Austro-Hungarian Submersibles

Austria-Hungary (1909-1916)

Introduction

Austro-Hungary has full awareness of its small size compared to its immediate neighbours and long declared enemy, Italy, and France beyond the peninsula. Submarines, just like torpedo boats were a way to recover cheaply some form of parity, although the naval staff left the impression to late to recognize the potential of submersible warfare. It's only under a new impulsion in 1909 that it was voted the purchase of submarines in various naval yards, in the optic of a future local production. In 1909 indeed, three yards were chosen, Lake and Holland (USA) and Germaniawerft (Germany). Just like the German Navy, naval authorities preferred to wait for the pioneering work to be done and the technology gain in maturation.

SM_U-1
U1 (Lake type, 1909)

The Naval Technical Committee (MTK) was ordered in 1904 to purchase a design, competition was open, and eventually three were retained, with two units for each. All three were relatively similar in size, displacement, but not so for technology and capabilities. The Lake type were the best divers but were disadvantaged for surface cruising, a bit like the Holland design, given a problematic gasoline engin that poisoned the crew. Germaniawerft design was by far the better for surface cruise, was roomy and reliable, the most solid with its double hull, but was the worst diver. This experience led the admiralty to define the ideal design, which ended with the first serie based on the German UD type. Because the war broke it it was only possible to ship smaller vessels by rail for assembly in Pola, so delays ensure they were not ready on time and Austria-Hungary entered the war with its tow prototypes series (The U1 serie was undergoing refitting of new engines).

U4-KuK-sub
U4

The Havmanden-type Whitehead design from Denmark were the only commissioned serie in "numbers" (4) to see action, but the naval staff was not happy with it, and only see action for a short, late period, in the fall if 1917 due to reliability issues. For some time the captured ex-French Curie was the most capable and larger submarine in operation. Another solution was the fast assembly of small German UB types shipped by railed to Pola in prefabricated modules. The first contracts fall in February 1915, to AG Weser. They were intended for operations in the Dardanelles, which never took place. Licences were also negotiated for the construction of a serie of UBII types.

The_assembly_of_a_SM_U-31_submarine_in_the_Ganz-Danubius_company
SM U31 assembled

The other important point is the presence and operation of German submarines. Although captain Hersing demonstrated his abilities to reach Pola with the U21, coastal types easy to assemble were preferred, shipped by rail. For security reasons, they all flew the Austro-Hungarian colours, despite a German crew and after a while, Austrian officers. In fact by October 1916 only the U35, 38 and 39 still flew the national flag. German flag was generalized. In March 1917 order for an "unrestricted sub warfare" was not seen as a good eye by Australian authorities as it also imply to sink hospital ships. At the end, communicates about ships sunk were collectively denominated "by the Central Powers".

SM_U-5_postcard

In total 27 Austrian submarines had been commissioned, and served with mixed results. 63 ocean-going types were planned but lack of workforce and of materials ensure massive delays and only a fraction ever saw operational service in time. For successes in combat, the ace was Georg Ritter Von Trapp (U5, U14) a future actor of a famous Hollywood movie, followed by another ace, Zdenko Houdecek (U17, 28), but the palm gone to the impressive U27 that include one destroyer and 35 civilian ships (mostly schooners).

SM_U-12

SM_U-6_Austria-Hungary_postcard

Globally Austrian subs sunk Armoured Cruisers Leon Gambetta and Giuseppe Garibaldi, destroyers Phoenix, Renaudin, Fourche, Impetuoso, Nembo, submarins Circe and Nereide and badly damaged the Jean Bart, Dublin, Weymouth, even the Japanese destroyer Sakaki and 108 civilian ships had been sank or captured, plus 11 more unconfirmed.

These German U-boats (about 70 of them) operated from Pola and Cattaro.The Gäa was their default depot and supply ship. They were joined at some point with locally assembled Torpedo Bootes, A51 and A82. They operated from Pola. German crews usually tend to despise their Austro-Hungarian fellow sailors, because of a supposed relaxed discipline in order to release tensions between a multitude of ethnicities, whereas German crews were a disciplined and homogeneous lot.

SMU-6_Gruppe_after_Renaudin-sunk

Some submarine projects never materialized, like the experimental Loligo, intended to be used on Lake Garda. Another was a cruiser cargo submarine influenced by German Deutschland and intended to reach neutral Spain. It was a proposition by the naval league, but rejected because naval yards were already busy with more urgent ships to deliver. It was dropped in August 1916. Another design was submitted in the Autumn of 1916, a river model able to operate along the Serbian and Bulgarian shores of the Danube. But the over-ambitious asks it was intended for eventually condemned the project as unfeasible.

