Naval Aviation of WW2

Naval aviation emerged during WW1 already with all belligerents. The post-war years however saw either attempts of a dissolution or fusion of these service with regular air forces. The interwar years were crucial to the development and demonstrating the capabilities of this service, and to be independent. The later 1930s saw it generally accepted as an autonomous service but the belligerents were not all equal in that guise: On the axis side in 1939-41, only the Japanese Imperial Navy benefited from an interference-free, well trained and well-supplied naval air service, with some iconic models such as the A6M zero, and a complete panel from seaplanes/floatplanes, carrier-borne aviation to land-based bombers.

The Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica on their side were to provide for the needs of the navy, which they did with limited enthusiasm. On the allied side, the former RNAS became the Fleet Air Arm in 1924, independent again from 1937 and assumed a considerable panel of missions throughout the Empire which only grew exponentially in WW2, as did the Canadian and Australian naval air services. Outside UK, France and the Netherlands had both developed naval air service as well. In the US, the independence of a USN air service was a long fight, even within the USN itself, still attached to the Mahanian view ("battleships first"), but shaken by Mitchell and William A. Moffett. Again, this service was developed to a dramatic way during WW2. Also the Soviet Union possessed a Navy and a naval air component, albeit reduced and provided with regular air force models.

Stunning photo showing the extent of the USN air power in WW2: In addition to the numerous interwar models, Vought Vindicator, Curtiss Helldiver (i), Douglas Devastator & Dauntless, Gumman F3F, Brewster Buffalo and many seaplanes, floatplanes and observation models, the "trinity" of carrier operation rested on the SBD Dauntless, F4F Wildcat and TBD Avenger and later the F5F Hellcat, SB2C Helldiver and Avenger again, plus a wide variety of ground-based USN planes, included the Vought F4U Corsair.

For all nations concerned: Belligerents of WW2, both the axis and allies, used seaplanes, floatplanes, and for the only three naval powers with aircraft carriers, a plethora of dedicated models over the years.

In this portal page, we will see the creation (WWI), interwar development, controversy, and spectacular expansion in WW2: All models from all nations, their organization and tactics. The fleet air arm was called as such by the British, was known under many local variants. It had a hard time to be accepted, but in WW2, naval aviation revealed itself playing a vital part of all naval operations.

In Europe, British naval aviation opened the ball back in 1914, pioneering naval aviation and expanding it dramatically all the way through the interwar, influencing other nations. In WW2, its naval aviation grew a very important part, in Europe, from the attack on Taranto in November 1940 to the torpedo attack that jammed the Bismarck's rudder in May 1941, securing its doom for the allies or Patrolling the Atlantic, spotting and attacking U-Boats. While in the Pacific, its became instrumental. After the loss of its capital ships, the USN maintained its presence for two gruelling years with an arguably inferior naval force, surviving to Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal and taking the offensive, until the final march of the Philippines sea. These were all naval air battles, with a few naval battles in between, in the context of an amphibious campaign.

British Barracuda, Operation Mascot
British Barracuda, Operation Mascot, July 1944. One of the numerous air raids against the Tirpitz.

All these famous battles, for the first time in history, were played "over the horizon": Ships never saw each others. It was a fight by procuration, like an introduction to the missile age of the 1950s. A crucial fact in 1939, was that nearly all belligerents never measured the full scope of the revolution naval aviation would bring to the table. Mahanian doctrine was still prevalent in admiralties. Nevertheless, another crucial fact for the allied victory was that only one of the three axis powers had aircraft carriers.

IJN aviation was probably among the world's best in 1941, certainly in Asia, contributing to the early campaign's quick successes. But over time, Japan paid the price of the assumption of the supposed lack of will of the US people, and of the submarine threat. Both would cost its Empire the war. By 1944, after two years of wartime industrial production, USA was ready to steamroll its way back to Japan. The lack of experienced pilots and aviation gasoline played against the IJN and as a symbol, both the mighty and so Mahanian Yamato her sister ship, Musashi, were destroyed entirely by air power. And among the most significant losses by the USN in the late period of the war (like USS Franklin), Kamikaze were responsible.

German naval aviation

The Luftwaffe used the He 111H for anti-ship warfare, armed with two torpedoes.

Göring's Luftwaffe has little place to the Navy

The Luftwaffe was created as a natural inheritance of the Luftreistkrafte of 1914. Soon placed at its head, Hermann Göring was a former (minor) ww1 ace, and in no haste to draw links with the Kriegsmarine. Both were completely strangers to naval matters, and prior to 1939 no serious attempt as ever made to create an independent naval force, for several obvious reasons:
-Created from 1933, the new Luftwaffe gave priority to continental aviation fit for quick "blitzkrieg" operations, in a context of limited credits to the Navy.
-Germany had no colonies and therefore no Empire to link and defend with its aviation.
-German access to the sea was limited to the Baltic and north sea coast, therefore had little needs but for patrols.
The Kriegsmarine itself had no independently attached naval aviation, although the Luftwaffe did planned and ordered seaplanes and floatplanes to care for its basic needs of patrol, reconnaissance, search and rescue. The weak Kriegsmarine was steps beyond many other naval powers in Europe and prioritized asymetric warfare, submarines and the use of commerce raiders, including for the limited military surface fleet.

