Warsaw Pact Navies (1955-1991)

warsaw pact symbol East Germany, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary

Refresher: The Warsaw Pact


Presidential palace of Warsaw, where was signed the pact

The anthitesis of NATO, created in 1949 by the USA, Canada and some Western European Powers of the time, was Stalin's response to what he considered a threat to soviet future expansion. The irony was that USSR was proposed to join the alliance at its creation, but Stalin flatly refused, and so for satellite countries now under his sphere of influence. So why waiting until 1955 ? Indeed Stalin never really wanted an "alliance" considering eastern countries now "piloted" from Moskow being only subjected to automatic de facto military contribution to USSR, which still stationed considerable forces in these countries at that time. However after the death of Stalin in 1953, the new USSR's premier, Nikita Kruchtchev started to ease this domination with these countries, allowing some autonomy, including in the creation of their armies -provided they still ordered their assets to Moskow and stayed in its the strict military supervision as well.

Therefore, more as a counterweight to NATO than real concession of autonomy (in the sense Western European nations were), Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania as well as Yugoslavia were all summoned to join the Moskow-driven military alliance. It was a collective defense treaty, as the term "defense" was more likely to gain suffrages within eastern population. NATO was also afterall flagged as defensive. It was called the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), and paraphed officially as the "Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance". For the west it was simply called the "WP" for "warsaw pact" and conveyed a way to describe the combined forces beyond the iron curtain although all agreed USSR was the sold real threat here.

First off, Yugoslavia's Tito saw its relations with Stalin soured to no return point and the split was started in 1948 and consumed with US aid, but redeemed in 1951 as Tito himself recoignised a Soviet attack was inevitable regardless of military aid from the West. Yugoslavia was therefore was included after some discission in the Mutual Defense Assistance Program. The latter was latter augmented to Finland.



The Warsaw Treaty's organization was two-fold, a Political Consultative Committee which handled political matters, and a Combined Command of all Armed Forces headquartered in Warsaw in Poland. The Supreme Commander was also a First Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR, combining this as Chief of Combined Staff. So behind an international collective security alliance facade, USSR stil ruled the dices and made decision, like the fist large scale operation. It was not unlike the dominant position of the United States anyway.

The Wa-Pac strategy was driven by the desire of the USSR to prevent Eastern Europe to be subjugated and became a near-border threat. Ideological and geostrategic reasons also went into the mix. Ideologically, Soviet Union still claimed the definition of socialism and communism as the leader of global socialist movement. This implied military intervention if any country would appear to violate core socialist principles and dogma. It was reinstated in the Brezhnev Doctrine.

The Warsaw pact made a single large scale intervention: The invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 or "prague spring". All but Albania and Romania participated and the first latter withdrawn from the pact. The Pact stood strong at least in appearance until the Revolutions of 1989. The second shaking event for the pact was East Germany withdrawing following German reunification in 1990. Indeed, East Germany among all nations was seen as by far the strongest. On 25 February 1991 at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared obsolete by the defense and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. As USSR was dissolved in December 1991, the former Soviet republics still formed a Collective Security Treaty Organization but gradually over 20 years these countries joined NATO, including separate Czech Republic and Slovakia and Baltic states. The loss of this "buffer" for Moskow was considered a sever blow, more so as former easter countries joined NATO, always considered a threatening organization for Russia.

The Warsaw Pact Naval side

Romanian naval ships in 1992
Romanian naval ships in 1990

Of course, these eastern countries had a limited navy, or maritime facade, if any, and were totally dwarved by the size and extension of the Soviet Navy. We will undergo a review of all of these, but to summarize:
-East Germany and Poland had a Baltic facade. Both also had a long maritime tradition, ports and shipyards and kept a sizeable navy, albeit focused on specific tasks
-Albania had an adriatic shore
-Bulgaria and Romania had a black sea shore
-Czechoslovakia and Hungary had a riverine shore (The Danube, also acting as border).

For all this, geostrategic consideration were of course taken in account to try and specialize these naval forces in the frame of regional defense, incliding many scenarios. For exemple, both est Germany had a role to play to interdict the Baltic by using mines (a strategy valid already before WW1), and had a support role by using FACs as well as eliminating enemy minefields. Romania and Bulgaria could participate to the defense of the black sea against any NATO attack (lkely coming from Turkey), again with affordable minelayers and FACs. Romania however had greater assets and could bring support to larger off-shore operations with a destroyer and four frigates, but in the 1980s. Poland had three destroyers and a number of submarines as well as some amphibious vessels and for course a number of patrol ships/crafts. East Germany only had frigates and corvettes plus some amphibious ships, its real strenght being in FACs and sub-chasers, patrol crafts, and as said above, mine warfare vessels. Most of these ships were built locally (a great difference with other Wa-Pac countries) and had an excellent quality reputation, while still provided with Soviet armament for standardization.

In the end, Albania had three submarines, several series of FACs, patrol crafts and minesweepers, incluing Chinese-provided vessels, a notable difference with other countries of the Pact. Bulgaria had a single destroyer and two, then three (1985) frigates, several submarines, some landing ships, corvettes, and as the others, FACs and minesweepers. Czechoslovakia and Hungary ad the first had a patrol riverine force of 18 crafts, while Hungary had its Danube flotilla rebuilt entirely in 1948, at first with transferred ships, then locally-built reiverine vessels, and was by far the strongest riverine force of the pact (outside USSR itself).

