had a homeric artillery duel with the armed yacht USS Gloucester, which she disabled before being targeted by the guns of larger ships. Terror was the only one to escape from the total destruction of the Admiral Cervera squadron that day, saved by her speed. The others, operating in Spain, did serve in the next war and well beyond. They were converted as minelayers and broken up eventually in 1924-31.

rendition of Furor in 1898
Author's rendition of Furor in 1898


Displacement: 380 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 69,8 x 6,88 x 4 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts 3cyl TE engine, 4 Normand Boilers, 7000 hp, 28 knots.
Armament: Two 3-in (75 mm), two 2-in (57 mm), 2 x 8mm Maxim Mgs, two 14-in (350 mm) TT.
Crew: 65

Bustamante class (1914)

Bustamante, Vilaamil, Cadarso

The Bustamante class destroyers comprised three vessel built in Spain, at the S.E.C.N. yard of Cartagena, to a British design, close to the 1903-1905 River class. They were laid down in 1911-1912 and 1913, launched in 1913-14, and completed between 1914 and 1916. They served during the whole interwar, until 1930–1932, only peacetime service in home waters, with the training squadron. When compared to others designs of the time, they were outclassed, both with a light armament and slow.

This class was started after a gap of 18 years... Again, the government look to the Royal Navy for design inspiration. The move was quickstarted in 1908 when the Spanish Cortes passed a Naval Law to make naval dockyards more efficient and able to deliver more modrn ships quicker. A construction programme was also voted, very ambitious, which included two battleships (the future Espana class dreadnoughts), three destroyers, 24 torpedo boats and 4 gunboats. They were all to be completed in 1914, but of course since deliveries depended on UK supplies, construction stalled and most of these prewar designs were completed after the great war, already obsolescent.

To gain time after many years of near-inactivity, all the ships would be built on British designs. The three destroyers were no exception. They were built by Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval (SECN) a newly setup consortium, to refurbish and manage Spanish shipyards, at Cartagena. Consultants came from either Vickers or John Brown, which were part of the SECN consortium.

The new destroyers measured 64.7 metres (212 ft 3 in) by 6.7 m (22 ft 0 in) in beam and 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) draught, while they displaced 530 long tons (539 t). They were powered by steam turbines by Yarrow and Yarrow or Normand boilers. They were mated on three propeller shafts. The powerplant was rated for 6,250 shaft horsepower (4,660 kW) total. Top speed was 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph), and range 900 nautical miles (1,700 km; 1,000 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). Armament was very light. It consisted in five Vickers 57 mm (2 in) guns, side-by-side on the ship's forecastle, aft centreline and on the beam. In addition the Bustamante class carried two banks of two 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes.

With the war in Europe, supplies from the UK were cut as the last ship of the bunch was being completed. Cadarso was provisionally equipped with older 380 mm (15 in) torpedo tubes. These delays, added to an already obsolete design, made the the Bustamante class outclassed by contemporary standards, and after a career of neutrality patrols during the war, and as part as a training squadron in the 1920s, they were discarded in 1930, 1931 and 1932. Therefore they are not listed in Spanish WW2 destroyers.


Displacement: 380 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 69,8 x 6,88 x 4 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts 3cyl TE engine, 4 Normand Boilers, 7000 hp, 28 knots.
Armament: Two 3-in (75 mm), two 2-in (57 mm), 2 x 8mm Maxim Mgs, two 14-in (350 mm) TT.
Crew: 65

Spanish Destroyers Armament

Due to their size and origin, apart some locally-produced Hontoria guns, the bulk of heavy and light Spanish artillery came from UK, answering to British standards.
Hontoria M1883 L/35 120 mmm (4.7 in): Used on Spanish Torpedo Gunboats
Vickers 3-in (75 mm): Audaz class destroyers
6-pdr (57 mm) Nordenfelt L/45: Same, Audaz and Bustamante class
3-pdr (40 mm) Nordenfelt
25.4 mm L/40 Nordenfelt Heavy MG: Same
8 mm Maxim Machine-gun
14-in (350 mm) Torpedo Tubes on Spanish TGs and Audaz class
18-in (450 mm) Torpedo tubes: Bustamante class
21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes: Alsedo and Churucca class