The question of carrier-borne aviation

Graf-Zeppelin-launchDec1938 Hitler personally still favoured battleships, like most leaders of his generation, but trusted Admiral Raeder enough to carry out a project of fleet aircraft carriers, first of a serie which was part of plan Z, before it was abruptly stopped in September 1939, leaving the Navy with an unfinished program and unfinished aircraft carrier as well: The Graf Zeppelin. For her, considerable time and resources has been spent, including the creation of a dedicated carrier-borne air group, consisting of the following:
-Messerschmitt 109T
-Junkers 87G
-20 Fieseler Fi 167
Her sister ship, Flugzeugträger B, was laid down Germaniawerft Kiel, 1938 (Slipway 2) in 1938, but construction was stopped and cancelled in 1939.
As the war progressed, other planes were made for more improvized, cheaper aicraft carriers, while ideas to convert the battlecruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisneau or the remaining Panzerschiffe Admiral Scheer and Lützow were soon withdrawn. Focused turned istead, like Italy, to existing, roomier passenger ships and two incomplete cruisers. Note: They will be the object of a dedicated article.

Luftwaffe Naval Warfare


In September 1939, there was in effect a "naval aviation" in existence, as the 30 or so floatplanes carried by the various cruisers and battleships of the Kriegsmarine were -at least- managed by it, not the Luftwaffe. At the same time, the German coastal naval aviation was equipped with a variety of seaplanes and floatplanes used for reconnaissance, antiship (torpedo) attack, sea-minesweeping, and search and rescue (SAR) from several bases along the Baltic and North sea coast (see later).

-At operational level, dependent of the OKL was the only German naval air command, based in kiel (HQ), Luftkreis VI. There two naval air districts in effect, Luftgau I (Königsberg) for the baltic and Luftgau X (Hamburg) for the north sea. The OKL directorate for naval aviation was Luftwaffen Inspektion 8 which was disbanded in 1942. Before 1939, Konrad Zander was put in charge of Luftkreis VI, supporting the naval units in western operations (notably in Norway).

Among the precise naval units of the Luftwaffe were:
-Bordfliegergruppe 196
: Kampfgruppe zur besonderen Verwendung 108. Formed on 1.10.37, it operated from seven bases, plus three more later occupied. More
: Coastal Combat units More
Naval Recce units More
Mostly ju-87 Stuka and ju-88/188 equipped units dedicated to antiship warfare. Comprised the III. Gruppe/Kampfgeschwader 100 and 1., 3./Kampfgeschwader 200.

See also:

During the interwar, many models were already developed for the civilian market, but many models entered service with the Reichsmarine: Arado AR-95 D-ODGY Arado 95 D-ODGY, testing aerial torpedoes

It made little doubt that the Luftwaffe in 1939 was probably the most effective air force in the world. It was almost dwarved by the Soviet aviation, but compensated in quality, tactics and organization, despite a very personal management by Goering. However there was no proper naval aviation, to the dismay of Raeder and later Dönitz. The few FW-200 Condors consented to the Kriegsmarine command proved invaluable in the Atlantic, until the allies manage to have a permanent air cover thanks to numerous "jeep carriers". Goering had no intention to cede a part of his beloved Luftwaffe and in that matter, inter-service cooperation was non-existent, in a very similar way in Italy. More about the action of Condors in the north Atlantic: More on Military Aviation History channel.

Despite of this, the Luftwaffe "coastal command" once Europe was occupied, installed bases along the French, Dutch and Norwegian coasts. There were seaplanes units in activity along the coast and in the Mediterranean. There was no shortage of models, while the rarest and largest (in fact record-beaters) were built by the naval yard Blohm & Voss. But their role revolved around patrol, SAR, transport, reconnaissance and sometimes attack. On the other hand, the Luftwaffe also sank many vessels during the war. The Junkers 88/188 and Ju 87 "Stuka", both dive bombers, proved absolutely devastating. Later this was, modified Dornier 217 were fitted to carry the first airborne antiship missiles and sank several ships, including the Italian battleship Roma.

He-59A floatplane
He-59A floatplane (1935). Only 142 of this model were available when WW2 broke out. Used at first for torpedo attacks and minelaying, it became a recce and SAR plane (search and rescue), gradually retired in 1942 and only retained for training.

Arado 196A3
The nimble Arado 196 floatplane (1937), deployed on Kriegsmarine cruisers and battleships was also used for coastal reconnaissance, in particular from Norwegian coastal bases. 540 were produced until 1944. It was also used by the Bulgarian, Finnish and Romanian Air Forces.

Dornier Do-18 G1

Dornier Do-18 G1, interwar seaplane used for SAR and reconnaissance. About 100 were still operational when WW2 broke out.

Dornier Do-24 T1
Dornier Do 24 T-1. The Do-24 was probably the most ubiquitous German long range SAR and patrol seaplane of the Luftwaffe in the Atlantic

He 115
Heinkel He-115 (1939): The standard Marine Floatplane of the Luftwaffe, used in torpedo attacks, SAR and recce until 1945. 138 were delivered and it was also used by other Axis aviations.

JU-52 3mW
Junkers Ju-52 3MW: This variant of the ubiquitous "Tante Ju" (1932) was fitted with floats and used to carry mostly recce and transport missions.

