The Dutch Netherlands Navy: Watch on the north sea

The Dutch Netherlands Fleet in 1945

The havoc wrought on the Netherlands Navy and supporting industries by the German invasion of May 1940 was unprecedented, with many ships still under construction (like the cruiser Van Hermskeerck, still fitting out and fleeing to UK to avoid being captured), other being scuttled or completed by the Germans (like some destroyers). Many of these refugee ships took a heavy part of the action of the Royal Navy, and two years later the bulk of the east indies fleet was destroyed by the Japanese. Nevertheless, Both British and American staffs believed the Dutch admiral in charge of the joint-Allied force was being far too aggressive. Later, despite they were few in numbers, Dutch submarines scored many kills, not only in Asia but also in the Mediterranean sea, sinking the U-boat U-95. Submarines did indeed their share against Japanese trade and supply lines. Two cruisers survived. However from D-Day and in particular September 1944 the retreated Germans destroyed all the infrastructures they can get their hands on, seaports and shipbuilding yards in particular, all useful tools and equipments were either scuttled or taken back to Germany. Ships were also blasted or sunk in the waterways and entrances. The cruiser De Zeven Provincien was launched before term for this purpose.

rotterdam destroyed
Rotterdam's railway station after the blitz

Cold War Poster - Netherlands Navy


Reconstruction of the Navy

The naval staff immediately seen the emergency of the navy's reconstruction in a troubled context. A new naval plan was drawn, combining what was learnt in naval warfare, and the experience of the RNN with the Royal Navy and in the far east, notably losses reports. However it only materialized in 1950. On of its immediate consequences was the authorisation of a purchase, still difficult to justify to the parliament in 1950, because it was quite ambitious, however justified by the east indies colonial possessions, and the price of the ship itself - The United Kingdom preferred to sell them at much lower prices than their construction implied because the Navy could no longer afford to maintain them active: It was the light fleet aircraft carrier Karel Doorman, first and only of this time in the Netherlands (although Dutch crews operated two escort carriers during the war under British flag). Therefore operational experience was already there, something which weighted in the balance. Before the "new" Karel Doorman was purchased, crews had been training throughout WW2 on the Galida, and the Nairana loaned from 1946 under the name of the famous WW2 admiral. The 13,820 tonnes escort carrier was used until 1948 and then returned to UK, resold and converted as a merchant vessel, in which state she served until 1971.

In addition, authorization was also given to complete two large cruisers, in construction since 1939, with a modernization to be used as escorts for the new carrier, and create in effect a task force (De Zeven Provincien class). Also, many other ships were aqcuired or prurchased: Six R, Q ans S class British destroyers, some already operated in WW2, the completion of an older Dutch DD, HX-4 Marnix, several T-class subs and the modernization of the three surviving O-21 class (launched 1939-41), a Frigate (Johan Maurits Van Nassau, ex HMS Ribble), three wartime Dutch Gunboats (Flores, Van Kingsbergen, Van Speijk), a minelayer, Willem Van de Zaan (1938), reclassed as a frigate in 1953, a 1938 emergency program gunboat "C", eight Bathurst class ex-Australian minesweepers (Ternate class Corvettes). Still extant and modernized after the war were the 4000 tonnes cruisers Jacob Van Hermskerck and Tromp, Five Jan Van Asmtel class minesweepers (one scrapped 1946, the others BU 1961). All the extant ships were scrapped in 1945-47.

HRMS Karel Doorman

As it went during this reconstruction, aside clearing minefields, free harbours or any obstruction, get equipments, and repair shipyards as no naval construction could start before awhile, the Navy acquired many ex-British and ex-US ships (the latter often on loan) to gain expertise, in particular to share tasks of ASW warfare; Soon, decision was made to develop local electronics industry to provide newly built ships, but delays meant new ships were delivered with empty masts for some time. However on the long run it proved a wide decision, with good quality equipments soon recognised also as such on the international market. As for shipyards, and intense collaboration with British ones helped to solved many issues and speed up recovery of the local shipbuilding industry, as part of NATO rewards. This assistance started with the De Zeven Provincien cruisers and went on on the Holland class destroyers.

