The Netherlands - 1895-97 - HNLMS Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Gelderland, Noordbrabant, Utrecht.

The Dutch Apollo-like cruisers

We saw not long ago the British Apollo class cruisers of 1890. In 1886, the Dutch naval staff planned an ambitious new class of six ships to serve as long range commerce raiders, in distant stations like i the East Indies, but morever to take place in the defence of the homeland. They were to be all named after Dutch provinces and inspired by the British Apollo class.

As protected cruisers, they were a good compromise for the limited economy of the country, not costly as armoured cruisers (and perfectly out of question since there was no battle line to fill), but yet, better protected than second class light cruisers of the time.

Postcard, Gelderland

Built in two groups in various locations, launched in 1896-98 and completed by 1898-1901 these pantserdekschepen had quite an active service, seeing and participating in the Second Boer War, the Boxer war, Aceh War, or second Castro crisis. Due to budget cuts only four would remain active in 1913, two decommissioned. Holland, Zeeland saw WW1 and were discarded in 1920-24 while the last, Gelderland and Noordbrabant wee still active in 1940 as minelayers and training vessels. Both have been modernized prior to the great war.

Noordbrabant became an accommodation ship in 1920 and was badly damaged during the invasion. Captured, she was apparently not woth repairing and was discarded in May 1940 while Gelderland, a cadet training ship in the 1920s was also captured in good order. Despite her age, the Germans were desperate to use any ship they could as auxiliaries of the Kriegsmarine and she was converted as a FLAK-ship. She was efficient with a radar but was sank by air attacks in Kotka harbour in Finland on 16 July 1944.

HNLMS Holland off Spihead 1902
HNLMS Holland off Spithead 1902

Design of the Holland class

Built in six different yards over five years these ships were called pantserdekschepen ("armoured deck ships") which resumed well the protected cruiser concept. They were about the same tonnage, size, and had the same armament and speed than the Apollo class. They proceeded from two rather disappointing designs. Before them indeed, the Dutch experimented with a unusual protected cruiser, the HLMNS Konigin Wilhelmina der Nederlanden, a 4530 cruiser built at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam in 1890-92 and completed in 1894. Singular, she was armed indeed with a single forward 11-in/30 gun turret (280 mm), with a single masked 8.2 in/35 gun (208 mm) aft, and two 6.7 in (170 mm) also shielded guns on the broadside.

She was though a bit as a guardship, and slow at that at 15.8 knots. Armour also was strong, up to 11 in over the boiler rooms, and 5 in elsewhere over the engine rooms. She was preceded by a smaller protected cruiser, the HLMNS Sumatra (1890), and an antiquated class of unprotected cruisers, the seven Atjeh class ships. The latter were 3,700 tons fully rigged vessels tailored for colonial service, built between 1876 and 1886. They were also the first modern steel-hull cruisers built by the Netherlands and were targeted for replacement by the new Holland class.

Due to the odd design, slow speed and short range, slow-firing armament of the Konigin Wilhelmina, the admiralty turned to foreign designs and naturally the British became a source of inspiration. The large scale Apollo class cruiser was there to see and covered all the requirements of the Dutch admiralty. Like the Apollo, they had a flush-deck hull with a central battery of 4.7 in (120 mm) guns while two fast-firing 59 in guns (149 mm) were placed fore and aft.

They also had about the same silhouette as the Apollo with two funnels and same speed at about 20 knots. Protection however was a bit sacrificed for speed in this case, only 5 in (127 mm) over the engine rooms, but the same as the Apollo. The Holland class displaced 3,900 tons standard for the first three ships and 4,033 for the last three or 3,970 tons according to Conway's. Their size range from 93.30 to 94.70 in lenght overall, for the same 14.80 m in width and a draught of 5.41 m.

Cruiser Holland - postcard
Colorized by Postale Navales

Propulsion
The machinery consisted in two shafts reciprocating engines (VTE) which developed together 10,000 ihp (7,500 kW). This allowed for a top speed ranging from 19.5 to 20 knots or 37 km/h. Coal carried amounted to 814 up to 875 tons, while range figurs was about 4,500 nautical miles at 10 knots. The first three had eight Yarrow boilers, the last triple batch was given the same but two additional cylindrical boilers.

