Minor cold war & Modern Navies 2

☫ 41 countries around the world: Africa, Asia, Oceania, South America

What is the definition of a “minor navy” ?
Surely there is a “top tier”, which is most often assimilated to a “blue water navy”. And it is most often assorted with a true aircraft carrier (not an assault ship), which gave us a limited club (USN, and Russian Navy, British, French, Italian and Spanish Navies, and in Asia the PLAN, JSDMF, Indian and Thai Navies). Then came “regional navies” sometimes flagged as “green water” navies, which in high tier have guided missile destroyers and assault ships (like Turkey) while the Bundesmarine have not, and they could still make a projection of power due to large ships with logistic for oceanic operations such as anti-piracy missions in the Red Sea. And this is the lower tier, which could defend its EEZ and do limited projection of powers nearby but not much esle, which is the object of the present chapter.

And there is at the bottom what most calls a “brown water” navy. The name suggest essentially a riverine fleet. It’s especially true of the country had still a limited coastal area but restricted budget and/or is landlocked and only has a complement to just a “police force” for its riverine traffic. This is true also for large lakes, like the Tanganyka in Africa. Still between the low tier regional naval power to the small riverine force, enters most nations on the planet. They are classed by alphabetical order. It must be said that 44 countries in the world (on 195 recoignised ones worldwide) are truly landlocked. Let’s cite Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Czechia, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, in Europe alone, but also Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Somaliland, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, Slovakia, South Ossetia, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Transnistria, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vatican, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In population, 475,818,737 so 6% roughly of the world’s population, showing superbly that the bulk of humanity lives close to the sea. Many of these only have a token riverine police force or nothing at all, even with a small river going through, nike Nepal. These are absent of the list but could be added next year.

PART II: Honduras to Lithuania

Honduras NavyIcelandic NavyIraqi NavyJordanian NavyKuwaiti NavyLatvian NavyLebanese NavyLiberian NavyLibyan NavyLithuanian NavyMauritanian NavyMexican NavyMorrocan NavyNicaraguan NavyNorwegian NavyOmani NavyPakistani NavyParaguaian NavyQatari NavySan Salvador NavySaudi NavySerbian NavySingaporean NavySlovenian NavySomalian NavySudanese NavySyrian NavyThai NavyTunisian NavyUAE NavyUruguayan NavyVenezuelan NavyVietnamese NavyYemeni NavyZanzibar Navy

Honduras Navy

History of the Fuerza Naval de Honduras

The Armed Forces of Honduras were originally created through article 44 as part of the country’s First Constitution in 1825, December 11, divided into battalions between seven departments and under French military doctrine. In 1831, the Military School was created and local arms production setup. Between 1842 and 1876 a new uniform emerged, soon at war in 1854.

In 1860, the Guardiola administration, gave order to mobilize 400 army men and 220 more were transferred on the schooner “Correo Nacional” of the “Honduran navy” guarded by the British gunboat “Icarus” commanded by Admiral Sir Nowell in order to repel the filibuster William Walker who reinforced himself in New Orleans. After a battle that took place near the Tinto y Negro River, Walker was ambushed, captured on September 3, tried and executed by firing squad on September 12 of that year (1860.
On September 28, 1865, during the presidency of Captain General José María Medina, the Military Navy of Honduras was established, with President Medina himself boarding the schooner Colibrí that day. This first attempt to organize a Naval Force with a proper regulation met soon issues of cost as was deemed unsustainable.

For memory, Honduras is located on the land bridge between the north and souther continents, at the foot of the “horn” made by Belize and Guatemala. It is largely a Caribbean Nation due to its largest coast by far extending west to east from Puerto Cortes to Puerto Lempira. It’s greatest port was and is now La Ceiba. There is a small Pacific enclave in the south, cornered between El Salvador and Nicaragua, with the Port of San Lorenzo.

Several attempts to reactivate the idea of a Navy started with Doctor Policarpo Bonilla, who ordered the construction of the steamship Tatumbla in Kiel by November 22, 1895, to receive army guns. In 1896, General Manuel Bonilla built the private yacht “Hornet”. Later Dr. Bonilla and General Don Tiburcio Carias Andino ordered the construction of more steamers, Búfalo and El Tigre. But the political life of the country at large was unstable, riddle with coups and interference of the military in internal affairs. The navy was neglected. And to be clear, there is no record in Conway’s for the WWI book, only a small mentiuon for 1860-1905 and a bigger one in the 1947-95 volume.

Honduran Navy in WWI, WW2

In 1905 Honduras, is one of the larger republics (1905 official census 500,136) in Central America with an area of 43,277 square miles. The country has two coasts — Pacific and Caribbean Sea (63 miles and 375 miles). In the early years of the twentieth century she was closely associated with and her foreign trade was mainly with the USA. US Marines landed in January 1912 to protect American property. The main port was and is Puerto Cortés on the Caribbean and smaller ones Trujillo, Omoa and Amapala on the Gulf of Fonseca (Pacific). Amapala’s surrender on 11 April 1907 had virtually ended the war with Nicaragua since the cruiser USS Chicago gave refuge to the defeated Honduran President Manuel Borilla, landed marines and arranged terms with the victors. There was a small army of 500 soldiers which was supported in emergency by 20,000 militia. The Navy was still really symbolic with just a single 13t steam (22 ihp) launch, “22 Februar”, launched on 24 December 1897. From 1919 the Navy was “expanded” to the following:
-200-ton gunboat “Tatumbla” (2 small guns, 44 crew, 12kts)
-24—ton “Liberia”, ex-Liberian revenue cutter Mesurado, 85ft x 12ft x 4ft 6in, one Nordenfelt gun, one MG, 120hp engine working with 500 gal. paraffin, 12-14kts.
There is no record at all for the interwar of any addition.

Honduras had good diplomatic relations with Germany since the end of the 19th century and German citizens founded companies, sugar mills and coffee plantations under the Migration Law. As the Second World War broke out, many young German-Hondurans enlisted back into the German Army and Navy. At the same time, German U-Boat went up to dock on the Honduran coast and refuel food.​
President Tiburcio Carías Andino broke relations with Germany however after strong pressures from the US embassy, especially after Pearl Harbor. So by December 8, 1941, Honduras declared war on Japan and four days later with Germany and Italy. It was justified to save face in press by the destruction by U-Boats of merchant ships, notably from Honduran banana companies. Comayagua was the first torpedoed in 1942, followed by Amapala on May 16, 1942. On June 7, ship Castilla was sunk and then Baja California, which caused some 200 Honduran citizens losses.
Carias Andino sent pilot officers, soldiers and sailors to serve mostly in the US Navy. Honduran sailors on November 10, 1942 were noted for their bravery. When conducting the freighter “Contessa” into the port of Lyautey (French Morocco) full of gasoline and ammunition for allied troops she was taken under enemy fire, and was able to repel it. According to reports and statements of survivors, the armed ship claimed 15 Italian aircraft. Other fought in the Pacific, and frequently served as gunners on US ships, especially AA guns.

Honduran Navy in the cold war

Honduras post-WW2 was one of the largest Central American republics (43,277 square miles) but also the poorest. Her Caribbean coastline did not changed much, neither additions to its “navy”.