Meanwhile, relations with its colonies for the Batavian kingdom changed dramatically, with the Republic of Indonesia being established just two days after the Japanese surrender. By this, colonial authority vanished and after four years of bitter fighting, this was the turn of Indonesia.
Part of the Dutch Navy stationed in Netherlands New Guinea was even turned over to the Indonesian government in 1962. Newt, followed a campaign of infiltrations by Indonesian Forces supported by Soviet armaments, repulsed by the Dutch navy. Infiltrations ordered by President Sukarno to join these territories to Indonesia.

HTMS De Zeven Provincien and USS Essex in 1967
HTMS De Zeven Provincien and USS Essex in 1967


Althought there was no obligations for the Netherlands by joining NATO to drop their colonial possessions, but colonial wars became a burden. An active member from 1949 as well as in the early EU through treaties, the Dutch Navy received a reorientation towards ASW warfare in particular inside NATO. The navy was given two areas of responsibility, through the blue water navy east Atlantic command (possible with an aircraft carrier, two cruisers and several modern destroyers), still concentrating on ASW duties within this command, and on the other side, defend the shipping lanes and harbours along the North sea coast by providing a potent hunter-killer group. The Karl Doorman was therefore modernized in this direction, modelled after the recent Essex class ASW conversions in the USN. In addition MDAP provided many minesweepers, built locally or in the US and fully funded as well as small frigates.

Piet de Jong, commanding officer of HNLMS Gelderland in 1958

By the end of the 1950s the initial naval plan was complete and older ships has been either scrapped or returned. Decision was taken to develop Den Helder as the main Dutch navy naval base with a gigantic task ahead; Repair and restore, and then expand the base drastically. A new harbour was then constructed using the mudflats east of the port to create a very large additional basin, with fingers piers on each side. The west old harbour was then closed off and filled to provide space for new buildings and installations. There, not only all the new large units of the fleet would be built, but the centralized command of the Royal Netherlands Navy was based here, with the Task group command.

The 1960s saw the golden age of cold war Royal Dutch Netherlands Navy, with a rather large blue water navy, comprising the aircraft carrier HNLMS Karel Doorman, two large light modern AA cruisers, 12 modern destroyers, eight submarines, six frigates and many minesweepers.

Smaller units were placed in local bases at Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Flushing. In the 1960s the situation changed little and the navy adopted Leander class frigates to replace ww2-vintage ex-US escort destroyers. The fleet received a new support ship, the Poolster and the Karel Doorman, badly damaged by a fire in 1968 was repaired and sold to Argentina. Instead, the navy adopted eight long range French-built Breguet Atlantique patrol aircrafts. In the 1970s the two De Zeven Provincien cruisers were sold to Peru. The "old guard" went, and the first large missile frigates entered service. A new era began.

Dutch frigate HNLMS Evertsen (F805) with NATO Maritime Group (SNMG) 1 transit in formation for a photo exercise in 2007.

The 1974 fleet plan

This year a plan was formulated, asking for 23 major surface ships in three task groups, plus a squadron of submarines (6), and MCM (mine warfare) crafts, 30 in three groups.
-The two main task forces comprised a flagship, new missile frigate (Tromp class), six standard ASW frigates, and a suport ship, to operate in the east Atlantic.
-An ASW task force headed with a single standard converted AAW frigate, and six Van Speijk class ASW frigates for the Channel command.
Also came replacement for the old Dolfijn class, replacement planned as the Zvaardvis class submarines, of a brand new generation. The two mixed MCM groups would operate off the Netherlands coast and third group in the north sea under CINCHAN command.
In 1981, the plan was modified as two frigates were sold to Greece, while on the stocks. Due to the increasing aerial threat of the Soviet Union, the new two replacements asked for were planned as AAW frigates and soon joined by the new "M" class frigates tailored for the north sea.

The Dutch Task Force in the 1960s: HtMs De Ruyter (right), Karel Doorman (center) and De Zeven Provincien (right).
The Dutch Task Force in the 1960s: HtMs De Ruyter (right), Karel Doorman (center) and De Zeven Provincien (right).