WW2 Spanish Destroyers nomenclature

WW2 destroyers in the strict sense were for the most, suviving destroyers of the interwar and the civil war of 1936-39. The WW1 Bustamante class were obsolete in 1930 and scrapped, whereas the Alsedo and Churucca formed the bulk of the destroyer fleet, especially the latter that were on par with British designs of the early 1930s, large and well armed.

Another class was started before WW2, but due to lack of deliveries, armament and subsystems from UK, they were delayed until the end of the war (Audaz class). Also just before WW2, a class of large torped-boats modelled on the French Le Fier class were completed well after the end of the war in 1950. These were 1930s designs in the 1960s.

Alsedo class (1922)

Alsedo, Lazaga, Velasco

The February 1915 navy law was passed by the Cortes, authorising a large extension of the Armada, notably three destroyers of British design. The camed from the same yard that designed the 1913 M-class destroyer of the prewar emergency program. The Spaniard choosed the Vickers and John Brown layout based on the Hawthorn Leslie variant of the M-class destroyer. Since this was a recent design, the British Director of Naval Construction voiced his objection to pass on another nation such recent design, but could no stop the sale, which proceeded unabated.

The Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval (SECN) dockyard at Cartagena took delivery of the blueprints and starte construction of the three Spanish destroyers, all laid down in 1920, two years after the hostilities stopped and three after the Cortes vote. By that type the M-class has been rendered already obsolete, replaced by the V-W classes.

The Alsedo class measured 86.25 metres (283 ft 0 in) overall or 83.82 metres between parallels, 8.23 metres in beam, and 4.57 metres in draft. Displacement of the ship was 1,060 tonnes (1,043 long tons) standard, and up to 1,336 tonnes fully loaded, a stark difference with the Bustamante class they almost dwarved.

For propulsion they had two geared steam turbines, on two two shafts, with steam provided by four Yarrow water-tube boilers, separated in boilers rooms with their own smokestack. Design speed was 34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph), quite an improvement over the Bustamante. Alsedo during her sea trials was able to reach 37.2 knots (68.9 km/h; 42.8 mph). By that time she was unarmed however. These Spanish destroyers carried 276 tonnes (272 long tons) of oil, for an autonomy worth of 1,500 nautical miles (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) at 15 knots. They also carried a crew of 86.


The new Spanish destroyer armament was a radical departure of the Bustamante. They carried three of the far more punchy Vickers 4-inch (102 mm) guns. These Vickers designs were built under licence in Spain by Hontoria. They were located one forward on the forecastle, one aft between funnels 2 and 3, and one at the rear. In addition two 47 mm anti-aircraft guns were mounted amidships, later replaced by four 20 mm cannon. In the end two twin 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes were placed on the deck, centerline. They were also quite heavier than the 450 mm of the previous class. In addition, for ASW warfare, they carried two depth charge throwers by 1945 while a more modern rangefinder was installed on her bridge.

Because the war was not over and supplied cut short (already for the Bustamante this caused problems), laying down the keels has been postponed until 1920. Plans to build three more were cancelled eventually, and later a new naval plan asked for more up-to date destroyers, the Churruca class. During the interwar, four 20 mm oerlikon guns were installed, and the old 2-pdr guns removed. They served on the Republican side and survived the war, while Velasco sank the Nationalist B2 (submarine) off Cape Penas (Santander) 19/08/1936. By 1945 they were given two Deep Charge Throwers and they were stricken in 1957, or 1961.


illustration of the Alsedo class destroyers
Author's rendition of the Alsedo class destroyers


Displacement: 1044 standard/1315 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 86,25 x 2,23 x 4,57 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts parsons Turbines engine, 4 Normand/Yarrow Boilers, 33,000 hp, 34 knots.
Armament: Three 4-in (102 mm), two 2-in (47 mm) AA, 2 x 2 21-in (533 mm) TT.
Crew: 86