Under the administration of Dr. General Juan Manuel Gálvez on November 8, 1950, Regulations on Insignia and Uniforms of the Navy were issued. By April 20, 1964, the first two officers were assigned to the Navy, Erin O’Connor Bain and Humberto Regalado Hernández plus fourteen troops coming from the third Infantry Battalion. They were all sent to attend studies in Yorktown, at the Officer Training Center reserve of the Coast Guard. Sub Lieutenant Regalado were later posted for practice at the Naval Base of Panama, trained by local technicians with US assistance, thus forming the “First Boat Detachment” which became essential to allow a Naval Force to be created in 1976. Lieutenant Colonel Erin O’Connor Bain became its Commander.

By 1964, the US government donated two Mark-IV type boats (40 feet CPV) registered as OLA and ARO (General Oswaldo López Arellano, Andrés Ramírez Ortega). In short, the navy was officially reborn in 1976 by a presidential agreement of August 14, whose purpose was the protection of the national marine territory, in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Its tasks were defined at the time to be able to Execute Naval Operations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Fonseca (Pacific Ocean) in order to safeguard national maritime interests.
Specializations includes anti-narcotics via sea, interception of unidentified vessels and protecting sovereignty by sea. Personel amounted to 4,000 approximately recently between personel at sea and inland (specialists, maintenance, administrative).
In 1977; so one year after its creation, this small Naval Force acquired three units. The 105 feet Guaymuras and the 65 ft La Patuca and Ulua.
Like neighbouring central american republics in the cold war, political situation was tense, and what happened in the 1980s in El Salvador and Nicaragua led Honduras to rearm massively with US assistance, including its reborn navy. Honduras in 1982 emerged from a long spell of military government during which time repressive action was taken by military leaders against agricultural unions; discontent was due to the slow pace with which agrarian reform was taking place.


Author’s rendition of the Damen Stan Patrol 4027 of the Honduran Guardas Costas.

In 1988 the Punta Caxinas was its first amphibious ship (149 feet, capacity 100 tons) and a few years later, the first Peterson Mk-III model patrol boat was acquired (65 ft, 82 tons, powered by three GM 8V71T1 diesels for 26 knots, range 450 miles full speed). In 2013, two Damen Stan 4207 ships (FNH 1401 and 1402) were also acquired, one in September and the other in November, to make the the Honduran navy one of the most modern in the region.


The U.S. government donated the “Río Aguán” FNH-8502 patrol boat to the Honduran Secretariat of National Defense, on July 9, 2021. (Photo: Honduran Secretariat of National Defense)

In 1982 a civilian government led by Roberto Suazo Cordora came into power. Honduras, like many Latin American countries, has experienced border disputes with all the countries adjacent to her. In 1969 the so-called ‘Soccer War’ took place with El Salvador, occasioned by disagreements over a football match. The dispute continued intermittently until 1976 when both countries agreed to talks. Honduras found herself the thoroughfare for arms supplies to El Salvadorian guerrillas coming from Nicaragua and consequently has been exposed to pressure from the US government in an effort to reduce these supplies of arms. The terrorist violence experienced by Honduras’ neighbours now appears to be establishing itself in Honduras; in 1982 measures were taken by the military against terrorist groups.
The republic’s Coast Guard was created abnd expanded with US helpe for its basic maritime security needs, with US help. This force employed in the 1990s 900 men, a percentage of whom are carrying out the 24 months’ national service. The main base is at Puerto Cortes on the Caribbean coast.


Creative commons Poster of the Honduran Navy today.

List (Cold War)

-3x ‘Swift’ type 105ft class patrol boats: Guaymuras (FN 1051), Honduras (FN 1052), Hibures (FN 1053).
Built by Swiftships, Morgan City, Louisiana, in service April 1977 (FN 1051) and March 1980 the latter units.
Specs:
103t, 32kts, 2 shafts, 2 MTU diesels, 17 crew. Armament !—20mm Gatling, 2 -12.7mm, or 6-20mm (2×3). Extant 1995.

1x US 85ft patrol boat (commercial cruiser type): Chamelecon (EN 8502). Built by Swiftships, Louisiana, in service date unknown.
Specs: 50t, 23kts, 2 shafts, 2 GM diesels, 10 crew. Armament 1-20mm, 2—12.7mm. Extant 1995.

5x US 65ft commercial cruiser type patrol boats: Aguan (ex-Gral, FN 6501), Goascoran, ex-¥ T Cabanas (FN 6502), Petula FN 6503), Ulua (FN 6504), Chuluteca (FN 6505).
Built by Swiftships, Morgan City, Louisiana. In service December 1973 (FN 6501), January 1974 (FN 6502), 1980 remainder.
Specs:
33t, 25kts, 3 shafts, 3 GM diesels, armed with 2-12.7mm MG, 5 crew.
Haiti ordered FN 6501 and FN 6502 originally, transferred to Honduras 1977, three more fitted with 3 MTU diesels (36kts), armed with 120mm, 2—12.7mm. Extant 1995.

2x inshore patrol craft: FN 2501 and FN 2502. Built by Ampela Marine, Honduras, entered service 1981-82.
Specs:
3t, 24kts, 25ft x 8ft 10in x lft 4in (7.6m x 2.7m x 0.4m), 1 Chrysler diesel, waterjet drive, armed with 1-12.7mm MG, 1—7.62mm MG, 4 crew. Now stricken.

2x Guardian coastal patrol craft: Copan (FNH 106), Tegucigalpa (FNH 107). Delivered by Lantana Boatyard 1983, 1986
Specs: 94t, 2070bhp = 30kts, 1—20mm Gatling, 3-20mm Hispano Suiza (1×3), 2-12.7mm). Extant 1995.

12x Piranha class riverine patrol craft: Numbered only, delivered 1986—90.

1x landing craft (LCU): Punta Caxinas (FNH 1491). Delivered 1988 by Lantana Boatyard (625t full load, 14kts), extant 1995.

6x ex-fishing boats: FN 7501, FN 7502, FN 7503, FN 7504, FN 7505, FN 7506. Extant 1995.

Bases and Organization:

The Honduran navy possess today four naval bases (“Base Naval”):
-Puerto Cortés: Main repair/logistics base, Caribbean.
-Puerto Castilla: Main operating, patrol boats, Caribbean.
-Amapala: Main operating base, for coastal patrol craft, north end, Pacific coast.
-Caratasca (new) well placed to intercept drug trafficking boats
-1st. Marine Infantry Battalion at La Ceiba
-Honduras Naval Academy, for officers, La Ceiba
-Naval Training Center: NCO and Sailor training facility.
-Possible air support from either Hernan Acosta Mejia AB (Tegucigalpa), Soto Cano AB (Comayagua), Armando Escalon Espinal AB (La Lima, Cortés), and Hector Caraccioli Moncada, La Ceiba.


Sa’ar 62 type General Cabañas (flagship)

List (today)

The Navy is tasked of coastal and riverine security and stil boasts some 71 patrol boats, interceptors and landing craft units, which makes its a sizeable green water fleet.
1x Sa’ar 62-class offshore patrol vessel (OPV): FNH-2021 General Trinidad Cabañas (62 (204 feet)) OPV-62M from December 2019
2x Damen Stan Patrol Boats: FNH-1401 Lempira, FNH-1402 General Francisco Morazán (42.8m (140 feet) Dutch CPV (Coastal patrol vessel)
3x LANTANA BOATYARD Guardian CPVs: FNH-1071 Tegucigalpa, FNH-1072 Copán, FNH-1073. US built (32.3m or 107 feet)
3x SWIFTSHIPS CPVs: FNH-1051 Guaymuras, FNH-1052 Honduras, FNH-1053 Hibueras (US built 32m/ 105ft)
1x IAI Dabur Type CPV: FNH-8501 Chamelecón (26 m/85 ft)
5x SWIFTSHIPS CPV FNH 6501-05 Nacaome, Goascorán, Patuca, Ulúa, Choluteca (US built 20m/65 feet)
10x BOSTON WHALER Interceptors BW370, Guardian class 1102+ UHS
6x DAMEN Interceptors 1102 UHS: FNH-3601 to FNH-3606
2x SAFE BOATS 35MMI Multi Misión Interceptor (Colombia)
2x Interceptor boat 35 MMI FNH-3501-2
25x EDUARDOÑO Patrullero 320: (Colombia) FNH-3201 to FNH-3225
8x NAPCO Piraña PBs; Riverine, US built Ops boats.
1x LANTANA BOATYARD Landing Craft Coastal transport: FNH-1491 Punta Caxinas
1x COTECMAR BAL-C Short Range Logistic Support Ship (Colombia), Short Range Logistic: BAL-C FNH-1611 Gracias a Dios
3x SWIFTSHIPS LCM-8 Landing Craft Unit (US): FNH-7301 Warunta, Rio Coco, unnamed.