The 1984 fleet plan

This ten-year plan was a post-crisis one, somewhat less ambitious. First it was to provide replacement for the old Roodfier class frigates, and it was decided to reduce cost to stick with standard frigate programme, with a twist as the Rhein-Schelde Verolme shipbuilding company collapsed in 1983. Further orders of the standard (Kortenaer class) also were compromised in 1987. The "M" class (Karel Doorman class) were brin forward to replace the Roodfier, immediately stricken to partly finance the replacement program, with four more options to replace the Van Speijk class. Also were ordered the new Walrus class attack submarines. Also was planned a major modernization in 1988 of the the two Tromp class frigates, but replacement was planned with the newt batch of Kortenaer class frigates, more versatile. Also the initial provision of tripartite mine hunters was scaled up and a new class was to be started in 1988.

This plan was however modified in 1986, consequence of the international crisis, budget cuts calling for twenty ships, with only sixteen operational, whereas relatively recent vessels were sold: The four van Speijk, after some reserve were sold to Indonesia, and five of the new minesweepers were also placed in reserve while the Tromp modernization program was curtailed and only one was taken in hand for a more modest upgrade, and two Kortenaer class ships missed their upgrade "capability upkeep program" or the installation of CIWS. The third batch of Walrus class subs was also cancelled.

Kortenaer "standard" class frigate in the 1980s

The Dutch fleet Today

Since the end of the cold war, a white paper asked for further reductions: This was a modified version of the 1989 ten years naval plan, and this time it was decided to not modernize any ships, while the "capability upkeep program" was to be capped to six Kortenaer class standard frigates. The 1991 plan planned for 1996 a fleet reduced to two task groups, each led by an ageing Tromp class frigate, a single AAW Hermseerck class frigate, four "M" class (Karel Doorman), three standard class (Kortenaer), three subs and a fast support vessel. The third "reserve" task force mobilized in case of war comprised four mothballed standard frigates, to be stricken in 2000. Six of the Alkmaar class minehunter was maintained in service.

However soon, political changes further drastically reduced these figures. The Kortenaer class were disposed of prematurely, three sold to Greece and the others disposed of form more sales from 1996. In 1994 a new white paper called for a new peacetime structure compatible with NATO new requirements. It was calculated that the navy still needed no less than twelve operational frigates to maintain deployments for the NATO standing forces, channel and north sea commands, and east indies.

Command Structure

Naval squadron

This is the main bod of the fleet, comprising all surface combatants, including the replenishment and support ships, notably for the amphibious forces. As of today, the RNN holds the NATO post of COMBENECHAN, one of the three senior positions in the Channel command, and the structure of postwar era was based on four maritime regions, Ijmond (HQ Amsterdam), Rijmond (HQ Rotterdam), Texel (HQ Den Helder NB), and Schelded (HQ Vlissingen). The West Indies HQ is Curaçao.

Other units:

Mine Detection and Clearing Service: This force comprised minesweepers and minehunters, command, support and training.
Hydrographic Survey
Naval aviation: Two helicopter squadrons
Netherlands Marine Corps:
-Marine Training Command, former Groep Operationele Eenheden Mariniers
-Two Operational Marine Combat Groups (1 MCG AND 2 MCG)
-One Maritime Special Operations Force (NLMARSOF)
-One Surface Assault and Training Group (SATG)
-One Seabased Support Group (SSG)
-One rifle company (32 Raiding Squadron.), Aruba

Netherlands & Dutch Caribbean Coastguard
Placed under thre navy operational control.

Royal Netherlands Navy Submarine Service

HNLMS O 24 moored alongside two other OZD submarines in 1949

The Royal Netherlands Navy Submarine Service (Onderzeedienst abbreviated as OZD) is a department responsible for the deployment of Dutch submarines established outside the Torpedo Service on 21 December 1906, merged with the Mine Service on 15 July 2005. In 1905 it saw its first commissioned submersible, HNLMS O 1. The service is in charge of the equipment, supply and training. During WW2, the RNN operated about fifteen submarines, many taking part in hunting missions in the pacific, atlantic and mediterranean. During the cold war it was rebuilt with leased British and American submarines, before launching new construction programs.

Netherlands Maritime Special Operations Forces (2013)

The Netherlands Maritime Special Operations Forces is abbreviated NLMARSOF, or MARSOF. This is the special forces unit of the Marine Corps, one of the three principal units used for special operations with Korps Commandotroepen and Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten, Royal Marechaussee, a kind of Gendarmerie elite. One of its tasks includes counter-terrorism overseas and at home, carried by sea. It was created in 2013 with the fusion o the Unit Interventie Mariniers (UIM) and Maritime Special Operations company.

