USS Long Beach

US Navy Flag Nuclear-powered missile cruiser
This great cruiser is probably as famous as the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise, her 'sibling' in many ways. In fact, she was the first nuclear-powered cruiser ever built, the first USN cruiser built after the Second World War (the conventional Worcester and Des Moines were laid down during WW2) and the first without cannons as main armament. She was studied as a "missile frigate" in the early phase of the project in 1955.

She shared with USS Enterprise the massive SPS-23 radar, and the long-range sonar SQS-23 built in the bow, and associated with the ASROC launcher. Stabilities issues forced some care in the way the superstrcture was built, using stability tricks, and raising the bow. Her C1W reactors were a more modest version of those deployed on USS Enteprise, and delivered a total of 80,000 hp, enough for 32 knots and more if needed.

Her main career's peak was to see combat in Vietnam, in the 1960s and early 70s, gaining units commendations and battle stars. In the 1980s they were many thoughts of modernization and conversion into an AEGIS type cruiser, but she lacked stability for extra additions and went on with a limited upgrades set. In the end, she was deactivated in 1994, after 33 years of service. She would remain alone in her class, the US Navy focusing on a relatively cheaper, moder modern alternative which became the California class in 1972, and later the Virginia class (1974) plus the singular, experimental Truxtun and Bainbridge built just after Long Beach, which showed the way and refined the concept.

In 1979, the magic of nuclear power was all gone and priorities of the USN had changed for the surface fleet, under the Reagan presidency. The next decade would be one of a large class of conventionally-powered missile cruisers, the Ticonderoga, compensating with their revolutionary AEGIS system. Although nuclear power resurfaces here and there in recent publications, this costly solution is no longer thought after, especially after the enthusiastic depiction in the 1950s of an "all-nuclear fleet", down to destroyers and frigates.

Concept & Design Development

Development of naval nuclear reactors


Work on nuclear marine propulsion started in the 1940s, the first stable test reactor bing operational in the USA in 1953. The genesis of the world's first nuclear-powered cruiser goes all the way back to the "nuclear club" of the 1950s comprising some of its most ardents proponents, notably Admiral Hyman Rickover, for submarines (the first nuclear-powered submarine was USS Nautilus, put to sea in 1955, sustaining 20-25 knots submerged for weeks on end and a parallel development to the Skate-class with a single pressurised water reactors).

But also Admiral Forrest P. Sherman, Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) in 1949, which proposed a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. But technology was still in its infancy at that time. Development work only started in 1951, and indeed conducted to successful tests in 1953, but halted by a national security council order. It was a distant relative of the 1946 X-10 at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a production facility for radioisotopes, which export was soon shut down. The first attempt by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission promoted a peaceful usage of nuclear power (President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech at the end of 1953).

The program was resumed in late 1954 with the establishment of the large ship reactor project. This formed the foundation of the surface ship nuclear propulsion program, going up to the completion of the last cruiser of the Virginia class, USS Arkansas, in 1980. Typically the problematic of the naval nuclear reactors needed to be of simpler and far more compact construction than land installations, which could boast 1600 MW and more, while a much smaller marine one was limited to a fraction of this, 200 or 300 MW. But in addition to the compact a reactor at sea needed to be more self-sufficient with better automation in control and maintenance, and requiring a smaller crew.

All these challenges led to the pressurized water type reactor. What led to this was a set of solution for:
-The need to use components subject to greater stresses, using tight spaces, and thus, must generate higher power per unit of space.
-The need to work flawlessly under adverse condition, vibration, hull twisting, pitching and rolling, shocks in heavy seas
-The need to endure seawater corrosion complicating maintenance and specific shutdown mechanisms not relying on gravity.

It was established it needed a smaller core, but in a tighter space and with a highly enriched fuel. The advantage was a less extensive shielding for the crew. That too was a problem, making a difference between surface vessels and submarines. In the latter this shielding, generally lead, was part of the ballast. On a ship subjected to stability issues, it had to be placed in the best location, complicating conception.