Churucca class (1926)

Churucca, A. Galiano, S. Barcaiztegui, J.L. Diez, Alm. Ferrandiz, Lepanto, Alm. Valdez, Alm. Antequera, Alm. Miranda, Ciscar, Escaño, Gravina, J. Juan, Ulloa, Alava*, Liniers*

This major class of Spanish destroyers was part of the large naval plan of 1922 and 1930, which were to comprised 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers and 12 submarines. The first early plan on 17 February 1915 by Navy Minister Augusto Miranda y Godoy asked for these destroyers to be simple repeats of the Alsedo class. But there were budget shortcuts, and the decision was delayed several time, until this first option was dropped as the base design was too old.

In the end, the commission in charge of the first group decided to take a new standard, the British Admiralty type flotilla leader of the Scott class design, by then certainly one the best destroyer design in the world. With their standard displacement of 1,560 tonnes, up to 2,120 tonnes fully loaded, 101.50 metres long hull overall, broad beam of 9.68 metres and powerful armament they were a radical departure from Previous Spanish destroyers designs.

When The Churucca class were authorized, fourteen of these as well as 16 submarines were actually completed on the basis of the plans. This destroyer class was so large it was split in three groups. The first had their keels laid down in 1923 while the third group (Alava) was delayed by the Spanish Civil War, World War II, leading to serious redesign and a completion in 1957 as a brand new destroyer class, unique to Spain (see later). The second group ships completed during the Spanish Civil War had no central gun due to the arms embargo imposed on Spain.

Lepanto Export Success: ARA Cervantes class Based on recent "Flotilla Leaders", with nice classic lines typical of the interwar period between the world wars, excellent speed and powerful armament, these Spanish destroyers were the best ever built in Spain, and among the best in the world when the first group appeared. They were also notably cheaper than the original due to their local constructions and immediately met export successes. At the beginning 14 were planned but 18 destroyers were to be built. Argentina indeed voiced her interest for the class very soon, and ordered some.

While Churruca, Alcalá Galiano and Sánchez Barcáiztegui, were launched between May 1925 and July 1926, there was a good will tour of South America by the Spanish Navy. Accompanied by a Dornier "Wal" Plus Ultra which flew to Buenos Aires with heads of government, two destroyers arrived, the cruiser Méndez Núñez and destroyer Alsedo, on February 7, 1926, which coincided with the modernization of Argentinian forces ad of the Navy.

Sanchez Barcaiztegui
Sanchez Barcaiztegui

During this appropriately timed visit the Spaniards "pre-sold" their (then) new class of destroyers (Alsedo class) while a delegation visited her, and were impressed by her overall quality. In fact the Spanish destroyer, even already of an obsolete design, aroused so much interest in the ARA that a commission was dispatched to Spain, to start negotiations for the construction of a flotilla of similar units. But they were quickly informed of the new class in construction and their interest skyrocketed, followed by orders;

To facilitate the deal, the Spanish government by Royal Decree of May 25, 1927, granted a loan of 100 million pesetas to Argentina when the admiralty expressed interest for the Churruca class. Therefeore the first initially built for the Armada, Churruca and Alcalá Galiano, were sold to the ARA, and renamed Cervantes and Juan de Garay.

Don Juan de Ulloa

Between 1928 and 1933 the second Churruca and Alcalá Galiano were launched and 5 more, called the first group. The second group would comprise seven more built between 1935 and 1937, financed through savings made from the cancellation of the third heavy cruiser of the Canarias class in Ferrol. The second group was a repeat apparently with no known difference (at least seen in Conway's), but for their displacement and some details. The 1st group displaced 1536 tonnes, 2087 FL, while the second displaced 1590 tonnes standard, and 2157 fully loaded. No change in armament or performances (but one less main gun, for weight saving or dlivery problems) although the second group carried more fuel, 40 tonnes more to be exact (540 tonnes total). The second serie however diverged by their reworked and larger bridge and tripod foremast. Their design was still relevant, as shown by the active service of the Scott class in UK during the war.