Netherlands Navy Air arm

Royal Netherlands Navy NH-90 NFH at De Kooy Naval Air Station

As of today, the RNN operates:
-13 LRMP (Long Range Marine Patrol) Atlantique-2 twin turboprop aircraft
-20 NH90, including 12 NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH), 8 transport (TNFH) for the Marine Corps Air Lift Helicopter Squadron. As planned in 1974 program, 36 helicopters were operated.
In 2012 an Apache attack helicopter was tested by the Royal Netherlands Air Force for deck landings on the assault ship HNLMS Rotterdam while upgrade to the AH-64E standard was envisioned. HNLMS Johan de Witt and HNLMS Karel Doorman ar also capable of carryong and operate the CH-47F Chinook, upgraded currently to the CH-47F standard.

Composition of the fleet today

De Zeven Provinciën class Frigates (2002)

Four ships, built 1998-2005 and used for anti-air warfare with BMD capability, ASW and with extensive command & communication facilities. The De Zeven Provinciën, Tromp, De Ruyter and Evertsen carried an NH90 helicopter and hangar, an Oto Melara 127 mm/54 dual-purpose gun, several Browning M2 12.7mm machine guns and FN MAG 7.62mm machine guns, a twin Goalkeeper CIWS and missile bays with 40-cell Mk.41, 32 × SM-2 IIIA SAM, 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow SAM, and two quadruple containers with Harpoon SSNs plus two MK32 Mod 9 TTs (Raytheon MK46 Mod 5), to replace part of the Kortenaer class ships.

Karel Doorman class (1993)

The last of the new eight standard serie initially planned were subsequently sold to the Belgian, Portuguese and Chilean navies. These M-Class frigates received extensive upgrades and are planned for replacement in 2028-29. See later, in the cold war section for more ample details.

Holland class PVs (2010)

Four Offshore patrol vessel, corvette size, built in 2008-2013, named Holland, Zeeland, Friesland and Groningen. These OPVs have helicopter decks, hangar for a single NH-90 or medium size helicopter, drone, and is a gunboat armed with 1 × 76 mm Oto Melara Super Rapid, 2 × 30 mm Oto Melara Marlin WS, and two 12.7 mm Oto Melara Hitrole NT and six 7.62 mm FN MAG machine gun. They had been used in anti-piracy missions.

Walrus class SSAs (1994)

The Navy only maintains four Walrus class conventional attack submarines. These are Multi-purpose diesel-electric powered hunter-killer submarines for deep ocean missions and coastal areas, also able to operate special forces. Modernized 2015–2019, replacement scheduled FY2027.

Misc. Ships

Alkmaar class (1989)

Six minehunter are maintained in service - initially 15 (see the cold war section for more). Replacement FY 2027.

Soemba/Cerberus class (1989-92)

Five multi-purpose Diving support vessel and harbour protection vessels.

Snellius class (2004)

Two modern multi-purpose Hydrographic survey vessels

Mercuur class (1987)

Single Submarine support vessel & MCM command upgraded in 2017.

The RN Marine Corps:

HNLMS Rotterdam amphibious transport dock (1994)

Colaboratively built with Spain, the 16,000 tonnes, 145 x 16 m amphibious transport dock (APD) was launched in 1997 and completed in 1998. She is capable of carrying 600 troops in addition to an air group personnel of 127 and base crew of 133. The fully equipped batallion of Marine can be landed by four LCU/LCM or six LCVPs. The 720 m2 dock is topped by a hangar containing up to 170 armoured personal carriers or thirty Leopard main battle tanks (which had been retired and placed in reserve since). The hangar above contains up to four EH-101 or six NH-90, and the rear section has a two-spot deck and single lift. The ship also has a 100-bed hospital to be deployed in humanitarian missions (which it did).

Other ships

Pelikaan class (2006) Single Multi-purpose logistic support vessel for the amphibious forces stationed in the Caribbean.
LCU/LCM and LCVPs landing crafts.