In the end, The Mark 1 reactor led to the US Atomic Energy Commission was capable of 60 MW, in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, starting in 1957. Westinghouse designed the first fully commercial pressurised water reactor of 250 MW, Yankee Rowe, starting operations in 1960, and the boiling water reactor (BWR) developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (Dresden-1, 250 MW) designed by General Electric also in 1960. They were posterior to the C1W design used for USS Long Beach. The development was simpler than for USS Enterprise, which started with the Westinghouse Electric Corp. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Arco) operating from in October 1958 and composed of A1W-A and A1W-B operating in tandem on one turbine. The A3W reactor was intended at first for USS John F. kennedy, but cancelled and further refined to end in the Nimitz class, as the A4W.

Genesis of the nuclear escort

Artists_conception_of_US_Navy_nuclear_powered_cruiser_in_1956 Artist Impression in 1956

All of this eventually led to USS Enterprise, powered by eight Westinghouse reactor units in 1960. It would remain the largest number of reactors ever put on a surface ship. It was in the FY1958 program, and USS Nautilus, FY1952 program. The admiralty soon realized that the unlimited radius of action of their precious carriers was not matched for its conventionally-powered escorts. Unless having a system of frequent roll of escorts along the way, another option was a nuclear-powered escort, unsuring a close protection at all of the new carrier. Therefore at first in 1955, a nuclear "frigate" was first thought after; It evolved to become a cruiser, programmed in the fiscal year 1957, so one year before CVN-1, the carrier she was supposed to escort.

Indeed, USS Long Beach preceded USS Enterprise, although they were launched at similar dates, and to gain time, engineers working at first on a "frigate" took a 1945 design light cruiser hull, similar to the Worcester class, but smaller. The Navy looked at building a new and pure missile cruiser. The impetus was led by CNO Arleigh Burke at the time, which developed an interest both for nuclear powered surface ships and missiles. Most of these early design plans included provision for the new and promising Polaris missiles in development, making these additional nuclear ballitisic capable surface vessel, in complement to the planned SSNBs. At the time, cruisers were seen as the best hard-hitting, offensive platform after an aicraft carrier. Initial design cost estimates went to around $90M but this was too optimistic.

Artist Impression of the Polaris-version in 1961.

There was also the desrire to include a powerful, comprehensive ASW suite too making these cruisers an all-around weapons platform, addressing medium/short range air threats, surface threats and underwater threats with the same potency. It was capable of supporting independent operations like the cruisers of old (and sailing frigates) rather to be only stuck to a carrier escort group. Initial efforts focused on nuclear frigates/destroyers, not cruisers. However it soon became apparent that a nuclear power plant just could not fit in a 140-150 m hull. A larger one was needed, thus entering cruiser's realm. The change of class was an important one, probably made in 1957.

It was also realized the hull size dictated a suite of larger, more powerful weapons suite to justify the size of the ship, including for example the ability to shoot down high altutide soviet bombers, and distant targets with cruise missile. Design cost estimates then spiralled upwards to a conversative $150M in 1957. The Navy also recognized that nuclear power was needed to escort the new nuclear-powered carrier itself.
(...) Dispersion is increasingly important in a nuclear environment. A nuclear cruiser in particular should be able to operate alone against submarines, aircraft, and enemy missiles, although her primary role in non-nuclear war might well be within the task force screen. The ship would not be able to handle a mass raid, but she would have to be able to shoot down several aircraft in quick succession.

CNO Adm. Arleigh Burke about escort versus independent operations
When the Ship Characteristics Board started work with the bureaus they were planning essentially a very powerful fast task force escort, but significant disagreement existed between between them and CNO Burke and naval historian Friedman note about this:
(...)the ship radars had been optimized for task force command and control, not for the much more limited needs of an individual unit armed with weapons of limited range.
He also noted that the main design goal became not warfare but just to test introduction of nuclear power for the surface fleet, and the weapons fit was not to be totally adequate for its size, which was designed to accept nuclear reactors in the first place.