JU-87 B2
Junkers Ju-87 B2. The famous Ju-87 "Stuka" was widely used for antiship missions from land bases, where it excelled, being able to place a bomb in a funnel opening, notably in the confines of the Mediterranean, with great success, credited with more than 25 ships.

JU-88 A4
Junkers Ju-88 A4. The other successful dive bomber of the Luftwaffe, the Ju-88 was even more produced and often used for antiship missions, especially in the Mediterranean but also the Atlantic thanks to its longer range.

Blohm & Voss 222C, an impressive 6-engine long range transport and patrol seaplane. The even more enormous BV-238 never past the production stage.

Another depiction of the BV 222 Another depiction of the BV 222 by Ed Jackson.

BV 238
Depiction of the gigantic BV 238 by Ed Jackson.

Focke-Achgelis fa-330: Usually deployed from destroyers, it was an early form of on-board helicopter but stayed largely experimental.

Italian naval aviation

The Italian fleet air arm was created before WW1 already (since 1913), and there were already quite interesting records for the Italian aviation in the Adriatic, operating against the Austro-Hungarian naval assets at sea and along the coast, and perform reconnaissance. During the interwar, the Italian Navy Royal started to plan for an aircraft carrier long before the Aquila, but were opposed by Benito Mussolini, the Duche arguing Italy, for simple geographical reasons, was already a giant "aicraft carrier" bulging into the central Mediterranean.

He also expected that Greece would ultimately fell under his banner as well, allowing the covering of the aegean sea as well and threatening Malta. It would take until the dreadful losses at Taranto in November 1940 and at losses at Cape Matapan in 1941 to drive the admiralty on the path of creating two fleet carriers again, this time with the Duce's greenlight. Despite their effort, Aquila went close to completion when Italy surrendered in September 1943. In between the Regia Marina had to make due with its a naval aviation which was part of the air force. The service was indeed disbanded and integrated into the Italian Air Force, upon the creation of this new branch in 1937, when a law gave control of all national fixed-wing air assets to the Italian Air Force. It was only back as an independent arm in 1956.

SM76 Sparviero, which proved to be a redoubtable torpedo bomber
SM76 Sparviero, which proved to be a redoubtable torpedo bomber

During WW2, the poor coordination bewteen the Regia Marina and the Aeronautica Militare proved an hinderance to naval operations. Whenever this support was asked for, it was never efficient and the "aicraft carrier italy" was nothing more in reality than wishful thinking. Nevertheless, the Navy more or less operated with greater livery proper naval planes as they were of little use for the air force. That's out main ficus here, and the associated types. Italy did not lacked both talent and engineering skills to produce escellent aircraft and it was true for seaplanes and floatplanes as well. The major issue for the industry was its inability to produce powerful aicraft engines, including inline-water cooled engines, marring performances. For this reason, the majority of Italian medium torpedo bombers and patrol/ASW floatplanes were trimotors.

Imam Ro 43 Idro
Imam Ro 43 Idro

The workhorse of the land-based aviation deployed in the benefit of the Regia Marina, but operated by the air force, was the excellent Savoi-Marchetti SM79, a fast and potent torpedo bomber. On the pure naval side, the main recce flying boat was the single-engine IMAM Ro.43

Imperial Japanese naval aviation

A group of Nakajima B5N2 over the fleet
A group of Nakajima B5N2 over the fleet - Colorized by Irootoko jr.

Japanese aviation was divided between the Army and Navy models, with a great deal of rivalry between the two, a bit like the USA. A code was soon created to differenciate between the two: Two letters and a number, coding the plane origin and purpose, a Japanese symbolic name, and on top the allied intelligence code, versus the factory designation for Japanese Army planes with the Type in Imperial years. For example, the N1K "Kyofu" (Rex), where N signified "floatplane fighter", 1 as it was the first of the factory of this type, and K for "Kawanishi". "Rex" was the allied intelligence code. A6M for example designated the sixth type of carrier fighter under this designation system, and that it was built by Mitsubishi. Zeke was the Japanese symbolic name and "Zero" the allied code, inspired by the Imperial year code Reisen ("year zero"). Note: Foreign planes built under licence are not included there.


A6M3_Zero Without contest, the A6M was the most famous IJN fighter in 1941. Agile, fast, with a long range and top-tier pilots, it brushed aside all opposition until late-1942 when the Hellcat and Lightning started to be introduced. Its army equivalent was the equally agile Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar".