Soviet direction

USSR kept the rank and status of a sea-going naval superwower. They were supposed to integrate these fleets within operational objectives in case of war. As for NATO's smaller navies, they specialized, notably in mine and ASW warfare. Main antiship combat was kept as a prorogative with integration through multinational coordination exercizes, and so did the Warsaw pact to some extent.

Data Published by the Two Alliances (1988-1989)

TypesNATO estimatesWarsaw Pact
Submarines200228
Submarines-nuclear powered7680
Large surface ships499102
Aircraft-carrying ships152
Aircraft-carrying ships +cruise missiles27423
Amphibious warfare ships8424

Warsaw Pact Fleets in detail

Albania

Albania, uniquely among the smaller nations, freed herself from Second World War Axis occupation using her own military forces. An underground army was set up and commanded by the Communist Party, which seized power in 1944 after the country was liberated. With the govermment formed by Enver Hoxha, a totalitarian communist state was set up and plans for rapid industrial development were drawn up, despite lack of capital, know-how and material wealth. The scale of industry proved to be inadequate to supply any kind of fighting craft and the status of the Albanian naval forces has reflected changes in the political sympathies of the regime since the end of the war.

Birth of a modern Albanian navy (Soviet era)

Until 1948 Albania was a satellite of Yugoslavia with a customs as well as a monetary union. The Albanian naval forces, part of the 'People's Army' at that time, were supplied by the Soviets with some minor craft while Yugoslavia helped to restore two old minesweeping tenders: After the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform, and the overpowering of the pro-Tito group by the Stalinist faction in Albania, the country became a close Soviet ally despite territorial isolation, and had to rely on the Soviet Union for both technical advice and capital loans.

Albania was valuable to the Soviet Union as she provided her with Mediterranean bases for the Soviet Navy. After joining the Warsaw Pact in 1955 Albania allowed the Soviet Union to begin construction of base facilities at Sazan (Saseno) Island, in the Gulf of Valona. In exchange, cancellation of the large Albanian debt was announced by the Soviet Union in 1957 and large amounts of credit made available for the modernisation and expansion of the armed forces. During 1956-61 the Albanian Navy was gradually separated from the Army to become a fully independent service,like the Air Force.

Soviet Technical advices and capital loans to Albania were valuable to her Navy. Aner joining the Warsaw Pact in 1955, and the government purchased two "Whiskey" class submarines, six MTBS of the 'P4' type, two minesweepers of the T 143 type, six inshore minesweepers of the T 301 type, four 'Kronstadt' class patrol craft, eleven minesweeping boats and a number of auxiliaries.

Albanian left the WaPac and aligned on China

The new Soviet credit dried up by the late 1950s which, together with Khrushchev's dislike of the strict Stalinist course maintained by the Albanian government, inclined Tirana to tlirt with Red China. When a rift between the two communist giants became evident, public disapproval of the Chinese viewpoint was disguised by the Soviet Communist Party as an attack on Albania. This resulted in diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union being severed in December 1961. Albania effectively withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and deprived the Soviet Union of her base at Sazan island, seizing two "Whiskey class submarines there. The Soviet-made ships were commissioned and maintained with Chinese assistance, giving the Albanians an effective task force of three submarines and six MTBS.

However lack of spares soon decreased their efficiency. Transfer of Chinese craft was initiated in 1965 with six MTBS of the 'P4' type and provided Albania with an effective squadron of fast Attack craft which by the late 1970s consisted of four missile craft of the "Hoku' class, thirty-two torpedo hydrofoils of the "Huchwan' class and six patrol craft of the "Shanghai IP class. This force of comparatively new craft despite their somewhat obsolescent design ind favourable strategic location of bases gave the Albanians the ability to control traffic through the 50-mile wide Strait of Otranto, altbough the strained relations between Albania and China disclosed in the late 1970s may have affected the supply of spares for the Chinese-made craft.

A dilapidated fleet (1980s)

Despite sparing use of vessels and production of rudimentary spare parts, the fleet could not be maintained for long without foreign assistance. As a result since the carly 1980s some vessels have either semi scrapped or placed in reserve, while others have been cannibalized for spares. In 1993 most of the vessels were in poor condition. The number of operational units continues to decline due to the lack of spare parts. Submarines were non-operational after the fall of USSR, with just one T 43' class and two T 301' class minesweepers spotted at sea. Following standard Eastern Bloc practice, Albanian ships recognition numbers were periodically changed.

The new UE-backed fleet (2000s)

The condition of her naval vessels reflects the economic state of Albania. After 46 years of strict Stalinist economic management, the Country had the lowest GNP in Europe. This, and phantasmagoric dreams such as building nuclear shelter instead of houses created fertile land for the anti-communist ideas that came from other Warsaw Pact countries left.

The Communist Party faced by growing internal opposition, but the county slowly recuperated by its integration to the UE and donations allowed to reach a new level of operational readiness, at least to perform its basic green water needs, of coastal police and fishery protection, reaching 1,000 Personnel and 19 Patrol Vessels as of today.