SM_U-3_Austria-Hungary

Links/sources

gwpda.org - The Austro-Hungarian Submarine Force by Erwin Sieche
Central Powers subs on uboat.net
U1 class on Wikipedia
The SM U3 on Wikipedia
The U5 class on Wikipedia
The SM U6 on Wikipedia
The SM U10 on Wikipedia
The SM U12 on Wikipedia
The SM U23 on Wikipedia
The SM U30 on Wikipedia
About Ritter Von Trapp
Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921.

U1 class (2, 1909)

U1

First submersible of the Austro-Hungarian navy, U1 and U2 were from plans drew by the American engineer Thomas Lake. Their original gasoline engines were under-powerful and were quickly replaced. Dumping procedures were particularly arduous, to the point they needed 8 minutes for diving. Therefore, they never saw action, being relegated to training tasks in Pola until January 1918, date of radiation from service. They were ceded to Italy in 1920, who hastened to them demolished.

Specs:
Displacement & Dimensions :220-277 tons surf/dive, 30.8 x 4.8 x 3,90m
Propulsion: 2 diesel engines, two propellers, 200/720 hp. and 6/10.3 n. max.
Crew: 17
Armament: 1 removable 37mm cannon, 3 TT 450mm (two bow, a stern).

U3 class (2, 1909)

SM_U-3_(Austria-Hungary)
U3 and U4 in Pola

While the former Austro-Hungarian submarines were of American origin, Lake patent, the next two were ordered in Germany at Germaniawerft and allowed to test the latest technological advance of this country. The U3 and U4, issued in 1908 had a double hull and internal ballasts. Testing showed excessive design problems and had to be partly refitted and rebuilt. Despite of this they were unsatisfactory but unlike previous submersibles, widely used during the war: The U3 was sunk by French destroyer Bisson after a failed attack of Città di Catania, and after being rammed and forced to surface in August 1915. U4 sank the cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi on July 18, 1915 and many other ships. It was ceded to France in 1919 and demolished in 1920.

Displacement & Dimensions: 240-300 tons surf/dive, 42.3 x 4.5 x 3.8 m
Propulsion: 2 electric and 2 gasoline engines, 2 propellers, 600/320 hp. and 12/8.5 n. max.
Crew: 21
Armament: 2 TT 450mm (bow torpedo 3).

U5 class (3, 1909)

U5

After trying Germaniawerft and Lake the Austro-Hungarian Admiralty turned to Holland for the delivery of its next submarines. She ordered two units, and a third optional. Whitehead installed in Fiume produced these Holland licensed designs. Industrial assembly was such that basic modules were prepared in the USA, then shipped to Fiume, but this caused structural problems. U5 and U6 were launched in 1909, and U7 (later U12) was finally launched in 1911. The latter was offered for sale to the Austrians who refused after their disappointments with the U5 and U6, but eventually bought it while she was still unsold in August 1914. Torpedo tubes were mobile and had opening hatches cloverleafs. U5 hit a mine in 1917 but was salvaged and repaired. It was fitted with a German kiosk and new 75 mm gun. The U6 tried to penetrate the barrage of Otranto and was caught in a net, here crew evacuated as she was scuttled. U12 hit a mine while trying to force Venice entry in August 1916.

Displacement & Dimensions: 240-273 tons surf/dive, 32.1 x 4.2 x 3.9 m
Propulsion: 2 electric motors, two gasoline engines, 2 propellers, 500/230 hp. and 10.7/6 n. max.
Crew: 19
Armament: 2 TT 450mm (bow torpedo 4).

U10 class (5, 1915)

U10

U-7 to U11 with has been too large to be built in sections and shipped to Pola by rail, so they never reached the Adriatic back it November 1914. They were sold to Germany instead and joined the Hochseeflotte. For cons, AG Weser shipyards proposed to build UB1 class subs in removable sections, because of their reduced tonnage they were though to be transported by rail more easily to Pola, and assembled on site. Five units were therefore commissioned in April 1915. At first the U10 and U11 entered service in June-July 1915, with a German crew and an Austrian officer. The U15, 16 and 17 followed in December 1915, this time with a fully Austro-Hungarian crew. All received 37 mm and later 47 mm gun in November 1917, while the U11 received a 66 mm. U16 torpedoed in October 1916 the destroyer Nembo, but was rammed by the freighter Borminda and had to be scuttled. U10 hit a mine in July 1918, was recovered and towed to Trieste, but never repaired. The others had an uneventful carrer and were given to Italy as war reparations, which in turn decided to have them demolished in 1920.