-Mitsubishi 1MF (1921) 138 built, retired 1930
-Heinkel HD 23/Aichi Type H (1926) semi experimental fighter, 4 built
-Kawanishi K-11 (1927) experimental fighter, 2 built
-Nakajima A1N (1928), based on Gloster Gambet, 151 built, retired 1935
-Nakajima A2N (1929): 166 built, retired 1941
Note: The Navy also used the Gloster Sparrowhawk from 1931, 90 were in service.
-Mitsubishi A5M (1935), main fixed-train monoplane, 1094 built, retired 1945
-Nakajima A4N (1935) 221 built, until 1940, second line 1942.
-Mitsubishi A6M Zero "Zeke" (1939): By far the most famous navy fighter. 10,939 built in any variants
-Nakajima J1N Gekko (1941) "Irving" fast twin-engine heavy fighter, 479 built
-Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden "Georges" (1943) derived from the "Rex" floatplane fighter, circa 1400 built
-Mitsubishi J2M Raiden "Jack" (1942), 621 built
-Mitsubishi A7M Reppū (1944): Planned replacement of the legendary "Zeke", codenamed "Sam", 10 preserie built.
-Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa (1945), a clone of the German Me 163 Komet, which plans and parts arrived via U-Boat. About 50-60 were built but apparently never used.
The IJN also tested the Dewoitine D.510J in 1936, the Canadian Car & Foundry AXG1 in 1938, Heinkel A7He1 (12), Seversky A8V (20) the same year, the American Douglas HXD and Fairchild LXF1, and used 20 Seversky A8V recce monoplanes.

Carrier-borne Bombers

-Aichi D1A (1934) dive bomber, 590 built codename "Susie"
-Aichi D3A (1938), main IJN dive bomber, 1,486 built
-Yokosuka D4Y (1942) codename "Judy" diver bomber, 2,038 built

Navy land-based Torpedo Bombers

-Mitsubishi G3M (1935), 1,048 built, long range twin engine navy land-based bomber, codename "Nell". -Mitsubishi G4M (1939) "Betty", Main long range twin engine torpedo bomber of the navy, 2,435 built
-Nakajima G5N Shinzan (1941) "liz" long-range quad-engine heavy bomber, 6 built
-The navy also experimented with the Mitsubishi Ki-67 bomber, with a torpedo-bomber, the "Yasukuni", and a dedicated ASW plane, the Mitsubishi Q2M1 Taiyo.
-Nakajima B6N Tenzan (1941) coldename "Jill", 1,268 built planned replacement for the "Nate".
-Aichi B7A Ryusei "Jack" (1942), last IJN carrier-borne Torpedo bomber, 114 built


Nakajima B5N
-Mitsubishi 1MT (1922), triplane 20 built retired 1928.
-Mitsubishi B1M (1923), 443 built, retired 1936.
-Mitsubishi B2M (1932) 206 built, based on Blackburn Ripon, retired 1939-1940
-Yokosuka B4Y (1935) 205 built, biplane, retired 1943
-Mitsubishi B5M (1936) fixed carriage monoplan bomber, 125 built
-Nakajima B5N (1937) 1,150 built, main torpedo bomber
-Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943) Navy Land-Based twin engines Bomber, 1098 built


Mitsubishi MC-20-II, close to the L4M, Naval transport plane
Mitsubishi MC-20-II, close to the L4M, Naval transport plane
-Yokosuka K2Y (1929), main navy trainer based on Avro 504, rarely mounted on floats. All 464 built were used by the Navy.
-Nakajima C2N (1930) staff carrier developed with Fokker, used by the navy and army (Ki-6), prod. unknown
-Mitsubishi K3M (1930), navy trainer and liaison, recce, 625 built, retired 1940s
-Mitsubishi 2MR (1932), carrier-based recce biplane, 159 built, retired 1937-38 as trainers
-Yokosuka K5Y (1934) 5,770 main IJN biplane trainer, with undercarriage or floats, used during WW2
-Hiro G2H (1933) 8 long-range recce/bomber land-based biplanes, most destroyed at Cheju Island in 1937
-Gasuden KR-2 (1934), light transport biplane, small prod.
-Nakajima C3N (1936) experimental recce monoplane with fixed undercarriage
-Nakajima L1N (1936) main transport monoplane twin engine, 351 built
-Mitsubishi L4M (1939) main twin-engine transport plane, 406 built
-Nakajima/Showa L2D (1939) large navy transport plane codenamed "Tabby", DC-3 copy.
-In 1939 also first flew the Nakajima LXD-1, transport four-engined prototype.
-Kyushu K9W1 Momiji (1942) biplane trainer based on the Bücker Bu-131, 339 built
-Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942) monoplane advanced operations trainer, 798 built
-Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt" (1943) Navy Carrier Reconnaissance Plane, the fastest built by Japan, 463 built.
-Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (1944) codename "Baka" the famous suicide rocket plane, 852 built

Floatplanes & seaplanes

IJN Haguro and IJN Nachi's Nakajima E8N (Type 95) "Nate" recce plane - colorized bi Iroo Toko Jr.

-Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1918), 218 built, retired 1928
-Yokosuka K1Y (1925) Main trainer/spotted floatplane of the Navy, 104 built, retired 1941
-Hiro H1H (1925) recce and ASW patrol seaplane, 60 built, retired 1938
-Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go (1925), semi-experimental seaplane, 4-5 built
-Yokosuka E1Y (1926): Main recce floatplane, 320 built, retired 1938
-Aichi Navy Type 2 (1928), experimental floatplane
-Nakajima E2N (1929): 80 built, retired in the late 1930s
-Yokosuka E6Y (1929), submarine-based recce floatplane, 10 built, retired 1943
-Yokosuka K4Y (1930), trainer/recce floatplane, 211 built, retired 1940s.
-Yokosuka E5Y (1930) 20 built, recce floatplane. Used by NOTORO, phased out late 1930s
-Aichi E3A (1930): Recce floatplane dev. with Heinkel, 20 built
-Nakajima E4N (1930), recce floatplane, 153 built, retired late 1930s
-Hiro H4H (1933) recce seaplane, 47 built, retired 1940
-Kawanishi E7K (1934) main recce floatplane, 533 built, served in WW2
-Nakajima E8N (1935) Main recce floatplane, 755 built, served WW2 codename "Pete"
-Kawanishi E10K (1934) experimental transport/recce floatplane
-Kawanishi H6K (1936) four engine flying boat, 215 built.
-Mitsubishi F1M (1936) 944 recce, last biplane floatplanes in the IJN
-Yokosuka H5Y (1936) Type 99 Flying Boat Model 11, 20 built
-Watanabe K6W (1937) experimental florplane trainder/recce
-Aichi E11A (1937) 17 gunnery spotting seaplanes (E11A Type 98)
-Kawanishi E11K (1937), two transport flying boats
-Nakajima E12N (1938), 2 recce floatplanes
-Nippi K8Ni1 (1938), 2 trainer floatplanes
-Watanabe E9W (1938) 35 shipboard recce biplanes
-Watanabe K8W (1938) 3 built, recce seaplane trainers
-Aichi E13A (1938) main recce monoplane floatplane, 1,418 built
-Kawanishi E13K (1938) 2 built, 3-seat shipboard recce.
-Kawanishi K6K (1938) seaplane trainer, 3 built
-Kawanishi K8K (1938), same, 15 built
-Nippi K8Ni1 (1938), same, prototype
-Nakajima E12N (1938), recce floatplane, 2 built
-Aichi H9A (1940), recce seaplane, 31 built
-Nakajima E14Y (1939), shipboard recce floatplane, 126 built
-Kawanishi E15K Shiun (1941) codename "Norm", 15 built, floatplane Torpedo bomber
-Kawanishi H8K (1941) codename "Emily", main long-range aquad-engine, 167 built
-Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu (1942) "Rex", main IJN floatplane fighter, variant, land-based fighter Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden- 1,532 built.
-Aichi M6A1 Seiran (1943) Navy Special Strike Submarine Bomber developed for the I-400 submarines, 28 built.

-Also was tested a flotplane trainer, the Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan Navy Special Strike Submarine Bomber trainer (1943, 2 built) and the Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren, a twin-engine the same year codenamed "Lorna".

Author's illustration of the H8K "Emily"

Soviet naval aviation

Beriev KOR-2


Soviet naval aviation (Morskaya Aviatsiya) was initially created under another name, in 1918: the Workers and Peasants Red Air Fleet. Prior to that, it inherited from the Emperor's Military Air Fleet (1909–1917). This had oc creation of the "reds" participated in the Russian Civil War, cooperating with ships and army at Petrograd, on the Baltic and Black Sea, as well as over the Volga, Kama, Dvina rivers and Lake Onega. It was a hotchpotch of some 76 obsolete hydroplanes with poor maintenance and unskilled staff. Due to its condition it was used mostly for reconnaissance and supplies.

However when the Soviet Army and air forced consolidated in the 1920s, Naval Aviation started to increase in capabilities. Thanks to a first 5-year plan, it receive a massive influx of new reconnaissance hydroplanes, but also coastal defence bombers and fighters. By the mid-1930s, it grew so large that it needed to be separated, by creating at first the Baltic, Black Sea andt Pacific Fleet own naval aviation branches. In 1938–1940, Soviet Naval Aviation became a very important components of the Soviet Navy, with formations of torpedo and bomber planes. The Great Patriotic War the two fleets of the Black sea and Baltic combined some 1,445 aircraft, most of these being the Beriev MBR-2.

During the war, Naval Aviation provided air support to the Soviet Navy over the Barents sea, the Baltic and Black Sea as well as the Sea of Okhotsk. It was composed almost exclusively of land and shore based planes, since the limited size of the Navy saw few ship-based planes in action: Thos of the three Gangut-class battleships, and about seven cruisers. Flying boats were of course the most recoignised asset of the Navy, using specific aircraft, while torpedo-bomber units relied on air force models, converted in some cases to carry torpedoes or equipped with floats. In some cases, transport plaanes of the Navy were used for land operations, in support of the Red Army during coastal offensives, but also landings and special wartime joint army-navy operations. Air cover to Allied convoys in North Sea and up to the Barents Sea was also one of its missions, as well as in the north Pacific and Sea of Okhotsk.

Naval Aviation was noted in the defense of Odessa in June–October 1941 (Crimean campaign) where naval troops were very active. The Black Sea fleet air arm also carried out many air strikes during the 1944 offensive. In terms of sunken ships it was quite successful, achieving a 2/3 better success ratio than any other unit of the Soviet Navy. In all, 17 naval aviation units were awarded the title of 'Soviet Guards' and 241 naval air personal were awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, some pilots twice.