As a result of the 1998-2004 agreements, donated patrol vessels ex-US and ex-Italian for SAR started with five boats in 1998, six boats in 2002, five in 2004. An agreement was concluded that year with Italy with the latter providing equipment and technical assistance to the Albanian Naval Force, to cover its basic needs, but also patrolling to catch migrant boats. In 2007, the Albanian Navy was reorganized into two flotillas and a logistics battalion.

Fleet strenght in 1947

-2 Italian motor boats of the Tirane class, former MAS captured and retroceded by the USSR.
-2 ex German MFP craft used as landing ships tanks (1943), discarded in the 1970s.
-Minesweeping tenders, former Yugoslav Marjan, Mosor. Sticken 1967.

Additions

-7 Vosper class MTBs, ex-lend-lease in 1950, discarded 1960s
-3 KM 4 minesweeping boats transferred 1945, stricken 1967

1980s cold war fleet

Ex-Whiskey class
Three Type 053 submarines transferred by the Soviet Union in 1960, plus two more seized in 1961, numbered 512, 514, 516 and the fourth unnamed, kept for spares, harbor training and charging station.
Stricken in 1976 and cannibalized for spares. In the 1980s only one was apparently kept operative, two renamed 552 and 523 in 1993, still active until the late 1990s. Now scrapped.
Fast Attack Crafts:
-12 ex-Soviet P4 FAC(T), six delivered 1956, six Chinese-built in 1965, with a twin DsHK and no radar. All stricken 1987.
-31 Huchuan class FAC hydrofoils. Various batches built in Shanghai, transferred 1968-74. Conditions degraded due to lack of spares and maintenance still reported operational in 1987, but unknown status for the 1990s.
-4 Hoku class FAC(M) transferred in 1976-77, stricken 1982-84.
Patrols Crafts:
-Four Kronstadt class transferred 1958 numbered originally 191, 192, 502, 504. Two upgraded to the latest ASW standards in 1961 and claimed back in 1965, still extant 1987, status unknown for the 1990s.
-Six "shanghai II" class patrol crafts, four transferred 1974, two 1975, extant 1987.
Minesweepers:
-2 T43 ww2 ocean minesweepers acquired august 1960, extant 1987.
-6 T301 WW2 inshore minesweepers (three pairs) 1957-60, fitted with navigation radar in the 1980s, One discarded 1979, the other extant 1987.
-11 PO-2 minesweeping boats 1957-60. Stricken 1988-89.

Bulgaria


The Frigate Smeli ("Brave") in 2006, Varna

During the closing stages of the Second World War Bulgaria fell into the Soviet sphere of influence and the Bulgarian Army came under cccccavist command. The Soviet troops' presence and a strong pro-Russian sentiment in the country were the major factors which enabled the Communists to seize power more easily than in other countries of the recently emerged Soviet bloc. After the peace treaty with the Allies was signed and the new constitution had come into force, the Soviet troops left Bulgaria at the close of 1947 and remodelling of the country on Soviet lines began.

Nationalisation of private industry was started immediately, collectivisation of peasant holdings was pursued while industrialisation became one of the principal aims of economic policy regardless of the lack of raw materials and of technically educated manpower for heavy industry. By 1950 the strict Stalinist course was adopted throughout and in May that year a new army command was formed with a Soviet officer of Bulgarian origin taking the post of Minister of National Defence and C-in-C of the armed forces.

With the help of Soviet advisers the amed forces were equipped and reorganised on the Soviet model. By 1953 they numbered about 220,000 despite the peace treaty limitations. The treaty of 10 February 1947 ordered a considerable reduction of the Bulgarian armed forces as compared with their prewar status; maximum permitted strength included an army of 55,000, an air force of up to ninety aircraft (with no bombers) while the tonnage limitation for the navy was set at 7250t with personnel not Exceeding 3500.


Ex-Italian submarine support ship used for the Foxtrot class submarines

Despite the spectacular build-up of the army, the naval forces were not so successful as the Soviet Black Sea Fleet had w resources to spare for her ally at that time. However, because of endent neglect of the Bulgarian Navy, a Novik class destroyer ered for the Imperial Russian Navy), three war-built M class Coastal submarines and four ex-German M-boats of 1935 type were transferred from the Soviet Union to form the nucleus of the 'People's Navy

After Stalin's death the country gained a considerable margin of forces were reduced by 45,000 while supplies of modern equipment began to arrive. During the late 1950s one . In 1955 Bulgaria joined the Warsaw Pact and an armed destroyer of the Ognevoi class was added to the list of transfers, as well as a number of modern vessels- two 'Whiskey' class subs and later two 'Riga' class frigates, ecight 'P 4' type MTBS, two "Kronstadt' class patrol craft were purchased in the Soviet Union. In December 1959 command of the armed forces was taken over by a Hulgarian officer and Soviet advisers were withdrawn.

There were a few additions to the Bulgarian Navy during the 1960s, but the present strength was largely built up under three successive Five Year Plans since 1970. Naval power currently encompasses short-range landing and minesweeping capabilities, backed by some ASW capacity and striking forces of FACS and naval aviation. This expansion programme, backed by construction of new auxiliaries (some built domestically), was completed by the end of 1985 and resulted in a balanced coastal navy with some, albeit limited, projection capability.