SBC 169 is finalized and accepted

Long Beach under construction in July 1959

The hull was lengthened, to reduce resistance, and meet the designed speed requireed, of 30 kts. All designs led to the SCB 169, the real ancestor of the Long Beach, included in the FY57 budget. Early estimated put a hull 720 feet long overall, 16,000 tons displacement, which was aove a worceester class and closer to a Des Moines class. But the hull being redesigned and expanded it allowed for an open space just aft of the bridge "box", first planned to accommodate Regulus cruise missiles in silos. But it was changed to four Polaris missile launch tubes and eventually in the last redesign, to 5"/38 caliber gun mount plus the ASROC system.

USS Long Beach was the last cruiser built with the old WW2 hull style as all subsequent ones would adopt a fuller, more modular hull form such as the conventional Leahy class (DLG-16), Bainbridge (DLGN-25), Belknap (DLG-26), Truxtun (DLGN-35), California and Virginia, Ticonderoga (based on a Spruance hull to gain time). From the FY1957 authorization, 1958 was spent finalizing the design while

Long beach fitting out in 1961

Originally ordered as CLGN-160, reclassified as CGN-160 in early 1957 she became CGN-9in July, until the end of her life. Her keel was laid down on 2 December 1957 at Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River Shipyard (Quincy, Massachusetts). She was launched on 14 July 1959, sponsored Mrs. Marian Swanson-Hosmer (wife of Rear Admiral Craig Hosmer) and Congressman of California. Her cost was reported to be $320 million ($2.9 billion today) way over budget compared to tgh $250 million declared to the Senate in 1957. During completion, in January 1960 there were cases of degaussing electrical cables cut in three places. The operationhad to be performed again and that was the second of three incidents at Fore River Shipyard that year. Enquiry never led to conclusive results.

Detailed Design

Hull and general construction

USS Long Beach launching a terrier missile in October 1961 Outside the hull which had a very slender waterline, a lot of flare foward and seen from above an elliptic shape, and an additional bulwark at the prow to manage waves, the Long Beach design was characyerised by its impressive and tall, in fact massive-looking box-like superstructure. The main reasoning behind was to contain the SCANFAR system: AN/SPS-32 and AN/SPS-33 phased array radars. The latter were massive and thus, the decks were located below and above them, creating the large box.

This choice, similarly adopted for USS Enteprise, was creating problems. More on the latter. Indeed, while CVN-1 was quite wide and stable, the slender hull of USS Long Beach meant it became not only a massive sail in high winds but a major stability issue as a whole. USS Long Beach would remain experimental because she was the experimental platform for these radars. They were indeed later replaced by the much smaller AN/SPY-1 phased array systems on the Aegis Ticonderoga-class and later Arleigh Burke-class, still massive, but at least more manageable in height.

Photos when commissioning and for some time show AN/SPS-33 panels were not installed right away. The bridge was thus "open to the winds". Nevertheless, this gave USS Long Beach the highest bridge of any warhip in the USN, even the converted Albany class cruisers. Construction called for steel, mostly for the hull, and some 450 tons of structural aluminum for the superstructure, despite the potentual fire hazard. It was the only way to keep the weight down. Because of this unusually high aluminum she was given the voice radio call sign "Alcoa".


USS Long Beach was propelled by two nuclear reactors, one for each propeller shaft. The Westinghouse C1W were coupled with General Electric turbines for a total ouptut rated for 80,000 shp (60 MW) on her two propellers. The C1W are reportedly very similar to the A2Ws of the USS Enterprise, but probably uprated.

The C1W reactor was a pressurized water reactor which navy designation stands for:
C: Cruiser (platform); 1: First generation core designed by the contractor; W: "Westinghouse" as contracted designer. This type was used exclusively designed for the Long Beach-class and only nuclear reactor explicitly earmarked for a cruiser with two powering corresponding geared turbines. All subsequent nuclear cruisers were powered by "D"-class (for "destroyer") reactors: The D1W and D2W.

Performances-wise, she reached a top speed of 32 knots as a planned (56 kph) and her range of course was unlimited, only needed a change of core every ten years or so. This however was a major operation which needed a prolongated stay in port. It could not be done at sea. It is not known if speed tests beyond 32 knots were made on her sea trials, but in theory the reactors "pushed" to their limits could have provided more power and thus speed in excess of 38 kts if needed or more. There were dangers of vibrations though, detrimental to the radars, and of course issues in cooling the reactors in that case.