-1st Guards Fighter Aviation Division VVS VMF
-2nd Torpedo Rananskaya Red Banner Aviation Division in the name of N.A. Ostryakova VVS VMF
-3rd Bombardment Aviation Division VVS VMF
-4th Bombardment Aviation Division VVS VMF
-5th Torpedo Aviation Division VVS VMF
-6th Bombardment Aviation Division VVS VMF
-7th Bombardment Aviation Division VVS VMF
-8th Torpedo Gatchinskaya Red Banner Aviation Division VVS VMF
-9th Assault Ropshinskaya Red Banner, Order of Ushakov Aviation Division VVS VMF
-10th Seysinskaya Red Banner Aviation Division of Dive Bombers VVS VMF
-11th Assault Novorossiysk Twice Red Banner Aviation Division VVS VMF
-12th Assault Aviation Division VVS VMF
-13th Aviation Division of Dive Bombers VVS VMF
-14th Mixed Aviation Division VVS VMF
-15th Mixed Aviation Division VVS VMF
-16th Mixed Aviation Division VVS VMF


Grigorovich M-24 & M-24bis – coastal reconnaissance flying boat (1922) Tupolev MP-6 – twin-engine floatplane (1923)
Grigorovich M-23 & M-23bis – single-engined training or reconnaissance flying boat (1923)
Tupolev ANT-4 – twin-engine torpedo bomber floatplane version (1925)
Shavrov Sh1 & Sh-2 – general-purpose amphibious flying boat (1929)
Tupolev ANT-8 – twin-engine patrol bomber flying boat (1931)
Beriev MBR-2 – short-range reconnaissance/bombing flying boat (1932) Tupolev ANT-22 – 6-engine, twin-hull flying boat (1934)
Tupolev MTB-1 – trimotor patrol bombe flying boat (1934)
Shavrov Sh-5 – twin-engined survey amphibious flying boat (1934)
Chetverikov OSGA-101 – three-seat experimental amphibian (1934)
Chetverikov SPL – two-seat submarine-borne reconnaissance flying boat (1935)
Beriev KOR-1 (Be-2) – two-seat reconnaissance floatplane (1935)
Shavrov Sh-3 – light transport amphibious flying boat (1936)
Tupolev MTB-2 – 4-engine bomber/transport flying boat/amphibian (1937)
Beriev MBR-7 – short-range reconnaissance/bombing flying boat (1937)
Beriev MDR-5 – long-range maritime reconnaissance/bombing flying boat (1937)
Chetverikov MDR-6 (Che-2) – three-seat coastal reconnaissance flying boat (1939)
Shavrov Sh-7 – amphibious flying boat (1940)
Beriev KOR-2 (Be-4) – two-seat reconnaissance flying boat (1940)

Floatplane/Seaplane models:

Beriev MBR-2 (1931)

A well-known patrol multi-purpose flying boat which entered service with the Soviet Navy in 1935. Out of 1,365 built, 9 were exported, notably Finland and North Korea. It was nicknamed "Kорова" and "Амбар" and stayed the beast of burden of coastal patrols in WW2, with a production from 1935 up to 1941.

Beriev BE-2 (KOR-1) (1936)

The small cruiser-based KOr-2 was the default observation plane in the Soviet Navy in the late interwar. This two-seat reconnaissance seaplane was designed to replace the Navy's obsolete license-produced Heinkel He 55 and only 12 were delivered to the Navy for cruisers and battleships use, in service 1938-42.

Beriev BE-4 (KOR-2) (1940)

BE-4 at Krasnoyarsk Base, Siberia, fall 1944
The Beriev Be-4 was a reconnaissance flying boat built to operate from Soviet warships during World War II, logical successor of the BE-2. It was far more sturdy, faster, and has almost twice the range, but only 47 were delivered in 1941-42.

Shavrov Sh-2 naval ambulance (1930)

The Shavrov Sh-2 was a 1930s amphibian, first Soviet mass-produced flying boat. It could carry two crew members and one passenger, also equipped with skis in winter. Light, simple and reliable it was still in service in limited numbers out of a production of 700, in 1941 in roles such as flying ambulance, liaison, and training.

Chetverikov MDR-6/Che-2 (1937)

The Chyetverikov MDR-6 was a late 1930s reconnaissance flying-boat aircraft. It was also the only successful aircraft designed by Igor Chyetverikov bureau. 27 were built from 1939 and it served until 1945.

Ilyushin DB-4T (1936)

The famous VVS Ilyushin Il-4 was used as a long-range bomber and was also declined into a successful floatplane torpedo-bomber, the DB-4T used by Soviet coastal squadrons. It could carry two regular naval torpedoes, as well as up to 2,700 kg (6,000 lb) of bombs or mines.

Tupolev MR-6 (1932)

Inspired by Heinkel models, the all-metal cantilever monoplane twin engine reconnaissance Tupolev R-6 was also used by the Navy as the MR-6, equipped with floats. MR-6 stands for Morskoj razvyedchik, maritime reconnaissance (also sometimes called "KR-6P"). It was also used as a torpedo bomber version from 1932 and still used for training in 1939-40. It was retired in 1941 for good. The MP-6 2M-17 was a seaplane passenger transport powered by two 507.1 kW (680 hp) Mikulin M-17 V-12 engines.

Tupolev MBT-1 (1934)

The Tupolev MTB-1 (MDR-4, factory ANT-27) was a patrol flying boat designed as a refined version of the unsuccessful Chyetverikov MDR-3. It kept the MDR-3's hull, but with a new full-cantilever wing, tail, and engine installation with two tractor and one pusher. The second prototype designated MTB-1 was to be used in a torpedo-carrying role. It was accepted for production before the end of the tests and 15 were produced, remaining in service until 1942.