The modernisation programme commenced in the later 1980s with the transfer from the USSR of two Romeo' class submarines, one "Poti' class corvette and two Polnocny' class landing ships, apparently to replace those acquired in the early 1970s. Possible further transfers were to include more landing ships as well as ASWS and FACS, but these plans were forestalled by the deteriorating Bulgarian economy, in particularly since the mid-1980s. A reduction of 12% in the military budget was announced in 1989, including the scrapping of five warships (corvettes and some landing craft).


A Vanya class minesweepers

Following the overthrow of President Zhivkov's regime in 1990, free elections, and the break-up of the Warsaw Pact, plans for further military expenditure were shelved because of the still critical economic situation. Bulgaria now follows a policy of seeking membership of NATO and associate membership of the European Community. As the country's economy struggles to improve, the navy is being further reduced. It is planned that by the year 2000 the Bulgariari Navy will comprise only three submarines, FACS, small patrol and mine warfare cruft and helicopters.

The Bulgarian navy in 1990 consisted of the Black Sea Fleet and the Danube Floulla. The fleet was organised into one division each of submarines, ASWS, FAC(M)s, FAC(T)s and one brigade each of landing ships and minesweepers. In 1992, the navy had a total of 8800 men, of whom 2100 were afloat, 2200 in coastal defence (twenty batteries with over one hundred 130mm and 6-in guns as well as three battalions of six truck-mounted SSC-2b 'Samlet' missile launchers), and 200 in naval aviation.

Buglarian Type 033 - the Chinese Romeo
Slava, Bulgarian Type 033 - the Chinese Romeo, last in existence and now retired.

By 1994, the total had been reduced to 5,400 men. Personnel are largely ratings on three years' national service (eighteen months since 1991). The fleet headquarters and main buse is at Varna, and other bases are at Burgas and Sozopol. The Danube River Flotilla, which is headquartered at Victin, and has bases at Atiya and Balchik, operates ex Soviet PO 2' class boats and two fast patrol booats. The naval aviation division with stations at Varma and Burgas, has Mi-14 Haze and twelve Mi-2 Hoplite' and Mi-4 Hound' helicopters.

As of today, the Bulgarian Navy is 4,100 personnel strong, and rejuvenated thanks to the West, with three ex-Wielingen Belgian frigates, a single Koni class (Smeli), a tarentul, two Pauk class covettes, three ex-French tripartite mine hunters, one Olya, four Vanya, three Sonya, and a Yevgenya ex-Soviet minesweepers, and the 13 support ships of the 18th and 96th support divisions, with a single ex-Polish ship, an Italian, and the rest all Bulgarian-built, plus a training vessel. Two German OPVs are to be delivered in the late 2020s. Bulgaria also operates 2 Eurocopter AS565 Panther and a single Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin.

WW2 vessels

Still in service in 1954: Torpedo Boats of the Drzki class (Built in France, 1907). The tiny Bulgarian Navy in WW2 was bolstered by transfers from Germany: Three S 2 class S-Bootes, named F1 to F4. These 1939 47.8 tonnes vessels were transferred in 1939 (two) and one last in 1941. The fourth (F-4) was captured by Soviet forces en route, retroceded after some service, as TKA-960. It was retuned in April 1945. They served until 1953 and were converted as avisos. The second batch of early FACs (MBTs) were the captured Dutch T52 class vessels, transferred by the Germans in 1942. They were seized by the Soviets in Sept. 1944 and pressed as TKA-961 to 964. Two were returned in April 1945 but the remainder two were substituted by two TM-200 boats. Plagued by engine problems without spares they were immobilized until around 1960.

Bulgaria also possessed also a bunch of WW2 era (or older) patrol boats, maintained in service until 1952-55. Most were transferred by Soviet Union in April 1947. In all, this represented 18 ships.

Cold war vessels

Czechoslovakia

Danube

After the Second World War Czechoslovakia, freed from Axis occupation mainly by the Red Army, was rebuilt within the pre-1938 boundaries (with the exception of Transcaucasian Ukraine which was incorporated into the Soviet Union) while her internal affairs were remodelled on the Soviet pattern.

As a result of attempts to introduce political reforms Czechoslovakia was invaded in 1968 by most of the Warsaw Pact countries to restore the Communist regime. From this time Soviet troops were permanentiy stationed in the country. Being landlocked, Czechosłovakia does not maintain a navy, but there is a river patrol force operated by 1200 Border Guard personnel wearing naval type uniforms. In 1990 this force consisted of about 18 armed launches.

Following the overthrow of the Communist regime at the end of 1989 and the break-up of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovakia successfully negotiated the withdrawal of Soviet troops by mid-1991. In December 1991 the country became an associate member of the ropean Community and applied to become a member of NATO. On 1st January 1993, following a referendum, the country was divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, It is believed that the Czech Republic has retained control of the river force.

East Germany


Poster showing the extent of the East German Navy in the cold war.



Far less known than the Bundesmarine, the German Democratic Republic's Navy, or "Volksmarine" was far less impressive. It still had frigates, corvettes, landing ships, fast attack crafts, sub-chasers, coastal patrol craft, and minesweepers. On this part of the eastern Baltic, the Volskmarine presented a sizeable threat to NATO, with a capable industry which delivered in the 1970-80s most of its assets and a large degree of autonomy in its organization, structure and procurement, although sensors and armaments were standardized and delivered by the Soviet Union. Minesweepers were designed and built at Pennewerft. Sub-Chasers and patrol crafts also, as well as its Fast Attack Craft (Torpedo) vessels and most importantly, a large construction program of corvettes, the Parchim class. They were large and capable ASW vessels, with a recoignized quality that made them a prime example of Warsaw-pact vessel exported to USSR, a quite unique case there.

