Italian Cruiser Quarto (1911)

Regia Marina Italy (1911) Scout Cruiser

The best Italian scout cruiser

The Quarto was the third Italian modern scout cruiser in service in 1915, when Italy went at war on the side of the entente. She was a light protected cruiser of the Regia Marina started in 1910 at Venice Admiralty NyD and often favourably compared to the Nino Bixio class. They traded speed for protection, but kept a reasonable armament, and she was a reliable gun platform, and a seaworthy vessel. Contrary to the disappointing Bixio and Marsala she was praised and used extensively during the Great war, having also a substantial career after the war, seeing WW2, but as a blockship. Her succession was represented by three "flotilla leaders" classes of 1916-1921, the Poerio, Mirabello and Leone classes, later reclassed as destroyers.
Naval Encyclopedia Podcast #1 (test - partial)

Italian scout cruisers

Agordat class
The Agordat and Coatit (22 knots) were just too slow as scouts in 1909

There has been a tradition of scouts in the Regia Marina, called "esploratori", already in the 1860s. These were called "dispatch vessels" and were indeed very fast mixed paddle wheels vessels designed to carry orders from the admiral to other ships or battle line squadrons in operations. But in practice they were very much used as scouts. To the old Sesia rebuilt in 1862, succeeded the Esploratore class, the Vedetta (1866), Staffetta, Rapido (1876), Messaggero (1885), Barbarigo class (1879) and Archimedes class (1887). 1880-90s torpedo cruisers were too slow, but the last scouts were the Agordat class protected cruisers in 1899 designed by Nabor Soliani of Castellamare N Yd.

They were too slow to be effective as such. These 1300 tonnes, 300 feets vessels were the only modern "scouts" of the Navy when in 1907 it was decided to study a new class of such ships at a time the new Dreadnought type required a much faster vessel. This was even more obvious with the appearance of the battlecruisers in 1909. With their 23 knots on paper, rather 21-22 in practice and almost at forced heating, the Agordat and Coatit were indeed quite inappropriate.

Italian cruiser Quarto - Postcard
Italian cruiser Quarto - Postcard

Design of the Quarto

Hull construction and specifics

The Quarto was designed by Lieutenant Commander Giulio Truccone, as a scout cruiser, the first since the 1890s Agordat class. Truccone, from the Genio Navale established specifications and the general specifications, before the design was refined and blueprints generated at the Venice Admiralty naval yard design bureau. Time had passed since the Agordat and both the Dreadnought and new British scout cruisers confirmed the turbine was the only way forward to achieve greater speeds. Truccone took an active part in the interwar with the Comitato Progretti Navi, designing successful destroyers classes.

The basic drawing was relatively simple, with a slim hull, forecastle, three heavenly spaced funnels and artillery fore and aft, and in side sponsons. She was also fitted with a pair of pole masts and two conning towers, one at each end. The hull was was 126 meters (413 ft) long at the waterline, 131.6 m (432 ft) overall with a 12.8 m (42 ft) beam and a 4.1 m (13 ft) draft. Displacement i service was 3,271 long tons (3,323 t) standard, up to 3,442 long tons (3,497 t) fully loaded and battle ready. She carried 13 officers and 234 sailors.

Propulsion

Due its intended role, the cursor was definitively placed on speed. The only way to achieve it was to use steam turbines instead of the classic VTEs (Vertical Tubes Steam, or piston Engines) which proved not able to deliver. So Quarto became the very first Italian cruiser to be fitter with turbines, a landmark in the Regia Marina history.

The powerplant consisted in four Parsons steam turbines driving a bronze propeller of 2.1 m diameter each. Steam came from eight oil-fired boilers and two mixed coal/oil-fired Blechynden boilers. The latter were discarded on the ling run. They were trunked into three funnels and total output as registered by the yard was 25,000 horsepower (19,000 kW) for a designed top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph). Trials saw her exceeding these figures with 29,215 ihp (21,786 kW) produced for 28.61 kn (52.99 km/h; 32.92 mph).

Quarto was about to achieve 2,300 nautical miles (4,300 km; 2,600 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph), reduced to 588 nautical miles or 1,089 km (677 land miles) at top speed. This allowed her to reach her Mediterranean destination and then race to the supposed position of the enemy, spot it and run back to safety.

Protection:

As expected, Quarto's protection was sacrificed to achieve greater speeds, consisting of a 38 mm (1.5 in) thick armoured deck above the waterline, and wall 100 mm (3.9 in) around her main conning tower.

Armament

Quarto's armament was reasonably good, with six 120 mm (4.7 in) L/50 guns single mounts. The forecastle had two side by side, two more on the main deck further aft, two on the upper deck, behind the rear conning tower. In addition they were slightly offset, the port gun being further aft to allow greater margin when firing, not having the blast endangering the crews. These guns were of the Pattern EE type (used also on the Dante Alighieri and Conte di Cavour, coming from by Armstrong Whitworth. They were completed by six 76 mm (3 in) L/50 guns, Pattern ZZI for close range defence. To complete this, the Quarto also carried two 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes placed in deck banks, but after commission they were replaced by submerged tubes. She was also given rails to carry some 200 naval mines, although this was never done in service.