Design of the Churruca:
The 100 meters long Churruca (101,98 m) had radically more powerful engines compared to the Alsedo class: They were the first Spanish turbine destroyers, with 4 Yarrow boilers which produced 42,000 hp (31,000 kW) mated on two Parsons turbines, and two shaft propellers. Top speed was 36 knots (67 km/h), with 37-38 knots obtained in speed trials: Churucca (i) made a 4hrs run, reaching an average 37.64kts with spikes to 39.76kts with force heated boilers. Range was 4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h) thanks to 480-500 to 540 tonnes of oil. They were also the first oil-burning Spanish destroyers.

Brassey's basic design overview of the Scott class

The Churruca class were armed with five 120 mm guns (4.7 in) in pivot mounts with armored masks. Two forward, with 'B' mount superfiring and the same configuration aft, plus a central gun amidship. During refits this gun was almost always replaced by more AA guns. The secondary armament comprised a single 76 mm AA gun, two triple banks with 21-in tubes (533 mm), two more than on the Alsedo, and first Spanish destroyers with triple tubes banks, and first with two deep-charge throwers, ASW armament. Thanks to this, these destroyers were able to perform a large array of missions. Armament would change over time. The second group's completion called for more AA guns notably.

As shown by the Almirante Miranda during WW2, they had only four 120 mm guns, but two 76 mm (3-in) AA guns, one in place of the missing 4.7 in between the funnels, the second placed aft of the second funnel. Other design differences for the 2nd group included modernized main guns, Vickers-Armstrong Mk F 120mm/45 guns with larger shields and reworked pivot mounts (no longer delivered after the 1936 neutrality ban), and a new massive director with a 3m rangefinder. The former model had a 2.74 m span. However none of these directors were received before mid- to late-1939, and replaced by improvised rangefinder posts.

In fact, short supplies started in 1931 with the Revolution, deliveries from San Carlos stalled, and prior to the Civil war, the 2nd series lead vessel Almirante Antequera was delivered without director, and the following missed part of their artillery. San Carlos fell to the Nationalists, and the completion of the 2nd series was improvized by the Republicans with what was available at Cartagena.


Active service
Due to their numbers, the Churucca class destroyers were very active, and most on the Republican side during the civil war. Only one was lost: Almirante Juan Ferrandiz, sunk in September 1936 in the strait of Gibraltar by the Nationalist cruiser Canarias. José Luis Diez was badly damaged by the Canarias or minelayer Vulcano but managed to be beached at Catalon Bay on 30 December 1938, refloated and towed to Gribraltar to be repaired, and interned by the British authorities until the end of the war.

Ciscar (last ship of the 2nd group) was sunk in shallow waters by Nationalist aviation at Gijon on 21 October 1937, but she was later refloated by the Nationalists, repaired and pressed into service before the end of the civil war, one of the rare Destroyers used by the Nationalists. Alcalá Galiano collided on 11/6/1937 with the cargo Magallanes whereas Churucca was torpedoed by the Italian submarine Jalea off Cartagena 12/8/1937 but she managed to limp back to port and was repaired, but never returning into service as the Galiano. Both were disarmed as the Republican front needed artillery and they stayed idle until the end of the war. They had been further damaged by other air raids in between and repairs were only partial. Sánchez Barcáiztegui, already repaired was definitely lost to air-dropped bombs. The most famous action was performed by three of these destroyers, torpedoed and sank the Cruiser Baleares. Sanchéz Barcáiztegui, Lepanto, and Almirante Antequera indeed torpedoed the heavy cruiser at night, at around 02:30 AM. The cruiser was hit by a volley of torpedoes, which cut the hull in half and she sank rapidly. This happened at the battle of the Cape Palos (05-06.04.1938), and this was the greated success of the Republican Navy during this war.