Fundamentally, the Volksmarine was a defensive, green water navy which role was to deter any access to the eastern Baltic by western powers. Both for economical reasons and political ones, within the strict frame of the Warsaw pact, there was at no point an extension plan to a blue water navy and after the fall of USSR and German reunification, its assets were all sold or discarded to adopt the Bundesmarine standards.


Koni class Rostock class Frigate, the largest Volksmarine combat vessels.


The Soviet East-German buuilt Corvette Kazanets in 1990 (Parchim class)

P30 in Malta
German built Maltese Mal P30, ex-Ueckermünde G411 submarine chaser.


Bad Doberan, German-built FAC/T


Libelle class German experimental FAC/T

Full list

Note: starred ships were built in East Germany, mostly Peenewerft, Wolgast.

Hungary

Riverine-Minesweweepers-MSB-268
Riverine Minesweeper MSB-268 in the 1970s credits

The armistice signed in January 1945 in Moscow ordered the return of territories seized during 1938-40, 300 million dollars reparations and access to the country's territory by units of the Soviet Army. Hungary was proclaimed a republic in 1946 and in 1947 the communists seized power in the country following the disbanding of the Allied armistice commissions after signing the peace treaty in the same year.

Internal affairs were modelled on the Soviet pattern and in 1955 the country became a member of the Warsaw Pact. In 1956 the Hungarian Revolution forced the government to establish a multi-party system and to announce on 1 November withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. This resulted in Soviet invasion and a permanent Soviet presence which went unopposed by Western powers at the time. The political reforms were abolished but thorough economic reform now became possible and the country became the most prosperous of the COMECON states.

Being a landlocked country after the First World War, Hungary maintained a flotilla on the Danube which had been totally annihilated by the closing stages of the Second World War. Reconstruction of the Danube Flotilla was started in 1948 with the transfer of ex-Soviet river minesweepers. Then eight old craft (the four Kecskemet class 133t ships were stricken in the 1950s, Baja in 1969, and the 140t Sopron of 1918 also in the 1950s, as were the three Honved class 17t minesweeping boats of 1916) from the Austro-Hungarian Danube Flotilla were restored.

Since the mid-1950s they have been replaced either by reconstructed ships of the inter-war period or by new construction. In 1969, it was officially stated that the flotilla had been disbanded; however, the country continues to operate an independent maritime brigade (400 officers and men; ratings on one and half years service) of the army, and older patrol craft have been gradually disposed of and replaced by Yugoslav-built river minesweepers.

About 13 craft were in active service in 1990, and others were in reserve. Several auxiliaries are operated, including troop transports up to 1000t, two transport barges which can be used as LCTS, and five LCUS. Hungary, which together with Poland led the wave of political reform in eastern Europe, successfully pressed for the disbanding of the Warsaw Pact and was able to negotiate withdrawal of Soviet troops from its territory. In December 1991 Hungary became an associate menber of the European Community and has applied for membership of NATO.

Details of the flotilla

MSB-22
MSB-22 in 1990, src navypedia

AN-1 boats
AN-1 boats in the 1970s, src navypedia

Poland


ORP Warsawa of the Kotlin SAM II type

The Polish Navy was re-established between 1945 and 1948 with the destroyer Byskainca, three submarines, four minesweepers, two minesweepers acquired in Britain and nine minesweepers, twelve patrol craft and a sail training ship (all of Polish origin), three BYMS type minessweepers from Britain, twelve Submarine chasers and two MTBS from the Sovier Union in lieu of war reparations from the Knegmarine. The units thus asembled were insufficient for the detence of over 500km of coastline, and in 1947 a Naval Estimate was prepared for the construction of a 42,000 ton fleet (eighteen submarines, twenty-four MTBS, nine escorts, forty-four patrol craft, sixty-six minesweepers), over 20 years.

This programme reflected adoption of the Soviet naval doctrine of that timne, which confined the navy to covering the flanks of large land armies with extensive use of minefields guarded by constal artillery while attack on enemy communications would be executed by small combatant and naval aviation. The 1947 estimate evidently exceeded what was possible from a war-shattered economy and was substituted by a 1950-55 plan for construction of five MTBS, five patrol craft, five minesweepers and five minesweeping boats.

This plan was abiandoned in 1950 by the Soviet officers in command, who saw the Polish Navy as a local detachment of the Soviet Baltic Fleet. In 1951 the 'Plan for Reinforcing Defences' was authorized, as a modernisation of the army, air force and AA defence. The navy's role was confined to the defence of the main base at Gdynia, and further development was restricted to the placing in service of suitable ships. As a temporary measure, a landing craft flotilla was formed. It comprised former German and US boats, and the ageing destroyer Burra was modemised. The necessity of replacing ageing naval craft was only acknowledged four years later in the 'Military Development Plan for 1955-60', which proposed increasing the navy to five destroyers, nine frigates, twelve submarines and ninety-six MTBs (all to be imported from the Soviet Union), in addition to sixty minesweepers and eight submarine chasers built locally.