Tupolev MBT-2 (1937)

Certainly much more ambitious, the Tupolev MTB-2 was marked as an Heavy Naval Bomber and flying boat (internally ANT-44), with four-engine. Two prototypes were built and performance was good but it was decided to prioritize land-based bombers which could already care for the needs of the Soviet Naval Aviation and it was cancelled in 1940. However the second prototype fought and served actively in WW2 in the black sea.

Land-based Soviet naval aircraft:

Tupolev R-6 of a pacific squadron, 1939 One of the remaining R-6 of the land-based coastal squadrons still used for training and patrols in 1939-40. It was retired in 1942.

Tupolev TB-1 used for training in 1939
Tupolev TB-1 used for training in 1939

Ilyushin DB-4 used by the coast guard
Ilyushin DB-4 used by the coast guard

Tupolev ANT-9 Naval transport plane
Tupolev ANT-9 Naval transport plane

Yakovlev UT-1 navy trainer
Yakovlev UT-1 navy trainer

British Fleet air arm

Martket and Seafire Operation Torch Nov 42

Many British naval vessels carried float planes, seaplanes or amphibians for reconnaissance and spotting on battleships or battlecruisers and on cruisers. The common model was the Fairey Seafox biplane floatplane, superseded by the larger Supermarine Walrus seaplane. Both were catapult-launched, landing at sea and recovered by crane.

British Seaplanes and naval planes List

Supermarine Channel – (1919)
Vickers Viking – amphibious flying boat (1919)
Supermarine Sea Lion I – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane (1919)
Saunders Kittiwake – amphibious flying boat (1920)
Supermarine Sea King – fighter flying boat (1920)
Fairey Pintail – two-seat fighter/reconnaissance biplane amphibian (1920)
Short N.3 Cromarty – flying boat (1921)
Supermarine Seal II – deck-landing fleet-spotting amphibian (1921)
Vickers Vanellus – fleet-spotter amphibious flying boat (1922)
Supermarine Seagull – spotter/reconnaissance flying boat (1922)
Supermarine Sea Lion II – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane (1922)
Fairey Flycatcher – single-seat fighter floatplane (1922)
Fairey N.4 – five-seat long-range twin-engine biplane reconnaissance flying boat (1923)
de Havilland DH.50 – single-engine transport - some fitted as floatplanes (1923)
Supermarine Sea Eagle – amphibious flying boat (1923)
Vickers Vulture – amphibious flying boat (1924)
Supermarine Swan – 10-passenger flying boat (1924)
Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle – small single-seat flying boat (1924)
Supermarine Scarab – reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1924)
Fairey Fremantle – long-range reconnaissance biplane floatplane (1924)
Gloster II – racing floatplane for 1924 Schneider Trophy (1924)
English Electric Ayr – three-seat coastal patrol flying boat (1924)
English Electric Kingston – reconnaissance flying boat (1924)
Beardmore Inverness – monoplane flying boat (1925)
Gloster III – racing seaplane for 1925 Schneider Trophy (1925)
Saunders A.4 Medina – passenger flying boat (1925)
Hawker Dantorp – 3-seat bomber floatplane (1925)
Blackburn Velos – two-seat coastal defence seaplane (1925)
de Havilland DH.60 Moth – two-seat sportplane - some fitted as floatplanes (1925)
Supermarine S.4 – Schneider Trophy racing monoplane floatplane (1925)
Supermarine Southampton – reconnaissance flying boat (1925)
Short S.5 Singapore I – prototype reconnaissance biplane flying boat (1926)
Short S.7 Mussel – small seaplanes for float testing (1926)
Blackburn Iris – five-seat long-range reconnaissance flying boat (1926)
de Havilland DH.61 Giant Moth – single-engine transport - three fitted as floatplanes (1927)
Gloster IV – racing seaplane for 1927 Schneider Trophy (1927)
Saunders A.3 Valkyrie – three-engined military flying boat (1927)
Gloster Goring – prototype bomber, tested as a seaplane (1927)
Short S.6 Sturgeon – prototype reconnaissance biplane floatplane (1927)
Supermarine S.5 – Schneider Trophy racing monoplane floatplane (1927)
Short-Bristol Crusader – racing seaplane (1927)
Short S.8 Calcutta – three-engined commercial biplane flying boat (1928)
Saro A.14 – prototype flying boat (1928)
Blackburn Nautilus – two-seat biplane fleet spotter/fighter floatplane (1929)
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark – lightweight amphibious flying boat (1929)
Gloster VI – racing seaplane for 1929 Schneider Trophy (1929)
Short Gurnard – prototype naval fighter-reconnaissance biplane (1929)
Hawker Osprey – 2-seat fighter/reconnaissance biplane floatplane (1930)
Saro A.7 Severn – flying boat (1930)
Saro A.19 Cloud – twin-engined flying boat (1930)
Saro Windhover – three-engined flying boat with additional stub wing over main wing (1930)
Short Rangoon – military biplane flying boat (1930)
Short Valetta – survey floatplane (1930)
Short S.12 Singapore II – prototype reconnaissance biplane flying boat (1930)
Fairey Seal – two-seat reconnaissance floatplane (1930)
Supermarine S.6 – Schneider Trophy racing monoplane floatplane, last winner of the Schneider Cup (1931)
Short S.15 – prototype long-range biplane flying boat (1931)
Short Kent – biplane airmail flying boat (1931)
Supermarine Air Yacht – flying boat (1931)
Blackburn Sydney – three-engine, monoplane reconnaissance flying boat (1931)
Short Sarafand – six-engined long-range military biplane flying boat (1932)
de Havilland DH.83 Fox Moth – 4-seat light transport and bush plane floatplane (1932)
Short Knuckleduster – monoplane flying boat (1933)
Saro London – coastal patrol flying boat (1934)
Short Seaford – four-engined long-range maritime reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1934)
Short S.19 Singapore III – six-seat general reconnaissance biplane flying boat (1934)
Fairey S.9/30 – biplane torpedo bomber floatplane (1934)
Fairey Swordfish – biplane torpedo bomber floatplane (1934)
de Havilland Hornet Moth – single-engine 2-seat cabin biplane floatplane (1934)
Blackburn Perth – five-seat long-range reconnaissance flying boat (1934)
de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide – twin-engine 9-seat feeder-liner - some in Canada used with floats (1934)
de Havilland DH.90 Dragonfly – twin-engine luxury touring plane - some in Canada fitted with floats (1935)
Supermarine Scapa – reconnaissance flying boat (1935)
Short Scion Senior – four-engined nine-passenger floatplane (1935)
Short Empire – four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1936)
Short S.26 – four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1936)
Supermarine Stranraer – reconnaissance flying boat (1936)
Supermarine Walrus – spotter/reconnaissance flying boat (1936)
Fairey Seafox – two-seat spotter reconnaissance floatplane (1936)
Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 – Rolls Royce Griffon-powered monoplane
Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp – pilotless target floatplane (1937)
Short Sunderland – four-engined long-range maritime reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1937)
Supermarine Sea Otter – reconnaissance air/sea rescue flying boat (1938)
Short S.30 Empire – four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1938)
Short S.33 Empire – four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1938)
Short S.20 Mercury – flying-boat-launched four-engined long-range floatplane mail-carrier (1938)
Short S.21 Maia – seaplane-carrier four-engined flying boat (1938)
Saro A.33 – four-engined flying boat (1938)
Saro Shrimp – experimental reconnaissance flying boat (1939)
Blackburn B-20 – reconnaissance flying boat (1940)
Saro Lerwick – twin-engined reconnaissance flying boat (1940)
Supermarine Spitfire Floatplane – fighter seaplane (trials 1940–42)
Short Sandringham – four-engined long-range commercial flying boat converted from Short Sunderland (1943)
Short Shetland – large military and commercial long-range flying boat (1944)