Displacement & Dimensions: 140 125 tonnes surf/dive, 27, 9x 5.2 x 2.7 m
Propulsion One diesel, one electric motor, 1 propeller, 260/120 hp. and 6.5/5.5 n. max.
Crew: 17
Armament: 2 TT 450mm (bow torpedo 4).

U14 (1912)

U14

One of the best Austro-Hungarian submersible was U14, which "double life" is quite an interesting one: It was indeed at the origin the French submersible Curie (Brumaire class, a Laubeuf type sub, in 1912). The Curie was sent in the Adriatic in 1914 to monitor fleet safe passage and guard merchant traffic. But she also tried to enter Pola to torpedo the best units in the fleet. On 20 December 1914, she almost reached its goal but was found stuffed into a net and could not disengage. She was later discovered, and shelled to destruction. Then she was refloated in January 1915, sent to Pola to be repaired, and modified. Among others, she added a new Germanic kiosk type, a 88 mm gun and two Germans diesels. She was accepted into service in 1916 after testing in November, and placed under the command of Georg Ritter von Trapp. U14 was assigned to France as war reparations after the war and served until 1928 under its former name.

Displacement & Dimensions: 263-300 tons surf./dive 36.1 x 4.4 x 3.7 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Diesels, 2 electric motors, 284/280 hp. and 9.2/5.8 n. max.
Crew: 22
Armament: 2 TT 500 mm (bow torpedo 4) 1 88 mm gun, 1 8 mm Schwartzlöse MG.

U20 class (4-1916)

U20

Four submarines were produced Whitehead of Fiume in 1915 on plans originally designed for a Danish order, that of Havmanden in 1912. Their design was therefore inspired by the Holland license, but their construction time was considerable, due to the allocation of construction in many subcontractors Austrians and Hungarians. The U20 and 21 to Pola, U22 and 23 to UBAG. They were operational in October-November 1917 and their active campaign was short and without success. The U23 was sunk in a dirgigeant attque in the passage of Otranto against an Italian convoy in February 1918, the U20 was torpedoed by the Italian submarine F12 before the estuary of the Tagliamento in July 1918, and the other two ceded to Italy and France and promptly demolished.

Displacement & Dimensions: 173-210 tons surf./plongée 38.8 x 4 x 2.8 m
Propulsion: 1 Propeller, one diesel, one electric motor, 450/160 hp. 12/9 and kn. max.
Crew: 18
Armament: 2 TT 450 mm (bow torpedo 4), 1x 66 mm gun, 1x 8 mm MG.

U27 class (8-1916)

U27

The most prolific serie by far and the best of the Austro-Hungarian navy was that of U27, designed on the basis of type Ubii under German license. The order was given to Pola on October 12, 1915 and no less than 8 units were started, including two at Danubius, Fiume. They were launched from 1916 to 1917 and operational in 1917, the U41 being lengthened by 77 cm to accommodate the diesel of U6, damaged in combat but recovered. They formed in a short time an excellent hunting score, U27 alone claiming a destroyer and 33 freighters, U28 (commanded by Maj. Zdenko Houdecek) a destroyer and 11 freighters. U30 was sunk in the Strait of Otranto in 1917, and the others were allocated postwar Italy and demolished in Fiume and Venice.

Displacement & Dimensions: 264-300 tons surf./dive 36.9 x 4.4 x 3.7 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Diesels, 2 electric motors, 270/280 hp. and 9/7.5 kn. max.
Crew: 23
Armament: 2 TT 450 mm (bow torpedo 4) 1x 75 mm gun, 1x 8 mm MG.

U43 class (2-1917)

U43

The last two Austro-Hungarian submarines to enter service were the U43 and U47, Type Ubii Weser built in 1916 and conveyed by rail to Pola, assembled on site, and entering service under German flag and crew. They were sold June 21, 1917 in the Austro-Hungarian navy, but not long in service. After the armistice, they were offered as war reparations to France but scrapped in situ in 1920.

Displacement & Dimensions: 263-300 tons surf./dive 36.1 x4.4 x3.7 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Diesel, 2 electric engines, 284/280 hp. and 9.2/5.8 kn. max.
Crew: 22
Armament; 2 TT 500 mm (bow torpedo 4) 1x 88 mm gun, 1x 8 mm MG.

Austro-Hungarian-Fleet

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
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Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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