This enforced rearmament programme brought about a sharp decline in the national economy, the first sign of which was an acute food shortage in 1952. However, only the easing of tension, both internationaly (Geneva conference of July 1955) and internally after the 1956 riots in Poznan made it possible to halt the Soviet program. This resulted in the wihdrawal of certain command posts and the return of Polish Military Uniforms. The military expansion program was halted, but at that point, the navy had already purchased two Skoriy class destroyers, six 'MV' type submarines, twenty-seven fast craft, while twelve 'T43' type and seven 'TR40' type minesweepers were to be built locally under Soviet licence.

The Khrushchev regime forced Poland to adopt a new armament programme approved in March 1961, which provided within a period of seven years, a destroyer flotilla of three ships, a missile boat flotilla of seven boats, a submarine brigade of seven boats, an MTB brigate of nineteen, and a sub-chaser flotolla of eight boats, plus a minesweweepers flotilla of twenty-four, a riverine flotilla of seven boats, plus a landing brigade of twenty-eight ships.

The Polish Navy had to undertake the construction of the minesweepers, sub-chasers, MTBs, landing ships and auxiliaries, like East Germany. The desired force at least on paper was only achieved in the late 1960s, but numerous earlier vessels already needed a replacement. The declined of Polish planned economy, burdened with excessive military expenditures and lack of modern technology led to social unrest in December 1970. The ailing economy caused delays in replacement and was made only worse by the attitude of the Polish ministry of defence, emphasised a stronger development for better integration nto the Warsaw Pact strategic planning.

Therefore the basic combat potential planned for the Polish Navy in 1961 was never reached, and at the end development of the decade the Polish Navy only comprised a single 'Kotlin SAM' guided missile destroyer, four "Whiskey V' class submarines, 50 small surface combatants, 33 landing ships and 24 to be imported from the Soviet Union, but the naval aviation division had not been modermised. Thus the Polish Navy, which had been the largest of the non-Soviet naval forces lost its position to East Germany in the early 1980s.

The 1980 program focused on locally-built small surface combatants, FACs, MCVs and assault craft, equipped with Soviet armaments and sensors, but its development was plagues by strikes, notably at Gdansk and Gdinya. Therefore after the withdrawul of the 30 years old destroyer Warsawa in 1986, the Poles were unable to contribute to the Warsaw Pact joint Baltic squadron until the arrival of the "Kashin mod" misile destroyer was lend by USSR in 1988. Construction of FAC/M only started with difficulties by 1988, in coperation with East Germany, und only the landing craft program wa pursued nore vigorously, even though only five Lublin class have been completed.


ORP Poznan of the Lublin class LSTs


ORP Warsaw (iii) of the Kashin Mod class in 2004


ORP Wilk of the Foxtrot type


ORP Orzeł of the Whiiskey class (cutaway)


Pilica class patrol crafts


ORP mewa of the Krogulec class minesweepers


ORP Kaszub corvette in Gdynia


Missile Corvette ORP Metalowiec in Gdynia (Tarantul class)


ORP Grom, Orkan class Missile corvettes

Additional purchases from the Soviet Union proved a considerable strain on the economy, but included four "Tarantul class" corvettes FAC/M replacing the old OSA I boats. Noteworthy was the transfer of the submarine Orzel in 1986 (sole Kilo class), and the smaller and cheaper Foxtrot class followed, with the Wilk and Wicher.

Following economic restraints brought about as a result of this program, the Polish economy once again showed sign of crisis. Hardship suffered by the people caused much social unrest in the summer of 1988, and the Communist Party, discouraged by Moscow's unwillingness to compromise its new image by supporting an unpopular regime, decided to negotiate with leaders of the hitherto illegal opposition. This resulted in the peaceful removal of communist rule after elections in June 1989, and triggered a similar process in neighbouring countries.

Poland was the first country to join the 'Partnership for Peace' programme, and the most eager to join NATO, making the best possible use of the time given by the temporary weakness of the Russian Empire. An estimate to create a balanced and independent naval force was drawn up, and provided for five submarines, twelve ASW escorts, eighteen FACs, twenty MCVS and a naval aviation of eighty aircraft. This programme was however still well beyond the capacity of the Polish economy, driving forcefully from the centralised system to the open market.

The Polish Navy in 1995 comprised on paper at least, three submarines, a single missile destroyer, a surface escort, thirteen TACM, nineteen sub-chasers, twenty-four mineweepers and the landing ships. However most of these ships were without practical military value eiher because of obsolescence or lack of modern weapon systems, not even talking about NATO standards total incompatibility. The only units pratical value came from the single Kilo class submarine, the four Tarantul class corvettes, the five landing ships, the sixteen MCVS.

The Coast Guard was separated from the navy in 1991. The tleet headquarters are at Gdynia, and bases were at Gdynia Oksywie, Hel, Swinoujscie and Kolobraeg. Naval aviation comprised by then the 34th Fighter Wing (at Gdynia Babie Doly) 38 MIG-21 fighters, 4 TS-11 Iskra training aircraft, two AN-2 transport planes and two Mi-2 'Hoplite' helicopters, and the 7th Training Wing irowice with fifteeri TS-11, eight An-2 and two An-28 bombers, an Helicopter Squadron at Darlowo, with fourteen Mi-14 'Haze' and Mi-2 'Hoplite', the 18th Despatch and Rescue Squadron with four RW Anakonda, three W-3 Sokol, ten Mi-2 helicopters and two An-28.