Long Beach in 1961 and 1986-90

The ship was originally designed as a radical "all-missile" cruiser. But realism prevailed and she was fitted with two 5"/38 caliber gun mounts amidships, by order of President John F. Kennedy which was not trusting 100% the missile systems and wanted a backup.
The initial armament when in construction was to be:
-Rear Talos launcher (long range SAM), 80 nmi (150 km).
-Two forward Terrier (medium range SAM) 30 miles (48 km).
-RUR-5 ASROC ASW system torpedo/depth charge (short-ranged) 10,000 yd (9.1 km).
-Two triple 12.75 inch torpedo launchers/Mark 46 torpedo for ASW.
-Two 5"/38 guns for surface/shore bombardment at 18,000 yd (16 km).

When revised in the 1980s the armament was finally modified comprised as the following: USS_Long_Beach_firing_a_Terrier_missile_circa_in_1961
Firing a Terrier missile, October 1961

RIM-8 Talos

Talos system on USS Long Beach

The early long range SAM of the USN, designed to shoot down high altitude bombers (1958). On 9 September 1961 it was installed on CGN-9, three Mk 7 and the Mk 12 GMLS with 8×AN/SPG-49 RADAR. But she had her Talos launcher removed in 1978. It was capable of flying to Mach 3 at 24,400 m (80,100 ft). 1

RIM-2 Terrier

Firing her terrier missile, October 1961.

The early medium/short range SAM, developed in the 1950s from the Bumblebee project. This 3,000 lb (1,400 kg), 27 ft (8.2 m) long missile powered by solid fuel rocket had a range of 17.3 nmi (32.0 km) and 80,000 ft (24,000 m) ceiling at Mach 3, guided by Semi-active radar homing. Removed and replaced by the Standard Mk.10.


The standard USN ASW system, also able to deliver short range SSM (antiship missiles). It was located amidship, behund the towering forward superstrcture and the aft one. It was 8-cell system (32 reloads) with a 360° traverse and good elevation, which comprised in normal ASW operation a missile acting as carrier for either a standard Mk46 homing torpedo or a depht charge on target. All eight could be fired in short succession. Among others, it could carry the W44 nuclear depht charge if needed intoduced in 1961. The honeywell missile was subsonic, with a range of 6 mi (9.7 km) to 10,000 yd (9.1 km) on later versions. In the latter case, the nuclear warhead was 10-kiloton, so the distance was barely sufficient to protect from the effect of its blast and radiation. The system was phased out in 1989 following the nuclear ban.

2x3 12.75 inch torpedo launchers Mark 44

Designed to launch two triple Mk.44 and later Mk.46 12.75 in (323 mm) homing torpedoes for ASW warfare, they were located amidship close to the superstrcture on eaither side, reloaded. The Mark 44 was developed from 1957, and launched also by the AD-1 Skyraider. It was powered by a 30 hp (22 kW) Electric engine, to 3.4 miles (5.5 km), 1,000 yards (910 m) in depth, at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) and guided by Helix search. In the 1980s they were replaced by Mark 46 models with had better performances and homing caracteristics.


About the SCANFAR system: The caracteristic box like housed the AN/SPS-32 and AN/SPS-33 phased array radars (see below). The AN/SPS-32 was a bearing and range radar. The AN/SPS-33 was a target tracking radar. For the first time it enable the cruiser to simultaneously track and respond to several aerial and surface threats at the same time. It was the grandaddy of the AEGIS system.
Prior to the development of SCANFAR, the Navy tried to have its anti-aircraft weapon system combined with a very advanced radar system called the the AN/SPG-59. It was to target long-range, high altitude threats with the new RIM-50 Typhon. The radar was an active electronically scanned array, doubling as long-range surveillance system, target illumination, and guidance system for the missile. The system was a world's first and state of the art, but needed a large number of individual broadcast elements and ended too ambitious, unreliable and expensive.

