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German WW2 Commerce Raiders

Germany (1937-40): Orion, Atlantis, Widder, Thor, Pinguin, Stier, Komet, Kormoran, Michel

Historical Overview

Privateers freighters are already a very old idea: Since the Renaissance and seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, merchant ships were armed, but with a reduced artillery. One could still make a difference. But from the nineteenth century, all hulls were painted with rows of false gun ports, and this according to a stylistic tradition continued until the twentieth century.

The principle was to deter potential "predators". During the Secession war already, the Confederate Navy largely outclassed, used armed civilian ships as commerce raiders and blockade runners, while already the young American navy used fast bricks and armed merchant clippers to attack British vessels in 1815. Some corsairs also started to use various disguises to hide their armament, unveiled only at the last moment.

German Raiders in ww1

During the Great War, Germany employed several ways to disrupt British trade and counter the Blockade, using a number of privateers: The Möwe, Wolf, Greif, Wolf II, Geier, Leopard, Iltis, and Seeadler (a tall ship). Using such kind of ship was singular but not anachronistic: Nearly half of the merchant tonnage in 1914 was still assumed by sailing ships. These ships enjoyed mixed success, had artillery up to 105 and 150 mm, light guns and torpedo tubes. Guns were hidden under the hinged folding panels for quick release. The Hochseeflotte also commissioned a number of fast ships as auxiliary cruisers: Steamer SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Prinz Eitel Friedrich, Crown Prince Wilhelm, and Kormoran, Cape Trafalgar, Berlin, Vineta and Meteor.

German Auxiliary Cruisers in Action

Their process was intangible: When a raider spotted a merchant ship, the former was closing up to be at firing range, compared the name of the ship to Lloyd's register to identify her as Belligerent or neutral. By megaphone, the raider's captain then intimated his fellow counterpart to stop, while unveiling its artillery and true flag. The cargo was then torpedoed or gunned into oblivion after been warned to evacuate, leaving a chance to the crew. Neutrals were visited by a company that checked the bulk list.

Komet schematics
Blueprint of the Komet

If it was bound for neutral ports, the cargo could resume its journey unmolested, otherwise the process was repeated, crew evacuated and the ship sunk. Eventually raiders also sometimes attacked military vessels. Disguised as a cargo and flying neutral flags and markings or the silhouette of another ship through improvised contraptions. The captain waited until the military ship was close enough to launch an inspection party and unveiled at the last moment its true colours while revealing its artillery hidden behind folding panels, and opening fire asap, even also sometimes launching a torpedo without warning. What generally followed was a short and bloody artillery duel at close range for which the Raider had the advantage of surprise.

German Raiders in 1939

In 1939, facing a lack of ships to launch an effective commerce war, the concept was reactivated with new ships converted, even more heavily armed than in teh first world war. The "Hilfskreuzer" (auxiliary cruisers, generally complemented by "HSK"- Handels Stör Kreuzer, commerce raiders) were one of the trump cards of Admiral Raeder in his strategy. They ships were generally recent, powerful and fast, roomy and adaptable (and equipped) to fake numerous identities. Their armament was obsolete (old cannons salvaged from cruisers of the Hochseeflotte), but their crews were hand-picked and the best in the German Navy. However the results of their campaign was relatively disappointing. One the right are some of these Ships and their stories.

Pinguin Blueprint
Blueprint of the Pinguin, same class as the Atlantis

Just as during the First World War, the German navy turned for use as auxiliary cruisers a number of recent, massive and fast freighters. The changes, made through civilian authorities with civilian engineers and military equipment were sometimes radical, and the vessels in question, apart from speed, had real offensive capabilities, threatening even for cruisers. The aim of the design was to have them mimicking a large array of near-similar or approaching neutral ships, approach other ships, then reveal their true identity.