WW2 legacy ships

ORP Blyskawica
ORP Blyskawica, modernized 1949-50 and 1957-61, Polish flagship until the late 1960s

The Polish cold war fleet


ORP Wicher of the Skoryy type

Romania


The missile destroyer Mărășești (1982), late cold war navy flagship, now replaced by the Regele Ferdinand frigate, British Type 22 type (one more). Mărășești has been reclassified as a frigate.

Post-WW2 situation

Although Romania changed to the Allied side in the closing stages of the Second World War, this did not excuse the country from postwar restrictions placed upon her by the USSR. The peace treaty of 10 February 1947 required a reduction of the Romanian Army to 120,000 men, the Air Force to 150 aircraft while the Navy was allowed to maintain 15,000t overall tonnage. At the time that tonnage was barely reached as the Romanians operated two old destroyers, one submarine, two escorts converted from the old torpedo-boats, two old gunboats and five MTBS returned by the Soviets.

This force was supplemented by more modern units returned by the Soviet Union by the early 1950s namely two destroyers, two submarines and a minelayer. At that time the Romanians began the river craft programme which resulted in the completion of nineteen such craft for service on the Danube. During the late 1940s and carly '50s the country was remodelled on the Soviet pattern, a process which had started in September 1944 due to the presence of Soviet troops. The increasing dominance of the local communists, backed by Soviet military power, forced King Michail I to abdicate in 1947, and this ended any likelihood of organised opposition.

In 1948 the Communist Party took absolute power and enforced radical collectivisation and industrialisation programmes (1949-62). Romania's membership of the Warsaw Pact improved her navy's situation but not to the same extent as with neighbouring Bulgaria. Four 'MV' type coastal submarines, four ex-German M-boats (1940 type), three 'Kronstadt' class patrol craft and twenty-one T 301 class inshore minesweepers were acquired from the Soviet Union during the late 1950s. In addition eight incomplete hulls of the TR 40' type river minesweepers were transferred from Poland for completion in Romania and twelve landing craft were laid down in a local yard.

The Cold War Romanian fleet in 1947

*Apart Delfinul available in 1947, Requinul was in soviet service after capture in 1944 as TS-1, returned in 1951, discarded c1958. Marsuinul was also seized as TS-2, sunk in 1945, raised, repaired and recommissioned but stricken 1950.

The Romanian Navy of the 1960s

In June 1958 Soviet forces left the country. The early 1960s saw slow but steady development as twelve 'P4' type MTBS were transferred from the Soviet Union and transfer of the "Osa' class missile boats was started. Further transfer of Soviet warships was interrupted suddenly in 1964 when Romania refused to follow the Soviet Union's example in relations with Red China or accept COMECON plans for economic development. This rift was widened when Romania took an independent line in her trade relations and refused to participate in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.

Such disobedience resulted in a considerable reduction of Soviet supplies and left the Romanian Navy, except for three 'Poti" class corvettes, acquired in 1970, with only five modern cormbar naval craft (Osa' class) in service at the beginning of the 1970s. Therefore Chinese assistance was willingly invited and licence was bought for construction of torpedo hydrofoils of the 'Huchwan' class and patrol craft of the 'Shanghai' class. Over twenty-five craft of the former and thirty of the latter type were commissioned during the later 1970s. Apart from these boats the Romanians themselves began construction of three types of river craft.

Romania's somewhat divergent foreign policy was sufficient to satisfy Bucharest's ambitions for independence without provoking open conflict with the Kremlin. This in turn allowed President Ceaucescu the political freedom for an unparalleled concentration of power into his own hands and the pursuit of a series of major projects, increasingly erratic in conception and increasingly at odds with the capacity of the Romanian economy to support them. Among these was a most spectacular naval expansion programme undertaken in the early 1980s.

The unrealistic 1980s program

A huge fleet (compared with the country's resources) of missile destroyers (officially classed as battlecruisers), four frigates, twelve torpedo craft and two large auxiliaries were to be built domestically, The first submarine, after a 25-year absence of this type in the Romanian Navy, was purchased in 1986 from the Soviet Union. The results, however, were far from satisfactory. The major surface ships were too large for coastal defence and it was hard to conceive of their use in other waters. Moreover, they were of rather rudimentary design, fitted with outdated weapons and sensors purchased from the Soviet Union.

The ASW forces were inadequate as were the MCM capabilities, amphibious capacity was negligible and the auxiliaries were too small. Construction of such a large fleet, together with other large auxiliaries were to be built domestically, The first submarine, after a 25-year absence of this type in the Romanian Navy, was purchased in 1986 from the Soviet Union. The results, however, were far from satisfactory. The major surface ships were too large for coastal defence and it was hard to conceive of their use in other waters.

Moreover, they were of rather rudimentary design, fitted with outdated weapons and sensors purchased from the Soviet Union. The ASW forces were inadequate as were the MCM capabilities, amphibious capacity was negligible and the auxiliaries were too small. Construction of such a large fleet, together with other grandiose projects, was attained at a cost unequalled elsewhere in Europe, and this was at a time of declining living standards, decapitalisation of machinery and devastation of the environment.