Canadian Fleet air arm

Catalina-MkIVA-302Sqn-FAM Work in Progress


Canadian Vickers Vedette – three-seat single-engine biplane flying boat (1924)
Canadian Vickers Varuna – twin-engine fire fighting transport flying boat (1927)
Canadian Vickers Vista – single-engine single-seat monoplane flying boat (1927)
Canadian Vickers Vanessa – four-passenger cabin floatplane (1927)
Canadian Vickers Velos – twin-engine survey floatplane (1927)
Canadian Vickers Vancouver – twin-engine firefighting transport/patrol flying boat (1929)
Boeing-Canada A-213 Totem – four-passenger monoplane flying boat (1930)
Fairchild Super 71 – single-engine bushplane (1934)
Fairchild 82 – single-engine high-wing monoplane bushplane (1935)
Noorduyn Norseman – cabin monoplane bushplane (1935)
Fairchild Sekani – twin-engine bushplane (1937)
Fleet 50 Freighter – Twin-engined biplane bushplane (1938)
Fleet 80 Canuck – two-seat touring floatplane version (1945)

French Fleet air arm

The French colonial empire and needs of the Navy were served by an independent naval air service, created on 20 March 1912. Called the Aéronavale it was long based in Toulon, Mediterranean and was very active in WW1 already in the ASW patrol role, reconnaissance, laison and attack with a large variety of models, land-based, and ship-based from seaplane tenders. The earliest of this was the cruiser Foudre, rebuilt for that purpose in 1912. During the interwar, it was provided the role of ship-based reconnaissance, split between catapult-launch models on cruisers and battleships, from the Commandant Teste seaplane carrier in 1930, and carrier-borne models with the Béarn aircraft carrier from 1928. The rest were long-range models, used in part by the civilian long-range transport lines to the far east (Notably Latécoère models) and coastal patrol amphibians.

Latecoere 298 (1938), a successful modern torpedo bomber floatplane.

The 6-engines Latecoere 631 on Biscarosse lake (SW France).

Commandant teste seaplane carrier
The Commandant teste seaplane carrier (1929)

Vought 156F on board the carrier Béarn, 1940
Vought 156F on board the carrier Béarn, 1940

Levasseur PL-10.1 or 101, carrier-borne reconaissance and torpedo-bomber models. They were caracterised by a boat-like fuselage and could stay afloat if ditch as sea.


Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class Coast. Def. ships (1892)
Bouvines class Coast. Def. ships (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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