Damen Stan Patrol 4207 FNH Lempira

Sources

Conway’s all the world’s fighting ships 1905-1921 p416, 1947-1995.
defensa.com/ guardacostas
cimcon.armada.mil.co/
en.topwar.ru/
elheraldo.hn/honduras
articulo66.com/ nicaragua-denuncia-invasion-maritima-el-salvador/
proceso.hn
infodefensa.com
dialogo-americas.com
laprensa.hn/
defensa.com/ asi-son-patrulleras-…
shipbuildinghistory.com /lantana.htm
defensa.com/ avanza-israel-construccion-opv-62
es.wikipedia.org Fuerza_Naval_de_Honduras
en.wikipedia.org Armed_Forces_of_Honduras

iceland Icelandic Navy

History

Iceland had been inhabited by Scandinavian people dating back the sagas in the wake of the mythical discoveries of so called Greenland, Vinland and Helluland. In 870s it was a free Norwegian colony until it became part of the realm of the Norwegian King, and its military defences of Iceland rested on multiple chieftains (Goðar) and their village followers. The colony grew and in the 13th cent. major feuds (the Age of the Sturlungs) in the 13th century followed the construction of some 21 fortresses. Amphibious operations were remained common in the Westfjords, with the largest sea battle called Flóabardagi, seeing only a few dozen ships going into a brawl in Húnaflói bay. Fast forward and before the Napoloenic era, Iceland was defended by a few hundred militiamen in the southwest of Iceland armed with old muskets and halberds. English raiders arrived in 1808, sank and capture the bulk of the Danish-Norwegian Navy, in the Battle of Copenhagen.
There was an independence movement from Denmark rule in 1855-57. In 1918, Iceland regained sovereignty, appearing as a separate kingdom under the Danish king and first established a small Coast Guard.


PBY-5As returning to Reykyavik NAS in 1942
Then, close to the Second World War, the government expanded the Icelandic National Police (Ríkislögreglan) with its reserves creating a small militia army under command of former Chief Commissioner Agnar Kofoed Hansen, previously trained in the Danish Army, procuring Weapons and uniforms and trained hard near Laugarvatn. The army counted 60 officers when UK launched the invasion of Iceland on 10 May 1940 as a preemptive measure to void German capture of this very strategic island in the north Atlantic.
In mid-1941 British troops were needed elsewhere and the United States took over occupation duties for the same reasons, but started to negociate the installation of a base and airfield for patrol bombers in order to monitor this “dark spot” in ASW coverage of the mid-Atlantic. It was not with Iceland’s approval again, but the country remained neutral.

This stationing of US forces remained well after the war, and was solidified through NATO in the “Agreed Minute”. In 1949 Iceland became a founding member of NATO, being the linchpin of the organization by essence due to its location and the very name of the organization. It was the new bastion of noerthern defences against Soviet submarine incursions. But it remained the sole member without a standing army. There was an Expansion of forces of the Icelandic Coast Guard, which aside its role withing NATO was more acute of defending its own territorial waters, notably against British fishing vessels, sometimes protected by the Royal Navy (The “Cod Wars”), which were militarised interstate disputes.


Keflavik NAS aerial view in 1982.

The Iceland Defense Force became a military command of the United States Armed Forces, from 1951 to 2006, created at the request of NATO in which the US would defend Iceland provided the latter did nit created its own army and concentrated in its coast guard only, procured and operated in a fullly independent way.
There was no Icelandic air force either and the U.S. Air Force maintained 4-6 interceptor at NAS Keflavik until 30 September 2006. From May 2008, NATO made rotations there as part of Icelandic Air Policing mission. Relations with UK always had been tense, though.
the Icelandic Defence Agency (Varnarmálastofnun Íslands) was founded in 2008 under the Minister for Foreign Affairs, overseeing operations at the Naval Air Station Keflavik, and closed in 2011 after the 2008 economic crisis. The Icelandic Coast Guard is today still the only standing military organization of the country.

The Icelandic Coast Guard


The research vessel Thor in 1928.
From its sovereignty in 1918, the Icelandic Coast Guard was created from a single former Danish research vessel armed with a 57 mm cannon. It was tasked of protecting the country’s rich and vital fishing areas. It was also tasked of research, and SAR services for the fishing fleet. ICGV Þór (1926) was the first patrol ship of the Icelandic Coast Guard, named after the nordic mythology god and buit by Edwards Brothers at North Shields, 1899 as a steam trawler for the Danish-Icelandic trade and fishing association. She was based in Geirseyri and later became a research ship for Denmark, purchased in 1920 by Björgunarfélag Vestmannaeyja for fishing control and rescue. It was definitely took over by the Icelandic government in 1926 as the starte of a Coast Guard and armed with two 57 mm cannons, later one 47 mm cannon. She ran aground at Húnaflói in a storm on 21 December 1929 and was declared lost.
Next came ICGV Óðinn, another Patrol vessel from 1926 until 1936. She served until sold to Sweden in 1936.

In WW2 the Icelandic coast guard comprised the following:
-ICGV Ægir (I) Patrol vessel (1929) purchased in July and used for coastal patrol, rescue and research, sold for scrap 1968. She was built in Burmeister & Wain, Denmark, launched 25 April 1929 for Iceland, powered by a B&W diesel engine to 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph). She had a single 47 mm gun. Ægir was the sister ship of the Danish research vessel Dana, commissioned in July 1929, she took part in the first of the Cod Wars, tasked for patrols, search and rescue, fishery inspections, research and nautical survey, replaced by the new Ægir in 1968.
The second vessel of the Icelandic navy in WW2 was ICGV Þór (II), acquired in 1930 but only active until 1939. She had been built in Stettin, Germany in 1922 as “Senator Schäfer” and arrived in 1930. She became a transport ship until sold to England in 1946 and was stranded in Scotland in 1950, declared a total loss.

The Icelandic naval force consisted entirely of fishery protection vessels, converted from merchant types and was set up about 1930. The vessels taken into service up to 1946 were Esja (1939, 1347t gross); the armed trawlers Aegir (1929, w497t gross) and Thor (ex-German Senator Shafer purchased 1930, built 1922, 226t gross) both with one 57mm gun; the MFV Odinn (1938, 72t gross) armed with one 47mm gun; and the Sudin (ex-Cambria, ex-Gotha, 1895, 811t gross). Thor and Sudin were discarded in the 1940s, the Esja in the 1950s and the Aegir and Odinn (renamed Gauter c1959) in the 1960s.