On 5 march 1939, the Remaining 8 destroyers fled the surrounded Cartagena to Bizerte, arriving on the 8 march. They were interned by French and later transferred to the new Nationalist government on 31 march. They served in WW2, making only neutrality patrols. Before WW2 they received additional armaments: 25 mm/60 M1938 guns, 40 mm/39 QF Mk II and 20 mm/70 Oerlikon M36 AA guns, sometimes a single 102mm/50 to replace the missing 120 mm (2nd serie). During WW2, Almirante Valdés, Almirante Antequera, Almirante Miranda, Gravina, Escaño, Císcar, Jorge Juan, Ulloa: were given extra AA guns, two twin German FLAK 37 mm/80 SK C/30, and four 20mm/65 C/38, plus four DCTs instead of two.

The Churruca Spanish destroyers served also during the cold war, to be discarded in the 1960s, re-equipped with radars and sonars in the 1950s. Ciscar was lost on rocks at El Ferrol on 17 october 1957. The modified 3rd serie ships served for much longer, until 1980. By then, this 1918 design was hopelessely outdated.

Almirante Valdes
Almirante Valdes

Alcala Galiano
Alcala Galiano. She was the hero of the battle of 05 august 1936, tryinfg to intercept the Nationalist vitoria convoy sailing from Ceuta. She engaged the convoy, but was repelled by aviation. Later the Republican gunboat Dato fired on the very similar HMS Basilisk by Mistake, trigerring a diplomatic incident. Alcalá Galiano was attacked several times by aviaton on her way back and badly damaged.

Jose Luis Diez
Jose Luis Diez (order decree from 31/3/1926, completed Sept. 1929). She was part of the 1st group, with a slighty more angled prow (102.0 oa overall lenght), 480 to 500 tonnes of oil, five 120 mm/45 guns and a single 76/45 Vickers Mk SS AA. She definitely ws the mosyt battle-hardened of all, duelling on 27/8/1938 off Gibraltar with the heavy cruiser Canarias, interned in Gibraltar. Fled on 30/12/1938 only to duel with the minelayer Vulcano and running aground, salvaged next day, to be towed off back to Gibraltar and this time interned under strong guard, until the end of the war.

illustration of the Churruca class destroyers
Author's rendition of the Churruca class destroyers


Displacement: 1536/1590 standard/2087/2175 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 97,52/101,50 x 9,68 x 3,20 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts parsons Turbines engine, 4 Yarrow Boilers, 42,000 hp, 36 knots.
Armament: Five 5-in (120 mm), One 3-in (76 mm) AA, four MGs, six 21-in (533 mm) TTs, two DCTs.
Crew: 175

CEUTA class (ex-Italian Aquila class, tr. 1938)


The Spanish Republicans at the start of the civil war possessed all the destroyers of the Alsedo and Churucca class, whereas the Nationalists captured major ships but lacked a suitable escort (outside gunboats). Soon Fascist Italy came to the rescue and in 1938 decided to send four old lead destroyers dating back from WW1: Those of the Aquila class, three-funneled. These were the Aquila, Falco, Gugliemo Pepe, Alessandro poerio, renamed in Spanish service Ceuta, Melilla, Huesca and Teruel, without any change in armament and letter paintained on the hull for identification. They served for a short time without much event and were back in Italian hands, to be resold to the Romanians.

Stern of the Aquila in Romanian service as Mărăști in WW2


Same as the Italian Aquila class

Profile scheme of the Esploratori Aquila

Liniers class (1936-47)

The third group
In 1936 the first two of the third group was laid down but construction was soon widely affected by the start of the Spanish Civil War. The lack of funds and material made it stall and delayed until 1939, then started over timidly to be immediately stopped again due to the second world war breaking up and the same supply problems happening again. It was decided to resume work in 1943 since Argentina expressed the will to purchase one, and the admiralty used this as an incentive to complete the others, as the export would finance them. In 1944, however the Argentine Government eventually declined the order, preferring other options (like waiting to purchase surplus USN destroyers after the war, or British ones).