Such procedure did not include capture but annihilation of the opposing ship, often after allowing the crew to evacuate, by means of 150 mm reformed guns and torpedo tubes. They could also laid mines unsuspected, or repel strafing attacks by their AA artillery, all served by modern fire control systems. For long range reconnaissance they embarked one of two seaplane. Small torpedo crafts tailored to operate also from the ship were another way to deal with protected harbours, extend her reach or catch faster ships.

The results they obtained in operations were generally good. 9 ships (HK1 to HK9) were put into service, keeping their civilian name: Orion, Atlantis, Widder, Thor, Pinguin, Stier, Komet, Kormoran and Michel. Their most active and effective period was 1939-1941: Together they sank 140 ships, a total of 700 000 tons. A score well above other military ships of the Kriegsmarine, and also superior to many U-Bootes. They were feared by allied crews, but in general their captains behaved according to the natural unwritten solidarity rules of sailors at sea. When not gathered to be kept on board, crews of sunk ships were often given food, blankets, navigation instruments or maps and directions.

KMS Orion

The Orion in 1940
KMS Orion in 1940 (bismarck-class.dk)

Launched in 1931 in Hamburg, former SS Kurmark. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in December 1939. Covers: Dutch Beemsterdjik, Soviet SS Sovet, Japanese Maebasi Maru. Sank 5 ships (41 138 GRT), participated in the destruction of 4 others. Became the gunners training ship Hector in January 1944, then cadet training ship Orion in 1945. Sunk by RAF in Swinemünde April 4, 1945.

Specifications

Dimensions148 x 18,60 x 8,20m
Tonnage (Empty/Fully Loaded)15 700 tons (7021 GT)
Crew351
Propulsion1 screw, Blohm & Voss turbine, 4 boilers, 6200 hp = 13,5 kn
Armament6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 4 x 37mm AA, 4 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 288 mines, 2 planes

KMS Kormoran

Battle between HMAS Sydney and Kormoran
Battle between HMAS Sydney and Kormoran

Probably the most famous German Hilfskreuzer, and corsair of the Second World War. Formerly the bulk carrier Steiermark, it was rebuilt in Kiel in 1938-39, and completed in 1940 under the name of Schiff 41, and a profile resembling Viacheslev Molotov and Japanese Satiko and Kinka Maru (above). She could also quickly be converted in many other disguised. British secret service "Raider-G." Like any of its kinds, she wore a heavy armament, hidden 150 mm pieces and AA artillery in dismantled parts easy to reassemble very quickly. Two banks of torpedo tubes were hidden in the sides, above the waterline, but the other two were submarine. No radar was provided so she carried Arado 196 for advanced long range recognition, and a single torpedo craft LS3, able to launch two aviation torpedoes. Her cruise in the Pacific lasted 350 days, during which she sank or captured 11 ships, to be eventually tracked down and sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney (also lost), following a bloody close quarter duel.

Specifications

Dimensions164 x 20,20 x 8,50m
Tonnage (Empty/Fully Loaded)19 900 tons, 8736t GRT
Crew400
Propulsion2 screws, 4 diesels Kupp-Germaniawerft, 2 Siemens Schuckert motors, 16 000 hp, 18 kn
Armament6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 4 x 37AA, 5 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 360 mines, 1LS MBT, 2 planes

KMS Atlantis

Atlantis
Profile of the Atlantis disguised as the Kasii Maru

Launched in 1938 in Bremen. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and returned into service in November 1939; Covers: Freighter MS Goldenfels, Norwegian Knute Nelson, Soviet freighter SS Kim, Japanese Kasii Maru, Dutch Abbekerk. Its 150 mm guns came from the battleship Schliesen. She had 2 Heinkel 114. Sank or captured 22 ships during her career (145 968 GRT), which classed her among the best German Hilfskreuzers. Ended in an unequal duel against the British heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire in the South Atlantic, November 23, 1941

Specifications

Dimensions155 x18.70 x8.70 m ( ft)
Tonnage (Empty/Fully Loaded)17,600 tons (7862 GT)
Crew351
Propulsion1 screw, 2 MAN diesels 6cyl, 7600 hp = 16 kn
Armament6 x 150, 1 x 75, 2 x 37AA, 4 x 20AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 92 mines, 2 planes