Icelandic coast guards ships in 1982
Although a member of NATO, Iceland has no navy. However, there is a coast guard service which is mainly employed in fishery protection and offshore patrol duties. Although its patrol craft were regularly referred to as ‘gunboats’ during the 1975-76 ‘Cod War’ with the UK, they have only nominal armament (originally 1—57mm gun: vessels in service in 1990 were rearmed with 140mm Bofors). Aegir, 1929, 507t, 14kts, BU 1968 Saebjorg, 1937, 98t, 10kts, stricken Aug 1965 Gautur (ex-Odinn), 1938, 72t, 11kts, stricken 1.1.63 Hermadur, 1947, 208t, 13kts, foundered 17.7.59 Maria Julia, 1950, 138t, 11.5kts, sold 1969 Thor*, 1951, 920t, 17kts, stricken Albert, 1956, 200t, 12kts, stricken Odinn*, 1959, 1000t, 18kts, extant 1995 Arvakur, 1962, 716t, 12kts, stricken Aegir*, 1968, 1150t, 19kts, extant 1995 Baldur, 1974, 740t, 15kts, stricken Tyr*, 1974, 1150t, 19kts, extant 1995 * have sonar, helicopter deck and hangar.

In 1952, 1958, 1972, and 1975, Iceland’s EEZ as expanded gradually to 4, 12, 50, and 200 nautical miles, encroaching on claimed fishery areas of the United Kingdom, leading to the “Cod Wars”. The Icelandic Coast Guard and Royal Navy were at standoff continuously from there, no shot was ever fired but there were tense moments. The Coast Guard today possess four large OPVs and a few aircraft and helicopters. They also took their share with peacekeeping operations abroad. The Coast Guard has four vessels and four aircraft (one fixed wing and three helicopters) at their disposal.

Cold War Icelandic Ships

CGV Gautur: Patrol vessel (1938-1964) Built in 1938 in Akureyri.
Baldur class: Fast patrol boats (1945): Baldur, Njörður, Bragi: Built for the Turkish Navy in 1943, expropriated by UK, bought early in 1946 and returned because due to rough seas inabilities.
ICGV Sæbjörg: Patrol and rescue ship built 1947 used by the National Life-saving Association of Iceland (NLSA), decommissioned 1960s.
ICGV María Júlía: Patrol, research and rescue vessel (1950) privately financed, Joint ownership by ICG-NLSA, decommissioned late 1960s.
ICGV Þór (III): 1951 OPV, British built, flagship, seeing all three Cod Wars. Sold 1982.
ICGV Albert: OPV/SAR purchased 1956, owned by now ICE-SAR. Decommissioned 1978.
ICGV Óðinn (III): OPV (1960). Decommissioned in 2006, museum ship.
Ægir class (1968): Danish-built OPV with ICGV Týr (II). flagship ICG, last two Cod Wars. Decommissioned 2020 unlike ICGV Týr (II) 1974-2021.
ICGV Árvakur: Lighthouse tender/OPV (1969) built in Holland 1962 for the Department of Lighthouses, decom., sold 1988.
ICGV Týr: Armed whaler (1972, Hvalur 9) borrowed for the second Cod War and called “Moby Dick” by the RN, decom. 1973.
ICGV Baldur (II): Armed trawler (1975-1977) for the third Cod Wars. She collided with, and knocked out three British frigates during the conflict.
ICGV Ver: Armed trawler (1976-1976) Built in Poland for Krossvík hf. in Akranes. Last Cod War.

The “cod war”


HMS Scylla rammed by Odinn
Another case of tensions within NATO (after the Turko-Greek tensions) is the case of fishery area claims made between UK and Iceland, both having superposed EEZ. The Cod Wars were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland in the mid-20th century, primarily over fishing rights in the North Atlantic. These conflicts occurred in three main phases: 1958-1961, 1972-1973, and 1975-1976. The disputes were largely non-violent but involved various naval maneuvers and incidents of ramming and cutting fishing nets. Here’s an overview of each phase:
First Cod War (1958-1961):
The first conflict began after Iceland unilaterally extended its fishing limits from 4 to 12 nautical miles in 1958, aiming to protect its fish stocks from overfishing. The UK, whose trawlers fished in the area, refused to recognize the new limits and continued fishing. There were several confrontations at sea, including instances of ramming between Icelandic patrol vessels and British trawlers. The Royal Navy was involved to protect British trawlers. The conflict ended in 1961 with an agreement that allowed British trawlers limited access to the disputed waters.

The Second Cod War (1972-1973) started when Iceland further extended its fishing limits to 50 nautical miles in 1972. The UK again refused to recognize the new limits, leading to another round of confrontations. More serious clashes occurred, with Icelandic patrol boats cutting the nets of British trawlers. The Royal Navy was again deployed to protect the trawlers. The conflict ended with a temporary agreement, where the UK recognized Iceland’s 50-mile limit in exchange for limited fishing rights within the zone.

The Third Cod War (1975-1976) started when Iceland extended its fishing limits to 200 nautical miles in 1975, following the global trend towards extended economic zones.
The UK resisted this move, leading to the most intense of the Cod Wars. This phase saw frequent confrontations, including ramming incidents and the use of trawler wire cutters by Icelandic vessels. Iceland threatened to close a key NATO base if its demands were not met, leveraging its strategic importance during the Cold War. The UK eventually conceded, recognizing the 200-mile limit, and Iceland agreed to allow a limited number of British trawlers to fish in the area for a transitional period.

The Cod Wars significantly reduced British access to fishing grounds around Iceland, impacting the UK fishing industry. These contributed to the broader acceptance of 200-mile exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in international maritime law, which were later formalized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Despite the confrontations, the UK and Iceland maintained overall peaceful diplomatic relations, and the disputes were resolved without significant loss of life or major escalation.

Today’s Icelandic coast guard

The Coast Guard’s fleet consists of three patrol vessels and one monitoring and measurement vessel. Þór is the largest and newest ship in the fleet, and flagship. The fleet includes the sister ships V/s Týr and V/s Ægir, built by Ålborg Værft a/s in Denmark. All has the latest navigation and electronic communication systems with powerful light boats on board to transport personnel between ships as well as other tasks. There are helipads on Ægi og Tý, unable however to support the heavy Super Puma helicopters alshough they can resupply them with a pump fuel, provided they hover over the ships.
M/s Baldur was built by Vélsmiðja Seyðisfjörður in 1991, used for monitoring the continental shald, taking sea measurements and otehr tasks. On board is a dinghy equipped for marine measurements in shallow water.

ICGV Freyja ()


NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN (April 4, 2022) – The Icelandic off-shore patrol vessel ICGV Freyja sails with Allied units in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of exercise Northern Viking 22, April 4, 2022. Northern Viking 22 strengthens interoperability and force readiness between the U.S., Iceland and allied nations, enabling multi-domain command and control of joint and coalition forces in the defense of Iceland and Sea lines of Communication in the Greenland, Iceland, United Kingdom (GIUK) gap. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Jesse Schwab)
Built in South Korea as OPV, Named after the goddess Freyja. Built at SeKwang, South Korea, launched 29 April 2009, acquired 2021.

Specs:
4,566 GT, 85,8 x 19,9 x 8,8m, Bergen Diesel ME, 2×6000 kW 17 knots, 2x Waterjet engine FRC, crew 18. Unarmed.