Armament
It consisted in two 5.9 in/37 (149 cm) Krupp guns on the deck fore and aft, under shields, six 4.7 in (12 cm) guns, three per broadside, two on boat corners fore and aft under shields and a 180° angle, and towo under walls, alternated with four 3 in (7.6 cm) guns als protected by the walls. This was completed by a light anti-torpedoboat artillery, four Hotchkiss 1pdr guns (37 mm) probably on the upper decks. This was completed by two 45 cm (18 in) torpedo tubes in the bow and stern.

However it varied considerably among ships: Zeeland for example had six 75 mm/37 Krupp guns and eight 37 mm/20 Hotchkiss, and four 37 mm/17 Hotchkiss guns.
Holland and Friesland had six 75mm/37 Krupp, and the rest as Zeeland. Gelderland, Noord Brabant and Utrecht of the second group also had eight 37mm/20 Hotchkiss and four 37mm/17 Hotchkiss QF guns.

During the modernization of 1914-15, Holland's two 12 cm secondary guns were removed and instead two 75 mm/37, eight 37mm/20, and four 37mm/17. For NoordBrabant too, and on Zeeland and Gelderland only two 120/40 Krupp No.3 guns remained. In 1939, the surviving Gelderland was armed with eight 12.7mm/90 AA, and three 7.9 mm/80 MGs. For Gelderland in German service (Flakship Niobe) see later.

Protection
It consisted in Harvey Nickel steel. The deck was 57 mm thick (2.5 in), the glacis over the engines rooms was 127 mm (5 in), main gun shields were 152 mm thick (6 in) and the secondary gun shields were only protected by 13 mm plates, againsh shrapnells. The conning tower had walls 102 mm thick.

stern view
Stern view of a Holland class ship before the great war - typical white livery and beige canvas superstructures and funnels.

The Holland class in action

HNLMS Holland

Holland was launched on 4 October 1896 at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam and completed on 1 July 1898. She left Den Helder on 7 January, set for the Dutch East Indies. In 1900 she teamed with HNLMS Piet Hein and HNLMS Koningin Wilhelmina der Nederlanden to Shanghai, in order to protect Europeans at large, and Dutch citizen and company interests in Peking and China at large during the Boxer Rebellion. The Holland's own marine infantry and landing party defended the Shanghai French Concession were most Dutch citizens took refuge.

She would returned in October to the Dutch East Indies. However ten years after, she sailed with HNLMS Hertog Hendrik, escorting HNLMS Noordbrabant damaged badly by a cliff on 31 May, sailing for Surabaya. Noordbrabant survived part of her compartments flooded and was later repaired. In 1911, Holland was sent back again to Shanghai during the turmooil caused by the Revolution and fall of Imperial China, arriving on 4 November. The next year, she represented the Dutch queen at the funeral of the Japanese emperor Meiji in Yokohama. The rest of her career was uneventful as during WWI the netherlands stayed neutral. Holland was decommissioned in 1920 and later scrapped.

HNLMS Zeeland

HNLMS Zeeland
HNLMS Zeeland was built at the Koninklijke Maatschappij de Schelde, Flushing, launched on 20 March 1897. She was commissioned on 1 June 1898. She left the port of Flushing on 18 June that year for North Sea speed trials. She visited Plymouth in one of these. When fully operational, the new cruiser served as flagship of a naval review squadron which paraded on 15 September on the Hollands Diep, at the occasion of the coronation of queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.

On 24 June 1905, Zeeland tried to pull the stranded HNLMS Hertog Hendrik foundered on an uncharted reef near Matjidosteen, but this remained unsuccessful. She was mater salvaged and towed away by De Ruyter and Japara. HNLMS Zeeland sailed to to South Celebes, an expedition against the rebellion by the local lord of Boni. Hertog Hendrik, Zeeland and Assahan covered the landings near Patiro, 20 July 1905.