'Cosar class' minelayer NMS Ian Murgescu

Despite strenuous sacrifices imposed on the Romanian people, most of the extravagant programmes had to be postponed due to the collapse of the economy. Naval shipbuilding was stopped in 1987, and since then no new shipsor craft have been laid down. At the end of the 1980s Romania possessed quite a large fleet by eastern European standards, but this force had 'operetta and parade ground' value rather than true operational worth. The increasing hardship and repression suffered by the Romanian people led in 1989 to an unprecedented level of unrest, and news of events in other eastern European countries sparked a popular revolt, which was at least partly orchestrated by the army and the Communist Party and resulted in the execution of President Ceaucescu.

The Fall

Partial disintegration of the apparatus of the state and of the Communist Party itself, combined with the continuing struggle of non-communist political groups for power, accelerated the collapse of the economy. Following the break-up of the Warsaw Pact, Romania has pursued a policy of seeking membership of NATO and associate membership of the European Community. The Romanian navy has a total of 10,000 men, of whom 3400 are afloat, 2000 are in coastal defence (one SSC26 'Samlet missile battalion and gun batteries totalling one hundred 130mm and oin pieces, as well as radar stations along the coast) and 100 personnel in naval aviation.

The Romanian Navy in the 1990s

Ratings are on 15-months' conscription. The fleet headquarters are at Mangalia, and the main bases are at Mangalia and Constanța. The Danube River Flotilla has headquarters at Giurhiu and has bases at Giurhiu, Sulina, Galati and Dulcea. The naval aviation division, which was established in 1983, has its headquarters and base at Constanța and consists of six Mil4 Haze' land-based and six license-built French designed IAR-316 'Alouette III' shipborne helicopters. Because of lack of oil fuel some of the larger warships have been non-operational since 1990.


Amiral Petre Barbuneanu, corvette of Tetal I class


Contraamiral Eustatiu Sebastian, a Corvette of the 'Tetal-II' class


River Patrol Crafts of the VD class


Romanian river monitor F-46 Ion C Bratianu.

Cold War vessels in 1947-90

*Now called as the "Admiral Petre Bărbuneanu class corvettes" and "Rear-Admiral Eustațiu Sebastian-class corvettes", Tetal I/II class was their NATO designation.
**First six imported friom China, the rest built locally at Mangalia shipyards in two batches in 1974-83 (15), 1988-90 (5), 2 as diving tenders.
***Mangalia-built of OSA-I with torpedoes

Read More/Src

Links

worldnavalships.com - Polish Navy
NATO and Warsaw Pact: Force Comparisons
The Warsaw Pact: Changes in Structure And Functions, Ivan Volgyes
The role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet military planning (pdf)
Soviet Military doctrine & Warsaw Pact Exercizes (pdf)
The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet (PDF)
Soviet and Joint Warsaw Pact Exercises: FUNCTIONS AND UTILITY, JOHN M. CARAVELLI
SOVIET STRATEGY AND NATO'S NORTHERN FLANK, William K. Sullivan Naval War College Review 1979
insidethecoldwar.org NATO & Navies of the Warsaw Pact 1982 PDF
The navies of the NATO opposition Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet
The Romanian Navy on globalsecurity.org
Military Balance 2010 tandfonline.com
navy.ro romanian naval forces historical background
Natalia Jackowska, The Border controversy Between The Polish People’s reoublic and the German democratric republic in the pomeranian bay
polska1918-89.pl: History of the Polish Navy until 1989
relikte.com
www.polish-navy.org
On www.mon.gov.pl pdf
baltmilitary.amberexpo.pl
altair.com.pl
isap.sejm.gov.pl Doc Polish Navy modernization
Warsaw Pact (refresher)
Video: The Rise Of The Soviet Navy (1969)

Books

Nelcarz, Bartolomiej & Peczkowski, Robert (2001). White Eagles: The Aircraft, Men and Operations of the Polish Air Force 1918–1939. Hikoki Publications
Peszke, Michael Alfred, Poland's Navy: 1918–1945, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1999
Siegfried Breyer, Peter Joachim Lapp: Die Volksmarine der DDR, Bernard & Graefe Verlag
Robert Rosentreter: Im Seegang der Zeit, Vier Jahrzehnte Volksmarine, Ingo Koch Verlag
Klaus Froh, Rüdiger Wenzke: Die Generale und Admirale der NVA. Ein biographisches Handbuch.
Arrangement concerning the carrying of flags, pennants and standards on ships and boats of the People's Navy
Axworthy, Mark; Scafeș, Cornel; Crăciunoiu, Cristian (1995). Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945
Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A naval history of World War I. Routledge.
Zaloga, Steven (1985). Soviet Bloc Elite Forces. Osprey Publishing.

Videos

Scenario of a fight between NATO and WaPac Navies 1985, Binkov's battlegrounds
SOVIET SEA POWER TODAY COLD WAR ERA RUSSIAN NAVY CAPABILITIES 80434
Launch of “Oceans Ventured: Winning the Cold War at Sea”

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


Facebook Feed


Twitter Feed



Youtube naval encyclopedia Channel

Go to the Playlist
Tank Encyclopedia, the first online tank museum
Plane Encyclopedia - the first online warbirds museum
posters Shop
Poster of the century
Historical Poster - Centennial of the Royal Navy "The Real Thing" - Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now !

Battleship Yamato in VR

❒ Virtual Reality Section