ICGV Þór (2011)


Ex-Chilean OPV, Named after the god Thor. Flagship. Rolls-Royce Marine AS “UT 512 L” type offshore patrol vessel. Ordered 4 March 2005. Construted at ASMAR Naval Shipyard in Talcahuano, Chile, on 16 October 2007.
Specs:
4,049 GT, 93.80 x 16/30 x 5.80 m (307.7 x 52/98 x 19 ft), 2 × 4,500 kW Rolls-Royce Bergen diesel, 2 × 450 kW bow tunnel thrusters, 883 kW retractable azimuth thruster, 20.1 knots.
Equipped with 2 MOB boats, Helicopter in-flight refuelling capabilities (HIFR), Bollard pull: 120 t (132.3 st)
Armed with one Bofors 40 mm gun, 2 × 12.7 mm HMGs, S-band radar, 2× X-band radars and Synthetic aperture sonar. crew 48.

ICGV Baldur


OPV Named after the god Baldr, also performs hydrographic survey duties. Built by Vélsmiðja Seyðisfjarðar, Iceland in 1991, used for hydrographic surveying, patrol, law enforcement, exercises. Shje disvoverted in 2002 a Northrop N-3PB lying upside down at the depth of around 11 meters in Skerjafjörður, close to Reykjavík.
Specs:
21.3 x 5.2 x 1.8m (69 ft 11 in x 17 ft 1 in x 5 ft 11 in). Speed 12 knots, crew 4-8, unarmed.

ICGV Óðinn


Used for Special operations. The action boat Óðinn is a covered hard-bottom tube boat that, among other things, is used by LHG’s special operations division but also for surveillance and exercises. No more infos.

Icelandic Naval Aviation


The Aviation Department of the Coast Guard consists of three helicopters and one airplane. The aircraft is of the type De-Havilland DHC-8-Q314, TF-SIF(4). It arrived in Iceland in the summer of 2009. The Coast Guard operates three Airbus H225 helicopters leased from Knut Axel Ugland Holding, designated TF-EIR, TF-GRO and TF-GNA. They are very well equipped for search and rescue operations.

Src

Official
1 2 3 4
lhg.is/um-okkur/taekjakostur/loftfor/
lhg.is/um-okkur/sagan/sagan
timarit.is/1 timarit.is/2
commons.wikimedia.org/ Icelandic_Coast_Guard
en.wikipedia.org Icelandic_Coast_Guard
is.wikipedia.org/

Iraqi Navy

Origin in 1937 and composition

The birth of the Iraqi Navy is concomitent of the country’s independence and access to the sea. The Royal Iraqi Navy was formed as a four-ship force (HQ Basra), primarily a riverine force. Long story short, the Bronze Age Sumer, Akkadian Empire, Assyria, and Babylonia all had fleets of riverine vessels notably for protection trade on the Tigre and Euphrates. These important waterways saw activity later under the Achaemenid and Seleucid rule, Parthian and Roman rule, Sassanid Empire, Abbasid Caliphate, Turco-Mongol rule, Ottoman and Mamluk rule until British mandate of Mesopotamia after WWI. The Independent Kingdom of Iraq started in 1932 but poltical instability plagued the country until 1941. There was a short lived pro-Nazi government, defeated in May 1941 by the allies with local Assyrian and Kurdish help known as the Anglo-Iraqi War and as instrumental as was the allied invasion or iran and fight over Vichy-French Syria.

All that time, the small Royal Iraqi Navy aligned the following:
-The only true naval vessels possessed by Iraq were four patrol boats (1-4) built by Thornycroft in 1937. They were of 67t displacement, 100ft x 17ft x 3ft (30.48 x 5.18 x 0.91m), propelled by 2-shaft Thornycroft diesels of 2,830bhp = 12kts and armed with 1~3.7in howitzer, 2—3in mortars and 2 MG.
-There was also the tug Alarm (exBritish Admiralty ‘Saint’ class St Ewe, 1919, 820t, purchased in 1926)
-And the royal yacht Faisal I (ex-San Pew, ex-Restless, 1923, 1025t). Faisal I became a lighthouse tender in the 1940s. All the above vessels were discarded c1977-79.

The Iraqi Navy in the Cold War

Although the Iraqi coastline is very short — just 58km — she maintained a relatively powerful navy until the Gulf conflict of 1991. Her geographical location at the head of a narrow and restricted body of water (the Persian Gulf) with an exit outside her control made the February 1981 order placed with Italian shipyards for four Lupo class fast frigates, six corvettes and a Stromboli class replenishment ship seem nonsensical — a deep sca navy without a sea to sail on. With hindsight it can be seen that this enlarged and modernised navy was intended to pose a military and political threat throughout the Gulf region; occupation of the disputed islands of Bubiyan and Warbah held by Kuwait would in any case have improved access to Iraq’s main naval base, Umm Qasr.

Iran-Iraq War

Naval forces played a relatively minor part in the Iran-Iraq war, which lasted for most of the 1980s. Information on naval operations is still sparse, though both Iran and Iraq were reported to have lost eleven minor warships (including four Iraqi patrol boats claimed sunk by Iran on 21 September 1980). The Iraqi navy, with some 3000 men, remained the smallest of her armed services, and the order for the training frigate Ibn Khaldoum from a Yugoslav yard reflected the difficulty of training adequate numbers of men to crew the Italian-built ships, whose delivery was held up pending the end of the war. Furthermore, Iraq’s main port, Basra, was effectively out of action throughout the conflict.

The Gulf War 1991


The Iraqi Navy fielded three types of missiles in 1993, the Silkworm (A 1968 chinese version of the Soviet P-15 Termit) on board the Osa class, and the Otomat see above, fielded by the Italian built Al Assad class class corvettes.
Following the ending of the Iran-Iraq war, delivery of the Italian_built warships was again held up by Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait in late 1990. Iraq suffered a severe defeat at the hands of Allied armies and navies in Operation Desert Storm in 1991, and the navy was one of the major casualties. All Iraqi naval vessels which ventured into the open sea during Desert Storm were either sunk or severely damaged, and others were destroyed or damaged in port. It is likely that all the missile boats, landing ships and minesweepers were sunk. Personnel strength of the navy had increased to 4600 men by 1989, but is impossible to assess accurately in the wake of the Desert Storm defeat. The Iraqi Navy has effectively ceased to exist as an operational force. FLEET STRENGTH 1947 Four ‘Thornycroft’ type patrol vessels, disp 67t, were launched in 1937 and, when no longer serviceable, were used as barracks. Numbered J—4, renamed Abd al Rahman, Al Ghazi, Dat Al Diyan and Janada.

The Battle of Babuyan:
The Battle of Bubiyan was a major naval engagement of the Gulf War off Bubiyan Island and close to the Shatt al-Arab marshlands. There, the Iraqi Navy attempted to flee to Iran when caught by Coalition warships and aircraft. Lynx helicopters of the British Royal Navy after being vectored on thse ships, used their Sea Skua missiles and wiped out 14 vessels (3 minesweepers, 1 minelayer, 3 TNC 45 Fast Attack Craft, 2 Zhuk-class patrol boats, 2 Polnocny-class landing ships, 2 salvage vessels, 1 Type 43 minelayer, and 1 other) in 21 separate engagements over 13 hours with a Canadian CF-18 Hornet fighter recording an official victory first. This happened during the Battle of Khafji in which an amphibious assault was spotted by the Coalition naval forces and promptly eliminated.
The last action of the Iraqi Navy was to fire a single Silkworm missile from an wheeled inland launcher at USS Missouri, intercepted mid-flight by a Sea Dart from HMS Gloucester and destroyed. This was also a first. After the Battle of Bubiyan the Iraqi Navy ceased to exist.