SCANFAR was in part a simplified version of the SPG-59 with a main radar used only for surveillance, and target illumination assumed by existing radar systems used by the RIM-8 Talos or RIM-24 Tartar. What the USN leant was that using a single antenna for both search and tracking did not worked. So the system had two antennas combined, for surveillance and tracking, but three radar antennas in the end, making for a bulky system. The automatic tracking computer appeared in 1967 and with it, USS Long Beach was able to deal quickly with two North Vietnamese MiGs in patrol with the Talos.

In service, however, it proved to be "temperamental" due to its numerous vacuum tubes but the display was was good and enabled for the USN over-the-horizon capabilities. During her 1967 overhaul period, it was converted to solid state electronic board which lightened the superstructure by 20 tons. It was a S band radar with pencil beam function focusing a single radar beam on target, manually operated. It was later replaced by the AN/SPS-48E. In this "couple" the AN/SPS-32 was the horizontally wide rectangular antenna for air surveillance while AN/SPS-33 had a vertical narrow rectangular antenna, frequency-scanned in elevation and phase-scanned in azimuth.
AN/SPS-10 surface search radar: Two-dimensional radar by Raytheon Tech. introduced in 1959.
AN/SPS-12 search radar: L-Band, medium surveillance radar developed to detect aircraft and surface vessels, from 1953.
AN/SPS-48 3D air search radar: Electronically scanned array air search three-dimensional system by ITT Exelis (1966).
AN/SPS-49 2D air search radar: 2D long range air search radar by Raytheon providing contact bearing and range.
Two AN/SPG-49 Talos fire control radar
Two AN/SPG-55 Terrier fire control radar
AN/SQS-23 SONAR: Search, detection and tracking for surface/sub with audio and visual echoes, range 10,000 yds, int. 1958.

CGN-9 Aft mast


The aft deck section was occupied by an helipad, not that common apart for converted cruisers, with great capacity. It had helopad large enough for one, but provided support for an on-board Search and Rescue (SAR) helicopter unit made of two models. In her carrer she carried a variety of models, like the Piaeseki/Vertol H-21, but also the Kaman UH-2 Seasprite for its HC-7 Sea Devils unit of Vietnam fame, which in the 1980s, operated SH-3A Sikorski Sea King. Up to three were parked on the wide aft deck, including the one on spot; There was no lift no hangar though. USS Long Beach Author's illustration of the USS Long Beach

⚙ Long Beach class specifications

Dimensions219.9 x 22.3 x 7.3 m ( x x feets)
Displacement15,110t standard, 16,600t FL
Propulsion 2 shafts turbines, 2 C1W reactors, 80,000 hp.
Speed32 knots (50 km/h)
Range2300 nm @ 27 knots.
Armament1x2 Talos AN (52v), 2x2 Terrier AA (120v), 1 ASROC ASM (20v), 2 x 127mm AA, 2 x 3 TLT 357mm (12 mk32 ASM torpedoes)
Sensors Radar SPS-32/33, SPG-49, 2 SPW-2 fire lines, 4 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-23

Was U.S.S. Long Beach a white elephant ?

underway at sea 1960

There are serious arguments in both ways - ie. she was a useful ship, paving the way for innovative vessels, but the general public's perception through the lens of taxpayer's money was that she was "US Navy's folly". She was to prove an all-nuclear fleet was a very potent asset, the Navy's counterweight to the SAC policy of strategic bomber in the air full time. The Navy at least can argue having a task force at sea at all time. The Navy even went further before the senate and argued that a single nuclear-powered task group could replace two conventional ones, as generally the ships of a TG were always at some point in overhaul and supplying. Therefore, even if the ships were individually costier, they were far more often deployed and thus, their ratio maintenance-supply cost versus hours at sea fully in operational readiness was a bargain for US taxpayers.

But it did not accounted several crucial elements: If the ship's power brought indeed unlimited range and autonomy at sea, the crew's fatigue after many months at sea became an important element obliging the Navy to take the human element into consideration for mandatory, yearly periods of rest. It was at one point though of rotating crews at sea, a bit like replenishment at sea (RAS) operation, but using some sort of "suspended bridge" between vessels, or helicopter transport, but this proved impractical. RAS even offered a counter-argument to an all-nuclear fleet as the process started in WW2 was now well established and negated the advantages of a nuclear fleet.