The next year, Zeeland, Koningin Regentes and De Ruyter sailed to Bali in the Dutch East Indies, trying to submit and integrated the southern kingdoms of Tabanan, Badung and Klungkung. The city of Denpasar was shelled on 16-17 September, covering landings which eventually put an and to any resistance. Zeeland sailed on 2 July 1914 for IJmuiden, training as far as the Baltic Sea with Prince Henry of the Netherlands on board. Copenhagen, Saint Petersburg, Stockholm and Kristiania wee visited before by the end of July she returned to Den Helder as the war was about to break out.

On 7 June 1917, Zeeland sailed to Soerabaja, visiting en route the harbors of Tórshavn, New York, Curaçao, Colon, Panama, San Francisco, Honolulu, Yokohama and Nagasaki and arriving to Soerabaja on 4 November. She became the first Dutch (or even foreign) ship through the Panama Canal. On that year she reached her destination. She sailed back home in December but her active lufe went on without notable incident. She will be decommissioned in 1924.

HNLMS Zeeland in the Malukku atoll in Indonesia
HNLMS Zeeland in the Malukku atoll in Indonesia

HNLMS Friesland

HNLMS Friesland
HNLMS Friesland was built at the Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij in Rotterdam, launched on 4 November 1896 and commissioned on 16 January 1898. In april the next year she sailed to Curaçao in order to protect Dutch neutrality during the Spanish-American war. She also was based in the Dutch East Indies and during the Second Boer War she ailed from Tanjung Priok in October and arrived at to Lourenço Marques. Her marine company and guns ensure the protection of Dutch citizens and interests. In August 1900 she was back in the Dutch East Indies. In 1902 she gatherred at Colombo ten Dutch volunteers from the Boer war, former POWs interned on Ceylon.

In July 1906 she left Den Helder for exercizes a far north as the Arctic Ocean, visiting Tromsø, Bergen and Kristiania. She rescued passengers from the grounded French passenger ship Ile de France and succeeded in towing her loose. Friesland collided with the British destroyer HMS Lee on 14 July 1907 off Start Point, Devon. After repairs, she, together with her sister ship Gelderland and HMDMS Jacob van Heemskerck started patrolling the Venezuelan coast during the second Castro crisis and gaurded the entry to Maracaibo in 1908. By September 1910 Friesland honored Belgian king Albert I and his wife during his state visit. She spent the rest of her two years without notable even and was decommissioned in 1913.

HNLMS Gelderland

HNLMS Gelderland was built at the Maatschappij voor Scheeps en Werktuigbouw (Fijenoord) in Rotterdam. She was launched on 28 September 1898, commissioned on 15 July 1900. By November she was in Marseille, carrying Paul Kruger from Lourenço Marques, and dropping him there, then she set sail for the Dutch East Indies. At Port Said she collided with the British steamer Peterson, and needed repairs at Suez. She resumed her trip in January 1901, arriving on 9 January in Surabaya.

By July 1904, Gelderland and Utrecht ran aground near Aroes Lampoejang, South Sumatra on uncharted reefs. They were repaired in Surabaya and Singapore. In June the next year, HNLMS Gelderland and her sisters Noordbrabant and Utrecht proceeded back home, transiting by Tanjung Priok Mahé, Perim, Port Said, Algiers and Tangier. In 1908 Gelderland patrolled the Venezuelan coast (second Castro crisis) and in 1911, she left Rotterdam for the UK, attending the coronation of George V.

On 11 November 1912 she was sent to Constantinople amidst political tensions and landed 100 marines which took position in the legations quarter on 18 November 1912. She suffered an accidental explosion occurred on 14 March 1917, and needed repairs and an overhaul. The war passed without any notable incident and she was converted as an artillery training ship.

As FLAKschiff KMS Niobe 1941-44
Flakschiff niobe
Author's illustration of KMS Niobe

Seized by the Germans in 1940 she was integrated into the Kriegsmarine under the new name of KMS Niobe, first as cruiser, training ship, and Flakschiff or AA cruiser.
She was sent north on the baltic, to take part in the Continuation War with the Finns in order to strengthen the air defences of Kotka. Spotted by Soviet aerial reconnaissance she was attacked by 132 bombers and fighters from the 51st Mine-Torpedo Aviation Regiment of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, on 16 July 1944. She apparently damaged several planes and shot down a A-20 Havoc bomber but she was hit multipe times and sank, her guns still blazing as she went in the shallow water. However Seventy of the crew died.