They would however express their interest for a purchase only if the destroyers saw their construction completed in 1951. This third group of course could no longer be a simple repeat of the 1918 Scott class, now totally obsolete. The design had a profound modernization dictated by foreign designs study, but on the same basis. They would form the Liniers class (see below), and were actually larger, with a beam of 3.7 m, and displacement of 2225 tonnes FL, larger crew and modernized armament, reworked superstructures.

Alava, D52
Alava (D52), aft view

Alava and Liniers were laid down in 1936, suspended, laid down again in 1939, suspended again, and at least restarted at Cartagena in 7/1/1944 and January 1945 with a few designs changes. They were launched on 18/5/1947 but completion was delayed as their design was outmoded. They were completed in January and December 1951 to a heavily modified design. Basically the greatest changes were the ommission of the fifth 120 mm gun, redesigned gun shields, three twin German 37 mm AA guns and three single 20 mm guns, placed between and aft the funnels. The greates change was the fitting of two quadruple banks of torpedoes. The tripod mast was larger and the bridge superstructure modified. The initial 1945 design planned for two win 25 mm AA while the 120 mm had a new 45° dual-purpose mount.

In 1960-1962 both Álava and Liniers were drastically reconstructed as ASW frigates. They had a new lattic masts with radars, longer prow, MLA-1B, SG-6B, Decca TM626, two Mk 63 radars, one SQS-30A sonar, and were armed with three DP 76mm/50 Mk 34, three 40mm/70 SP48, two triple ASW 324 mm torpedo tube banks, two 24-barrels (178 total) Hedgehog Mk 11 ASWRLs and eight DCTs plus two DCRs. They served until 1978 and 1980s respectively, amazing for ships which were based on a 1917 blueprint (The scott class leaders).

evolution 1951-1962
Evolution of the design (src navypedia): 1951 and 1962 as ASW frigates.

More on a future post. Scr 1, 2

Audaz class Destroyers (TBs) (1945)

Ariete, Artevida, Audaz, Furor, Intrepido, Osado, Rayo, Relampago, Temerario.
Intrépido in La Coruña, 1966.

In 1945, the Spanish admiraly was granted onstruction of a class of nine small destroyers (torpedo boats for Conway's), based on the French Le Fier class torpedo boat design. Seven were laid down in 1939–1940 but as the French surrendered in 1940, construction was stopped and although Germany restarted six of them, rearmed with German AA and main guns armament, none were completed amidst sabotage, labor and materials shortages. Meanwhile Spanish ships were to used the same armament layout as the German ships.

The class was laid down in July-August by the Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval (SECN) shipyard at Ferrol. None was completed before 1953. D37 and 39, the last two, were even completed in 1964 but discarded immediately, in 1964-65, and taken in hands for a reconstrcution. By 1955 all were reclassed as ASW frigates and the first four were completed in 1955 with a modified design, the last with a very different armament. More on these on the coldwar Spanish Page (in writing, to be released soon).

Oquendo class (project, 1945)

Oquendo, Roger de Lauria, Marqués de la Ensenada

These cold war destroyers are listed here because initially it was provisioned in 1943 with the order for nine ships. In the end, with the usual delays during WW2 only three ships were laid down at SECN, and the six would have been "Blas de Lezo", "Gelmírez", "Lángara", "Bonifaz", "Recalde", and "Blasco de Garay". They were cancelled, and reordered again in 1947-48 to a modified design. Initially, they were very much inspired by the US Gearing class destroyers and were armed with the same three twin standard 4.7 in DP turrets, but not a flush-deck hull, but instead a lower aft deck.

The powerplant was to be from Rateau-Bretagne in France but deliveries were much delayed and the first ship was launched not until 1959, 15 years after initial procurement. These made them already obsolescent as missile destroyers were in construction. As a result, only three ships, Oquendo, Roger de Lauria, and Marqués de la Ensenada were delivered, which had a short active life, discarded in 1978-88. more on the cold war Armada page.

Read More/Src


Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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