In the end, referring to to Operation Sea Orbit, which was never repeated, the dream of all-nuclear powered task groups eventually proved to be a chimeric hope, and public a relations coup, but no much else. Only carriers are nuclear powered today and escort vessels are simply rotated, with multinational collaborations quite often lifting the burden of the USN. As an individual ship, wer are left to see that USS Long Beach's whole concept was never repeated. The best argument against her was the vivid debate about the strike cruiser.

There was also the point of ship's fatigue, independent of its propulsion. Her hull was in the same steel as others and she needed drydock time for basic antifooling and cleaning -like any other vessel in the navy. The non-nuclear elements in general also wore out, ammunitions supplies needed to be refilled, electronics and electric components would fail, etc. There was also the case of necessary upgrade as technology -especially for radars- and later missiles and ECM, needed upgrades to stay relevant (which was done in the 1980s). But with her old style WW2 hull with complicated shapes, she proved less modular than the Bainbridge and followers. Which were also wheaper. At last, her main justification was to carry the combined radar system seen as cutting edge in its day, SCANFAR, but it proved complicated, capricious at best and partly unreliable.

Even under the Reagan administration it was chosen wiser to use destroyer-size AEGIS vessels in large quantities as a cheaper way to achive the Navy goal without the use of a few very large and expensive vessels for basically the same missions. Even, the Kirov class revealed in 1978 never spurred the admiratly into believing equivalent vessels can be an answer. The "battle" between the Navy staff for the strike cruiser and the Senate was won by the latter. Instead it was theorized that more, cheaper vessels, was the answer, betting on technological edge. After all, the Soviet Navy in 1980 had no equivalent to AEGIS and several "Tico" could perform the exact same saturation fire as a Kirov, way faster. The USS Long Beach as a pre-aegis vessels was completely unable to be as potent. It is even remarkable that she served for 33 years and she was largely seen in 1991 a bit like a prestige vessel from a bygone time, a symbol of the Kennedy era like USS Enteprise.









USS Long Beach's carrer

USS Long Beach was commissioned on 9 September 1961 after four years of construction and a long fitting out time of two years, the phase in which cost srpiralled out of controlled. In a sense that was awaited, she was prototype and a very innovative ship, the first of her kind (and the last on some aspects).


She was first assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, Naval Station Norfolk. After extensive shakedown tests and cruise she spent time fine-tuning all her complex weapons systems, electronics, and nuclear and propulsion, until 16 December 1961, and was reported to ba a very capable warship. Until 6 January 1962 she started her first missile tests off Puerto Rico. Her first foreign cruise was to reach Bremerhaven in West Germany. She arrived on 15 Januaryand made other courtesy calls in north European ports. The undelying strategy of these were clearly to reinforce the trust to NATO and US protection, a strong signal given to the allies and Soviet Union alike. Not warship was flagged as powerful and cutting edge like her at that time. She was the space age cruiser.

Back to Norfolk on 7 February 1962, trained off the east coast and Caribbean and by 10 April as reassigned to the Atlantic Fleet. There, she became flagship, Admiral Robert L. Dennison, CiC, and trined off North Carolina and Virginia. She hosted John F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson the first ellegedly being troyble by the absence of any gun aboard and asking for their addition.

Long Beach 1960

Her first Atlantic yearly TOD ended in early 1966 for her first nuclear core change and overhaul in Norfolk and NAS Long Beach in California. She received new equipment at Philadelphia and made a refrseher cruise in the Caribbean. On 6 August 1963 she was reassigned to the Sixth Fleet, Mediterranean.

Operation Sea Orbit

A-4C of VA-66 landing on USS Enteprise with USS Bainbridge and USS Long Beach c1964

Back to Norfolk for training, and Caribbean in April, she joined USS Enterprise (CVN-65) and USS Bainbridge, for a serie of cruises, as the world's first all nuclear-powered task group, starting in May. They sailed with RADM Bernard M. Strean from Gibraltar for a round the world cruise, another PM exercize, called "operation sea orbit".