Niobe 1942
KMS Niobe in 1942

HNLMS Nordbrabant

HNLMS Nordbrabant was built in Koninklijke Maatschappij de Schelde (Flushing) launched on 17 January 1899, commissioned on 1 March 1900. Her first visit was at Kiel for the Kieler Woche where German Emperor Wilhelm II visited her. On 6 February 1901 she sailed for the Dutch East Indies, arriving in Tanjung Priok on 23 March. On 16 April she made a cruiser to Melbourne and Albany in Australia in a state visit of the Dutch East Indies towards the Australian parliament in May. In June 1905, HNLMS Noordbrabant joined Gelderland and Utrecht back in the homeland, stopping at Mahé, Perim, Port Said, Algiers and Tangier. In 1909 she made another trip from Surabaya to San Francisco, not using her sails for the first time to spare coal. She also stopped at the Marshall Islands and Hawaii. In October she participated in the Portola feasts in commemoration of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

In May 1910 however HNLMS Noordbrabant hit a reef en route to Surabaya, causing serious flooding but she resumed her trip on steam on her own escorted back to Surabay for repairs by Hertog Hendrik and HNLMS Holland. She was in Durrës in the summer of 1914, to retrieve the remains of Major Lodewijk Thomson back to the Netherlands. On 6 January 1916 she picked up the crew of the stranded British submarine HMS E17 on Dutch coast. After no notable incident she was decommissioned 1920 and started a new carrer as an accommodation ship. On 17 May 1940 she was scuttled by fire to avoid capture, and never repaired, scrapped postwar.

HNLMS Utrecht

HNLMS Utrecht was built at Rijkswerf (Amsterdam), launched on 14 July 1898, commissioned on 1 March 1901. In May she sailed for adelborsten to the Mediterranean Sea, visiting Cádiz, La Spezia, Naples and Toulon and was back in Flushing in July. In 1902, she sailed to Venezuela, La Guaira harbor, to deter Venezuelian actions against merchant traffic and Dutch interests. By July 1904, Utrecht and Gelderland ran aground near Aroes Lampoejang (South Sumatra) and Utrecht was repaired later in Surabaya. In September, she assisted another stranded ship, also on an uncharted reef.

On 17 June 1905, the three ships sailed back to the Netherlandsn visiting several ports, and in by September 1909, Utrecht, which was back to its Suriname station, sailed for New York City, participating in the Hudson–Fulton Celebration and a fleet review on the Hudson River while the crew, dressed in seventeenth century costumes, sailed on a replica of Hudson's ship Halve Maen. By 25 April 1910, she left Paramaribo in the Carribeans for Buenos Aires, in a state celebration of 100 years of Agentinian independence and the fleet review. In July, she made other stops and was backin Suriname in August. She did not even saw WW1, decommissioned in 1913.

Gelderland in 1900 and 1940
Gelderland in 1900 and 1940 (from conways and navypedia).

Read More
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921 & 1922-1947
Teitler, G. (1984). De strijd om de slagkruisers. Dieren: De Bataafsche Leeuw.
van Dijk, Anthonie (1989). The Drawingboard Battleships for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Part II
//www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_cr_holland.htm
//dawlishchronicles.com/the-strange-career-of-the-dutch-protected-cruiser-gelderland/
//www.dutchsubmarines.com/tenders/tender_ardjoeno.htm
//forum.worldofwarships.com/topic/75267-a-detailed-look-at-hnlms-gelderland/
//laststandonzombieisland.com/tag/dutch-cruiser/
//forum.worldofwarships.eu/topic/1541-hnlms-gelderland-aka-kms-niobe/
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java-class_cruiser
//www.netherlandsnavy.nl/Javacl.htm
//www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_cr_java.htm
//www.world-war.co.uk/dutch/java.php3
//marineschepen.nl/dossiers/waarom-we-de-javazee-niet-moeten-vergeten.html
//www.netherlandsnavy.nl/Javacl.htm
//www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/1924/Lichte-kruisers-van-de-Java-klasse.htm?c=gw
Kimenai, Peter (February 6, 2010)
On modelshipworld.com

Models Corner:
http://www.steelnavy.com/HollandHL.htm

Naval History

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Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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