The Quarto in action

illustration of the Quarto

Quarto was was laid down on 14 November 1909, was launched on 19 August 1911 in Venice (two years, which was relatively long) and fitted-out by early 1913 to be commissioned on 31 March 1913. Her early service was at first limited both to the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. She has been badly damaged by a fire was was long held in repairs, emerging by May 3, 1914 . Italy was neutral in August 1914, but no longer by July 1915, convinced by the Triple Entente. The Regia Marina was soon pitted against the Austro-Hungarian Navy.

However the Navy chief of staff Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel feared the presence of Austro-Hungarian submarines in the narrow waters of the Adriatic and preferred to bar their way with minefields. Very soon, the Tarento barrage, a mixed mines and patrol ships blockading line at the southern end of the Adriatic, was set in place, with MAS boats ready to take action at a moment notice. This did not prevent raids to be mounted on Austro-Hungarian assets along the coast.

Quarto and the two Nino Bixio-class cruisers was based at Brindisi, near the barrage, and the most likely to intervene in case of an Austro-Hungarian sortie. Quarto made numerous sorties, and apparently met enemy submarines several times, which all torpedoed but failed to hit her, misjudged her speed as a result of her very shallow draft and misleading wave pattern. She became therefore the only Italian cruiser to effectively roam the Adriatic in relative impunity. In total she held 54 combat missions, plus 9 escort missions, totalling 1336 hours of navigation.

Quarto 1925
Esploratore Quarto in 1925

By December 1915, two Austro-Hungarian scout cruisers and five destroyers fell onto transports supplying the Serbian Army trapped in Albania. Quarto (Rear Admiral Silvio Bellini), assisted by the British cruiser HMS Dartmouth and five French destroyers, rushed from Brindisi. A second wave comprising Nino Bixio, HMS Weymouth and four Italian destroyers followed closely. Quarto and Dartmouth spotted and engaged SMS Helgoland, making a long-range gunnery duel. Helgoland however was faster and escaped after the fall of darkness. In May 1917, Rear Admiral Alfredo Acton took the head of the squadron, raising his mark on the Quarto. However the latter missed the Battle of the Otranto Straits having no time to steam up when the force learned of the Austro-Hungarian raid. The war ended, and contrary to the mediocre Nino Bixio class, Quarto was kept in service.


The Quarto in Varna circa 1925

In 1926–1927 she was modernized, with all oil-firing boilers and carrying a Macchi M.18 seaplane. Quarto was sent to East Asian waters in the early 1930s, replaced the cruiser Libia on station. She became the flagship of the 2nd Division Torpedo Bomber, and made numerous missions between the red sea and China.

She was transferred back to Africa, supporting the Second Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935–1936. Her old 3-in (76 mm) guns were replaced by 13.2 mm (0.52 in) Breda heavy machine guns by that time. She became the flagship of Rear Admiral Alberto di Moriondo and operated off Spain as part of the non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War. On 24 May 1937 she was attacked by Spanish Republican bombers, and took near-hits as she was moored in Palma, Majorca.

By August 1938 one of her old boilers exploded. But she was repaired and remained in service before WW2 erupted, stricken on 5 January 1939. She was towed from La Spezia to Livorno, and her hull was demilitarize, and used for experiments, notably as target for the new SLC human torpedo. This was precious for setting up the Decima Flottiglia MAS, in early 1940. Three SLCs indeed successfully planted dummy explosives under her hull. By November 1940, she was targeted by MT explosive motorboats equipped with reduced charges which nevertheless caused significant damage to Quarto hull, to the point she quickly sank. However she was towed and her wreckage was used to block the entrance to the port of Livorno in July 1944.

Links/Src

//forum.worldofwarships.eu/topic/2153-the-explorer-quarto/
Mussolini's Navy a reference guide 1930-45
Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921.
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agordat-class_cruiser
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_cruiser_Quarto
//www.worldnavalships.com/italian_cruisers.htm
//web.archive.org/web/20110104185951/http://www.marinai.it/contatti/quarto.pdf
//www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_cr_quarto.htm

Blueprint of the Quarto
Blueprint of the Quarto

Quarto specifications

Dimensions 131,6 m x 12,8 m x 4,1 m (432 x 42 x 13 fts)
Displacement 3,281 t standard, 3,441 tonnes FL
Crew 12 + 311
Propulsion 2 shaft Parsons turbines, 10 boilers, total 25 000 hp
Speed 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range 2,300 nmi (4,300 km; 2,600 mi) @ 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Armament 6× 120 mm (4.7 in), 6× 76 mm (3 in), 2x 47 mm, 2× 450 mm (17.7 in) TTs, 200 mines .
Armor Deck: 38 mm (1.5 in), Conning tower: 100 mm (3.9 in)

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
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ww1 British cruisers
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✠ Central Empires

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Europe
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WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
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Omaha class cruisers (1920)
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Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
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WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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