Nuclear fleet: USS_Enterprise, Long Beach, Bainbridge

This was recall of the good olf "Great White Fleet" cruise of in 1907-1909, showing the fleet's capabilities without any fleet logistic support. She cranked up 30,000 miles in 58 days at 25 knots on average at sea but stopped in many places, each time visited by foreign dignitaries, notably Karachi, Melbourne, Wellington, or Rio de Janeiro, and back to Norfolk on 3 October 1964. Thos was followed by her usual winter Caribbean cruise and in June 1965 headed for the Global Strategy Conference at the Naval War College, Newport with VADM Kleber S. Masterson aboard, Second Fleet CiC, as flagship. She resumed training in Norfolk by June followed by upkeep and trabsfer to the Pacific Fleet from 28 February 1966. Her new homepprt was also her namesage, Long Beach in California (from 15 March).

Long Beach in Vietnam: The "Mig Killer"


The summer of 1966 saw training in tactics and operations and on 7 November 1966 she departed for the Far East, used as a Positive Identification Radar Advisory Zone (PIRAZ) unit in the northern Gulf of Tonkin. She was to be sure of a safe return of U.S. strike aircraft, trying to use her advanced detection capabilities to spot enemy aircraft attempting to evade identification, hiding amongst returning friendlies. She also became a base for the SH-7 "Sea devils" Search and Rescue helicopter unit.

Bow view 1965

USS Long Beach helped shooting down an An-2 'Colt' attempting to engage South Vietnamese vessls, by directing an F-4 Phantom II, playing the air intercept controller. She was back in Long Beach by July 1967 and returtned the next year for the Gulf of Tonkin. There, she managed for the first time to shoot down a MiG 21 jet fighter near Vinh with a RIM-8 Talos on 23 May 1968 at 65 miles (105 km). In June she shot down another one at 61 miles (98 km), while directed other MIG kills from fighters. She was the first vessels deployed in Vietnam to use her SAMs, later receiving a Navy Unit Commendation and Combat Action Ribbon on 26 April 1972 for her deeds at Đồng Hới.



The seventies and eighties


After Vietnam, she patrolled in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean, always the centerpiece of USS Enterprise's task force. In 1975 while now based in Naval Base San Diego, she took part in her first multi-national exercises, repeated in 1976 and 1977. Meanwhile, engineers at DARPA working on AEGIS identified her as the best contender for the new "strike cruiser program". Eventually the program never went to conclusion as the Ticonderoga class was voted instead.


In 1980 she rescued 114 Vietnamese boat people off Vietnam and by 9 January 1980 started her mid-life conversion: The SCANFAR system was removed, new flagship facilities installed in their place, and modern radars, Standard SM-2ER missile system and complete internal overhaul, plus the nuclear core change, plus CIWS, Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles installed. On 13 January 1984 after her refresher cruiser and extensive training with her new weapons systems and electronics, she started her 10th West Pacific deployment. On 9 January 1985 she was Selected for Restricted Availability at Bremerton, Washington. On 13 May 1986 she made her 11th West Pacific deployment and on 25 July 1987 the 12th West Pacific deployment. On 19 October 1987 she Participated in Kuwaiti tanker reflagging and provided cover during Operation Nimble Archer. She also escorted the USS Missouri (BB-63) task force and returned to aicraft carrier escort during the Gulf War of 1991.



In 1963 already as ordered by pdt. Kennedy, two 1 127mm/38 5-in Mk 30 cannons were installed amidship, and two Mk 35 radars for their fire control.
In 1968 she was fitted with the SPS-12 radar.
In 1978 her twin Talos SAM launcher was removed and two SPG-49/SPW-2 radars installed, to serve two quad Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84A)
In April 1983 she underwent her major upgrade, with the removal of her twin Terrier SAM, of her SPS-32, SPS-33, SPS-10, and four SPG55C radars, SQS-23 sonar but she gained a WLR-1, WLR-3 ECM suites, and two Mk 28 decoy RL. She obtained also two quad Tomahawk Cruise Missile (8 BGM-109A), and two twin Standard SM-2ER SAM (120 RIM-67) plus two 6-tubes rotative 20mm/76 Mk 15 Phalanx, plus the LN-66, SPS-48C, SPS-49, SPS-67 radars, four SPG-55D radars FCS, and two Mk 90 radars FCS, the SQQ-23B sonar and SLQ-32(v)3 ECM suite and four Mk 36 SRBOC decoy chaff rocket Launchers.