Strenght in 1990

-Training Frigate Ibn Khaldum (1978)
-4x Hittin class Frigates (Lupo class, 1983-85): Hittin, Thi Quar, Al Qadissiya, Al yarmouk
-6x Abi Sherh class missile corvettes (1982-84):
-3x Polocny D landing ships
-6x OSA I FACs
-8x OSA II FACs
-12x P6 class FACs
-3x SO-I clas Large Patrol Crafts
-2x Poluchat I class Large Patrol Crafts
-4x Zhuk class coastal patorl crafts
-2x Nryat II class patorl craft
-2x T43 class minesweepers
-3x Yevgenya class minesweepers
-4x Nestin class riverine minesweepers: Yugoslav built, transferred 1980, 3 still in 1995.

Training Frigates Ibn Khaldum (1978)


IBN KHALDOUM was a training frigate (Pennant 507) built at Titograd in 1978. Yugoslavian Training ship with frigate characteristics of Yugoslav design. Laid down 1977 aand in service 21 March 1980. The first of three such ships ordered — one for w the Yugoslav Navy which was never completed and the other named Hasr – Dewantara by Indonesia. Ships differ in machinery and armament (no helicopIt ter pad). These are handsome ships of similar appearance to the Vosper Thornycroft frigates of the Iranian, Brazilian and Nigerian navies. Ibn Khaldoum could carry four SSM. Used as a transport in the war with Iran. Renamed Ibn Manjd. Severely damaged February 1991, but remains afloat. Seems she was never repaired however and is not operational.
Specs:
Displacement: 1850t full load. Dimensions: 317ft 4in, 295ft 3in pp x 36ft 8in x 14ft 10in 96.7m, 90.0m x 11.2m x 3.6/4.5m
Machinery: 2 shaft CODOG (CP propellers), 1 Rolls-Royce Olympus TM-3B gas turbine: 22,000shp: 26kts
2 MTU 16V 956 TB 91 diesels 7500bhp: 20kts.
Range 4000nm at 20kts
Armament: 1-57mm/70 Bofors, 1-40mm/70,8—20mm AA (4×2), 2 ASW TT and ASW mortar, DC rack
Sensors: Radar Decca 1226, 1229, 1 search Philips 9LV 200 Mk II; sonar Plessey MS 26
Complement: 93 + 100 trainees

Hittin class Frigates

Al Tadjier
Class: F14 HITTIN (Fincantieri, lauhched 27.7.83, not delivered) F15 THI QUAR (19.12.84), F16 AL QADISSIYA (31.3.84), F17 AL YARMOUK.
The Assad-class corvette were originally built for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War by Fincantieri in Italy. Six ordered in 1981, but they were completed just before Operation Desert Storm, and as Italy was part of the coalition following the invasion of Kuywait and ultimatum, these were never delivered due to the embargo.
Instead, four of these were sold to the Malaysian Navy, becoming the Laksamana-class corvettes in 1995. The two remaining ones were resold to La Spezia and kept in reserve, but in 2005 it was announced they would be delivered to the New Iraqi Navy until the deal was cancelled due to their general condition after inspection (rather poor). On 19 May 2017, La Spezia managed to have them drydocked and maintained, so after another inpection they were given the go ahead for delivererance to Iraq… after 26 years. On La Spezia they were loaded on the semi-submersible carrier Eide Trader on 22 May, reached Iraq in June 2017. Thir fate is uncertain as of 2024.
The Libyan Navy operated also four of these, Al Tadjier destroyed during the Libyan-US confrontation, Al Tougour, Al Kalij and Al Hudud which entered service 1977-1979 being scrapped in 1993.

Specs:
Displacement: 2213t standard; 2525t full load
Dimensions: 370ft lin oa, 347ft 9in pp x 39ft 4in x 12ft 7in 112.8m, 106.0m x 11.98m x 3.84m
Machinery: 2-shaft (CP propellers) CODOG, 2 Fiat/GE LM 2500 gas turbines, 50,000shp=35kts, 2 GMT A230-20M diesels, 7800bhp=20.5kts.
Range 900nm at 35kts, 3,450 nm at 20.5kts
Armament: 8 Otomat Mk II SSM, 8 Albatros SAM (1×8) with no reloads, 1-127mm OTO Melara, 440mm Breda Dardo (2×2), 6-324mm ASW TT, 2 AB 212 helicopters
Sensors: Radar 3RM20, RAN-11X, RAN-10S, 2—Orion RTN10XRCT, 2—Orion RTN-20X; hull sonar Edo 610E or Raytheon 1160B, 2-SCLAR chaff launchers
Complement: 185

Abi Sherh class missile corvettes


Class: F210 MUSSA BEN (launched 16.12.82, renamed NUSSAIR postwar), F212 TARIQ IBN ZIYAD (8.7.83, not delivered), F214 ABDULLAH IBN (5.7.83, Not delivered, ABI SERH postwar), F216 KALID IBN AL (5.7.83, Not delivered, renamed WALID postwar), F218 SAAD IBN ABI (30.12.83, Not delivered renamed WAKKAD postwar), F220 SALAH ALDIN (30,3.84, Not delivered renamed AYOOBI postwar).
The ABI SERH class missile corvettes were Six corvettes based on the ‘Wadi M’ragh’ design for Libya were ordered in 1981 by Iraq in two versions. The basic version (four ships F 214-220) is described below. Two other corvettes similar to the Ecuadorian ‘Esmeraldas’ class are fitted with telescopic hangar and landing pad for helicopter at a cost of four of the six Otomat SSMs. All these ships were completed in 1986 87 but never delivered as was the case with the Lupo type frigates. They are still in Italian hands, and although it had been proposed that the Italian Navy take them over, two were planned to be sold to Morocco and another two to Colombia, although by 1995 the sales never took place. In May 2014 however Iraqi-US authorities ordered an extensive refit, signed in 2016 and in 2017 two ships arrived to Iraq onboard the cargo vessel Eide Trader, Mussa Ben Nussair and Tariq Ibn Ziad. In service today, maintenance and operational readiness uncertain. As for the remainder in 1997-1999 they were sold and commissioned by Malaysian Navy as the Laksamana class.

Specs:
Displacement: 600t standard; 675t full load
Dimensions: 204ft 5in 0a, 189ft 8in pp x 30ft 6in x 9ft 2in 62.3m, 57.8m x 9.3m, x 2.8m
Machinery: 4 shafts, 4 MTU 20V956 TB956 diesels, 24,400bhp = 37.5kts.
Range 1200nm at 31kts, 4000nm at 18kts
Armament: 6 Otomat Mk II SSM, 1—Albatros SSM (1×4, 8 reloads), 1-76mm/62 OTO Melara, 2-40mm Breda Dardo (1×2), 6 ASW TT (2 x 3)
Sensors: Radar 3RM-20, RAN-12 L/X, Orion RTN-10X; sonar Thompson Diodon, 2-SCLAR chaff launchers
Complement: 51

Other cold war Iraqi ships

Polish POLNOCNY D class medium landing ships (Project 773): Anka (1977), FJanada (1977), Nowh (1978), Ganda (Sep 1979)
Four ships of ‘Polnocny D’ type built in Poland in 1976 80 by Naval Shipyard, Gdynia. Deck structure amidships acts as a helicopter platform and a stores lift, closed during helicopter manoeuvres. One lost to Iranian Harpoon missiles 1980 -81, two sunk 1991, one escaped to Iran.