KMS Widder

KMS Widder
KMS Widder

Launched in 1930 in Kiel. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in September 1939. Also training ship Neumark. Covers: Norwegian SS Narvik, Spain's Neptuno. Its 150 mm guns came from pre-dreadnought Deutschland. Had 2 Heinkel 114. Sank or captured 10 ships (58 644 GRT) in a 180-day cruise. Survived the war and became the British repair ship Ulysses. Returned to Germany, was used as training ship Fenchenheim. Ran aground on a sandbar near Bergen and was scrapped in situ in 1955.

Specifications

Dimensions152 x 18,20 x 8,30 m
Tonnage (Empty/Fully Loaded) 16 800 tons (7851 GT)
Crew364
Propulsion1 screw, Blohm & Voss turbine, 4 boilers, 6200 hp = 14 kn
Armament6x 150mm, 1x 75mm, 4x 37mm AA, 4x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 2 planes

KMS Thor

KMS Thor in the south atlantic, 1940
KMS Thor, South Atlantic 1940
Launched in 1939 in Hamburg as SS Santa Cruz. Requisitioned, armed, equipped and put into service in March 1940. Very fast for a cargo ship. Covers: Yugoslav SS Vir. Its 150 mm guns came from the old battleship Deutschland. Known by British intelligence as "Raider E". Sank or captured 12 ships (96,541 GRT) in her first trip, 10 more in the second, totaling 55,587 GRT. Tied to the supply ship KMS Uckermark in Yokohama November 30, 1942 but exlosed for still unclear reasons. Declared total loss, scrapped in situ afterwards.

Specifications

Dimensions122 x 16,70 x 8,10 m
Tonnage (Empty/Fully Loaded)9200 tons (3862 GT)
Crew345
Propulsion1 screw, AEG turbine, 2 boilers La Mont, 6500 hp = 18 kn
Armament6 x 150mm, 1 x 75mm, 1 x 37mm AA, 4 x 20mm AA, 6 TT 533 mm, 1 plane

Links

Hilfskreuzer on bismarck-class.dk
Documentary duel HMAS Sydney vs Kormoran

Naval History

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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
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Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
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St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
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Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
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'C' class series (1914-1922)
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Europe
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WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
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Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
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South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

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Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Fairey III (1917-1935)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Channel (1919)
Vickers Viking (1919)
Saunders Kittiwake (1920) Supermarine Sea King (1920)
Fairey Pintail (1920)
Short N.3 Cromarty (1921)
Supermarine Seal II (1921)
Vickers Vanellus (1922)
Supermarine Seagull (1922)
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Fairey N.4 – five-seat (1923)
Supermarine Sea Eagle (1923)
Vickers Vulture (1924)
Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle (1924)
Supermarine Scarab (1924)
Fairey Fremantle (1924)
English Electric Ayr (1924)
English Electric Kingston (1924)
Hawker Dantorp (1925)
Blackburn Velos (1925)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Saunders A.3 Valkyrie (1927)
Blackburn Nautilus (1929)
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark (1929)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Saro A.7 Severn (1930)
Saro A.19 Cloud (1930)
Saro Windhover (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Short S.15 (1931)
Blackburn Sydney (1931)
Short Sarafand (1932)
Short Knuckleduster (1933)
Saro London (1934)
Short Seaford (1934)
Short S.19 Singapore III (1934)
Fairey S.9/30 (1934)
de Havilland Hornet Moth (1934)
Blackburn Perth (1934)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 (1936)
Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp (1937)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Supermarine Sea Otter (1938)
Short S.30/33 Empire (1938)
Short S.20 Mercury (1938)
Short S.21 Maia (1938)
Saro A.33 (1938)
Blackburn B-20 (1940)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Supermarine Spitfire Seaplane (1942)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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