Later years


In May 1991, she supported Operation Provide Comfort, after Desert Storm and after the hostilities ceased. In June, 1991, she took part in Operation Fiery Vigil, an evacuation of U.S. military personnel from two bases in the Philippines: Clark and Subic Bay during the Mount Pinatubo explosion. Plan to fully upgrade her with a modernized version of the Aegis Combat System was axed by defense budget cuts following the end of the cold war. The higher operating costs wand larger crew were pointed out. She costed twice as much as a conventional cruiser. It was decided to have her decommissioned, but also all nuclear cruisers, when their core needed replacement. From now, the Ticonderoga would complement the Arleigh Burke, all with Aegis, as standards. Even frigates were decommissioned. Her last refuelling was scheduled for 1992 refits but she was decommissioned in 1994.


The deactivation ceremony took place on 2 July 1994 at Norfolk NAS, after which she was towed over to Newport News for long term upkeep. Her entire superstructure was removed, reactors defueled and by the winter of 1995 the hull was towed through Panama to Puget Sound, stricken on 1 May 1995. On 13 July 2012 she was sold at auction for recycling under Code 350. Incidents linked to her propulsion were few: There was a crew member exposed to abnormal levels in 1963 and radioactive coolant leakages detected in 1991 while crew members alleged her reactor was now unsafe. She was broken up and only a few elements survived to be displayed.

AEGIS Cruiser proposal

Initial DARPA's 1973 10,000 tonnes concept

USS Long Beach/Aegis
USS Long Beach/Aegis (CGN-9) AAW Refit for FY77-78-79 con,cept artist

17,000 tonnes 1976 design

A comparison with the Ticonderoga class

In the late 1970s, DARPA proposed to the USN a new warship concept called the "Strike Cruiser" provisionally designated CSGN. This was an evolution of the California and Virginia class, most importantly an upgrade to the concept of nuclear cruiser responsing to the Soviet Kirov class cruisers perhaps in a better way than four old battleships.

The new 17,000t vessel main asset was its new Aegis combat system and a pair of twin Mk26 missile launchers with Standard and ASROC missiles and four quad Harpoon canister plus eight Tomahawk land/anitship cruise missiles plus the Mark 71 8-inch gun. She would have been fitted also with a hull-mounted and towed sonar systems plus the usual 324 mm M48 torpedo tubes, and two LAMPS helicopters.

But in the context of 1976, cost-cuttings were rampant, and the cost of a single ship was estimated at $1.37 billion, for a completion in December 1983 if USS Long Beach was converted, while total cost for a brand new nuclear powered cruiser to this standard was estimated $3 billion. In fact USS Long Beach was to be the prototype of this new class, keeping her actual armament, upgraded but with AEGIS and her reconstruction cost was estimated $800 million. But US Congress refused the option, preferring the alternative plan of an AEGIS-equipped Spruance class destroyer which evolved into a new cruiser class, the Ticonderogas.

There were two more proposals for a "Strike Cruiser" afterwards, one being a hybrid aviation cruiser, flying AV8 Harrier and answering the Soviet Kiev class, the other was called CGN-42, and was a longer derivative of the Virginia class with Aegis. Both were also rejected by the Congress which stuck to the Ticonderoga class. The Kirov and Kiev class never got equivalents in the USN.


Read More/Src

Cold war US cruisers
Strike from the Sea, The Development and Deployment of Strategic Cruise Missiles since 1934 By Norman Polmar and John O'Connell
Nuclear Or Conventional Power for Surface Combatant Ships?: Department of Defence.
UK take on nuclear propulsion for ships (pdf)

Nuclear Naval Propulsion - Magdi Ragheb
uss long beach wiki

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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