OSA I class fast attack craft (missile) (Project 205): Haziram, Kanun Ath-Tham, Nisan, Tamuz, I, II.
Six ex-Soviet delivered in 1972 74, two stricken. Other destroyed in 1991. One defected to Iran 1991, one survived until 1995.
OSA IP class fast attack craft (missile) (Project 205M): Sa’d, Khalid Ibn, Al Walid, I IV
Eight boats of this Soviet type were delivered in pairs in 1974, 1975, 1976 and the last pair since then. Some names may be suspect. Two sunk by Iranian warships and two by Iranian aircraft since September 1980. Two replacements delivered 1984. One defected to Iran 1991, remainder lost 1991.

P 6 class fast attack craft (torpedo) (Project 183): Al Adrisi, Al Bahi, Al Shaab, Al Tami, Alef, Ibn Said, Lamaki, Ramadan, Shulab, Tamur, Tareq Ben Zaid, I, named unknown
12 units transferred from USSR; 2 in 1959, 4 in November 1960 and 6 in January 1961. Stricken as worn out. Pennant numbers included 217 222. Six sunk by Iranian forces since 1980, some by Harpoon missiles.

SO 1 class large patrol craft (Project 201M):
3 ships transferred in 1962. Employed as large patrol craft. Carry pennant numbers 310-312. All sunk 1991.

POLUCHAT TP class large patrol craft:
2 Poluchat type were transferred from USSR in late 1960s. Used as patrol craft or for torpedo recovery. One sunk 1991, two survived 1995.

ZHUK class coastal patrol craft (Project 199):
Five transferred to 1975. Three sunk 1991, two extant 1995.

NYRYAT II class patrol craft:
2 multi-purpose craft possibly employed as diving craft. There are also two x-Soviet PO 2 (Pozarnyy 2) type fire boats of very similar design.

T 43 class ocean minesweepers Class: Al Yarmouk (465), Al Kadisia (467)
Built in mid-1950s and transferred to Jraq in early 19708. Pennant numbers changed to 412 and 417, Both sunk 1991.

YEVGENYA class inshore minesweepers:
3 GRP-hulled inshore minesweepers were delivered in 1975 Ostensibly as ‘oceanographic craft’. Armed with 2 25mm. One lost 1991, 2 survived, fate uncertain.

NESTIN class river mineseweepers: Yugoslavian built, 4 transferred in 1980. Three extant in the 1990s

US Occupation and the iraqi Navy Today

2004-2008 birth of the ICDF

In January 2004, the Iraqi Coastal Defense Force (ICDF) were recrated under the new US-backed authorities, with a core of 214 volunteers. On 30 September 2004, it was established to protect the Iraqi coastline, and started operating on 1 October 2004. By 11 November 2008, Rear Admiral Muhammad Jawad signed the Khawr Abd Allah Protocols or “KAA Protocols” at the Kuwait Naval Base after a concept of the British Royal Navy under the Combined Task Force 158 (northern Gulf region) to give a base to access and patrol Iraqi territorial waters aimed at the oil terminals Al Basrah. These were non-legally binding so to defuse any tension between Kuwait and Iraq for the use of the Khawr Abd Allah waterway, based on the British Hydrographic Office chart.
They were written and mediated by a British Royal Marine barrister: Lt. Col. David Hammond wotking with the Kuwaiti Navy and Iraqi Navy commands, in a reunion on HMS Chatham (F87) on 8 May 2008. They were ratified and signed on 11 November 2008 at the Kuwait Naval Base. Were present VADM William Gortney of the USN (Naval Forces Central Command, Bahrain). From 30 April 2010, Iraqi naval forces were tasked of the protection of the Khawr al-Amaya and Basra oil terminals and the ports of Umm Qasr and al-Zubair with mostly OPVs. List below.

Organization:

-Iraqi Naval Headquarters: Baghdad (Camp Victory), with plans to move to Umm Qasr.
-Operational Headquarters at Umm Qasr with tactical Operations Centers at Khawr al-Amaya and Al Basrah Platforms
-Naval Training Center at Umm Qasr, comprising a NCO Academy, Swiftboat Crew Training Course, Diving Squadron
-Maritime Academy at Basrah
-Patrol Squadrons at Umm Qasr: PS701, PS702, PS703, PS704, PB301, PB302, PB303, and five U/I PBs, see list three more planned.
Also Umm Qasr Support & Auxiliary Squadron.
Iraqi Marines:
1st Marine Brigade Special Troops Battalion at Basrah, full strength in 2011.
Battalions at Umm Qasr, Umm Qasr/Az Zubayr, and two at Basrah Log City
Total personal today: 5,400 sailors and officers, plus 1600 in the Iraqi marines guarding oil platforms in Umm Qasr.

List today


On 15 February 2005 the Iraqi Navy signed a $101 million contract with the Italian Government to provide four Saettia MK4 class Offshore-Patrol Vessels, a modified Diciotti class used by the Guardia Costiera. From Riva Trigoso they were modified for a crew of 38 and included logistical support, crew training over 7-week in cooperation with the Marina Militare whjch including a bridge simulator course at the Academy in Livorno. By May 2009, 701 Fatah was handed over at Muggiano, La Spezia. The crew trained since January 2009, and made the 20 days trip to Umm Qasr, a shakedown cruis of 5,000 nautical miles via the Suez Canal and Red Sea. These are intended only to defend Iraqi EEZ, control maritime traffic, SAR and fire fighting.


Fifteen (15) 35-meter Patrol Vessels (P301–P315) were built by Swiftships in the US back in 2011–2014 to provide logistical support for the oil platforms and protect Interceptor boats plus the Fast Attack boats.
Model 35PB1208 E-1455, 35.06 x 7.25 x 2.59 m, powered by 3x MTU 16V2000 Marine Diesels to 30 knots, 12 knots cruising, Range 1,500 nm (2,800 km; 1,700 mi) at 12 knots, 6 days at sea.
Armed with an MSI 30mm DS30M Mark 2 Cannon, one 50 cal/ 12.7mm MG and two 7.62mm MGs plus carrying a 7m Willard Rigid Inflatable Boat, crew 25.

093004-N-7185S-196 (Sept. 30, 2004) ñ UMM QASR. Sailors from the Iraqi Coastal Defense Force (ICDF) celebrate as they get underway for the first time since the ICDF became operational Oct. 1, 2004. The ICDF is under Brig. Gen. Joseph V. Medina, Commander, Task Force 58 (CTF 58)/Commander, Expeditionary Strike Group Three (ESG 3). The ICDF, along with coalition forces, will contribute to security and stability operations in Iraqi territorial waters to include protection of Al Basrah (ABOT) and Khawr Al Amaya (KAAOT) oil terminals. Official U.S. Navy photo by Lt. Sonja L. Stone

040425-N-7542D-002 Manama Pier, Bahrain (Apr. 25, 2004) – Iraqi Coastal Defense Force (ICDF) Patrol Craft 102 pulls into port in Manama, Bahrain after its 36-hour journey from Dubai. P102 is the first of five patrol vessels for the new Iraqi ICDF. Coalition forces comprised of U.S. Navy and Marines, Royal Australian Navy and Royal Navy will deliver it to its final destination of Umm Qasr. Official U.S. Navy Photograph By Photographers Mate First Class Dean M. Dunwody. Cleared for release by Fifth Fleet PAO

The Predator class P101 to P-105 27-meter NHS615 Class patrol boats were built in China by Wuhan Nanhua High-speed Ship Engineering Co., Ltd. delivered in 2002. Purchased under the oil-for-food program. Top speed 32 knots, Crew 14, unarmed but personal small arms only.

-Tariq ibn Ziyad (F212): Assad-class corvette (sole remaining)
-4x Saettia/Fattah class (Ita. Diciotti class): Fateh (PS 701), el-Naser (PS 702), Majid (PS 703), Shmookh (PS 704)
-2x Al Basrah class OPVs: Al Basra (OSV 401), Al Fayhaa (OSV 402)
-15x Swiftships Model 35PB1208 E-1455 FACs
-10x Predator class FACs
-24 Fast Aluminum Boats
-10 Rigid-hulled inflatable boats
-1 supply vessel Al Shams.

Sources

on navypedia.org/
loc.gov/ iraq country study
globalsecurity.org/
longwarjournal.org/ iraqi security force
longwarjournal.org/ OOBpage15 Equipment.pdf
abcnews.go.com/
navaltoday.com/ 2013 news
en.wikipedia.org Iraqi_Navy

Jordanian Navy

The Royal Jordanian Navy is an oddity since the country is landlocked except for its southern extremity, presenting a coast just 26 kilometres (16 mi) wide along the Gulf of Aqaba allowing at least a vital trade access to the Red Sea. There she had 27 patrol boats and 700 personnel, with the 77th Marines Reconnaissance Battalion and the small green water naval force is under command of the army.
This small fleet today is part of maritime Combined Task Force 152 securiig the Persian Gulf.

Birth in 1951: Royal Coast Guard

The Royal Coast Guard was established in Aqaba and comprised infantry, a company of 200 men with a few small boats. In 1952 its Headquarters was moved to the Dead Sea until 1967. In 1974 it otained its first vessels, four medium patrol boats of the British Bertram Class equipmed to operate divers and frogmen. From there, it was renamed the “Royal Jordanian Navy” but remained under supervision of the army, basicaly its naval force projection department. In practice it stays as coast guard and by 1988 at the end of the cold war, reached 300 officers, still based in Al Aqabah, the Jordanian sole port on the Red Sea.

At the time, the Navy consisted of five US-built coastal patrol boats armed with light machine guns. It was tasked of harbor security, worked with the customs and immigration and fishery protection. By late 1987 the Navy was extended by the acquisition of three larger 90 tons craft built in British yards each with a crew of 16 and 20mm, 30mm guns. They became somewhat of a concern for the nearby Eilat IDF base, both however have only lightly armed patrol boats.

Cold war ship’s list

Officially the navy was stated in 1969 providing the Hashemite Kingdom a Coast Guard, “Jordan Sea Force” taking orders directly from the Army Director of Operations at GHQ. There used to be also a Dead Sea flotilla, which no longer exist ed at the end of the cold war. The Sea Force base had been and stays as at Aqaba with a presonal in 1995 that amounted to 750 officers and ratings. In the late 1980s the king decided that three small fast attack craft should be ordered for patrolling the 12-mile maritime border on the Gulf of Aqaba. Three boats were ordered from Vosper in the United Kingdom and delivered in 1991, a considerable increase in Jordan’s naval forces.

HAWK class fast attack craft (gun)


class: AI Hussein (101, Dec 1989), Al Hussan (102, Mar 1990), Abdullah (103, 1991)
Ordered in December 1987 from Vosper Thornycroft. GRP construction. Up to seven were sought. Transported to Aqaba in September 1991 on a merchant vessel.
Specs:
disp. 124t 100ft x 22ft 8in x 4ft 1 lin (30.5m x 6.9m x 1.5m), 2 shafts MTU 16V 396 TB94 diesels 5800bhp = 32kts. Range 750nm at 15kts, 1500nm at 11kts, armed with 2x 30mm Oerlikon GCM-A03 (1×2), 1-20mm Oerlikon GAM-B01, 2×12.5mm MG, 2 Wallop Stockade chaff RL. Radar Kelvin Hughes 1007, fire control Radamec Series 2000 optronic; combat data system Racal Cane 100. Crew 16 (3 officers). Still active.

Rotork class patrol craft

Al Hashim, Al Fatsal, Al Hamza; delivered late 1990. Specs: 9t, 41ft 8in, 240bhp = 28kts, 1x 7.62mm MG), extant 1995

Bertram class CPCs

-Four US-built 38ft Bertram ‘Enforcer’ type coastal patrol craft (8t, 25kts, 3 MG) acquired in August 1974: Faysal, Han, Hasayu and Muhammed. All extant 1995
-Two US-built 30ft Bertram type coastal patrol craft (6.5t, 25kts, 3 MG, 8 crew): Ali and Abdullah, GRP hulls. Acquired 1974, both stricken 1992

Shorough class IPC

Two ex-GDR ‘Bremse’ class inshore patrol craft (42t, 74ft, 14kts, 1-12.7mm MG):
Shoroug I (ex-G 30/GS 5), Shoroug II (ex-G 31/GS 42), built 1971-72, transferred from Germany 1991, both extant 1995.

The Royal Naval Force Today

In 1991, the Coast Guard provided three Hawk Class vessels and on 13 November 1991 it was at last renamed the “Royal Naval Force”. A new acquisition program to replace old units was signed at IDEX 2009 exhibition between Dr. Moayad Samman (CEO of King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau) for a joint venture with Mr. Mark T. Hornsby from RiverHawk Worldwide LLC to create a locak shipyard, RiverHawk Shipbuilding and Support, PSC. Kaddb-RiverHawk were tasked of providing Shipbuilding and Support for the AMP-137 Advanced Multi-mission Platform Vessels.
Naval Command HQ:

  • Command Staff & Naval Signal Company
  • Combat Vessels Group
  • Naval Frogmen Group
  • 77th Marine Battalion
  • Naval Special Boat Unit
  • Counter-terrorism Team from Special Unit-II
  • Marine Surveillance Company, Aqaba
  • Marine Surveillance Company, Dead Sea
  • Technical Support Group
  • Maritime Training Center

List of Jordanian ships as of 2024

3x Al-Hussein class VT Hawk class, 2 × 30 mm guns, 1 × 20 mm gun, 2 × 12.7 mm HMG
2x Al-Hashim class Type 412 class, 1 × 12.7 mm MGs.
8x Abdullah class 2 × 12.5 mm MGs.
4x Faysal class Bertram type, 1 × 12.7 mm MGs.
4x Faysal class Command vessels, 2 × 12.5 mm MGs.
4x AMP-137 PB locally built by Built by KADDB, unarmed.
2x Falcon class with a Rafael remote controlled system, 7.62 mm MG.
Special Force boats
8x RHIB special forces
4x 17 ft launch boat
4x 19 ft GRP boats
2x Light craft SRB special forces

Sources

Conways all the world fighting ships 1947-95 page 243
country-data.com/
combinedmaritimeforces.com
combinedmaritimeforces.com/
jaf.mil.jo/
x.com/Nashab_32
hyperstealth.com
shipshub.com
navypedia.org/
globalsecurity.org/

Kuwaiti Navy

Latvian Navy

Lebanese Navy

Liberian Navy

Libyan Navy

Lithuanian Navy

Mauritanian Navy

Mexican Navy

Morrocan Navy

Nicaraguan Navy

Norwegian Navy

Omani Navy

Pakistani Navy

Paraguaian Navy

Qatari Navy

San Salvador Navy

Saudi Navy

Serbian Navy

Singaporean Navy

Slovenian Navy

Somalian Navy

Sudanese Navy

Syrian Navy

Thai Navy

Tunisian Navy

UAE Navy

Uruguayan Navy

Venezuelan Navy

Vietnamese Navy

Yemeni Navy

Zanzibar Navy