Vehicle force

It comprised nowadays mostly light to medium wheeled vehicles, but no Leopard MBT.
-156 BV206S APC (Mid-Life Update ) - tracked articulated vehicles.
-74 BVS10 APC, same, made by BAE
-20 Bushmaster MRAP
-4 Leopard BARV (beach armored recovery vehicles)
The Marine troops could also be carried and supported by a part of the 1275 Iveco LMV-2 AFVs, ordered by the army, likely to replace the 100+ Land Rover Defender, 40 Iveco Daily ANACONDA in the Caribbean, 40 Mercedes-Benz 280 CDI, and about 200-300 Unimog 1.2-ton and DAF & Scania trucks.
Some of these vehicles are towing either the L16A2 81 mm mortar orM6 C-640 – 60 mm commando mortar.

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Cold war Dutch Capital ships

Karel Doorman aircraft carrier (acquired 1948)

Karel Doorman Launching Sea Fury

The HMS Venerable was one of the last light fleet aircraft carriers to be operational in time for WWI, as she entered service in January 1945. In 1947, like many other Royal Navy carriers she was considered surplus and in the context of post-war budget cuts, she was mothballed. Like many other carriers of her class and those close to it, she was proposed on sale by the British Government at very affordable price (contrary to the USN which kept its own in reserve). This allowed many naval forces to get their first carrier, and the Netherlands were no exception. She met the 1950 naval plan and was purchased on the first of April 1948. She was renamed like the former escort carrier she replaced, Karel Doorman, the WW2 admiral which commanded the allied naval forces in 1942 and perished at the battle of Java.
The carrier also started with a crew experienced already onboard the carrier of the same name, plus personal which served on the Nairana, Colossus and Gadila. The Nairana served as Karel Doorman indeed, loaned from 1946 to 1948.

Dutch Sea Fury at the former AFB Soesterberg.

For practical reasons, the aircraft park consisted in Sea Fury FB 11 and Firefly ASW aircraft purchased at the same time. In addition 23 Sea Fury FB 15 were later built under licence in the Netherlands. In the 1953-54 a deep survey of the ship was done to decide its fate, either scrap it or modernized it. The latter was chosen after a report was done on the excellent state of the ship, hull integrity and excellent conditions of the machinery and equipments. The modernization program was a massive undertaking destined to modify the hull and flight deck in order to operate jets. The yard chosen, Wilton-Fijenoord worked on blueprints from similar conversions done in the UK. The refit lasted from 1955 to 1958. She emerged with an enlarged (165.50 m long), much reinforced and angled deck, and steam catapult to port forward, new mirror landing sight, allowing simultaneous recovery and launch of heavier jets. An arrester gear fitted as well, and new tanks for jet gasoline. The internal arrangements were completely revised and overhauled as well.

karel doorman at port, prow

The electronics suite was also considerably modernized, entirely home-built, with a derrick style lattice four legs mast and taller funnel, with a LW-02 air surface search antenna, LW-01 long range surveillance radar and DA-01 combined air/sea search radar, VI-01 nodding height finder, new sensors and ZW-01 navigation radar above the bridge. The AA was also modernized, with 12 single 40 mm Bofors mountings, on each quadrant and either end of the island. The port forward pair was later removed to clear the end of the angled deck. Her air group changed for a squadron of Sea Hawk FGA 6 fighters and a squadron of TBM-3 Avenger, soon in the early 1960s, replaced by eight S2F-1 Tracker ASW planes and six HSS-IN Seabat helicopters. She was indeed refitted accordingly to the last naval plan, to be the center of an ASW hutner-killer group.

In 1965-66, the Karel Doorman was reboilered while in drydock, with units from the uncompleted carrier Leviathan, of the same class. However on 29 April 1968 a fierce boiler fire ravaged the interior. She was repaired but at that time, priorities had changed, and the next year she was sold to Argentina, after receiving more modern electronics and receiving the turbines of HMS Leviathan as well, becoming ARA Veinticinco de Mayo, which illustrated in the Falklands. She was discarded and decommissioned in 1997, quite a carrer.

HrMs Karel Doorman as whe was after reconstruction in 1965
HrMs Karel Doorman as whe was after reconstruction in 1965
Specifications (1958)
Dimensions: 211.3 x 24.4 (37 deck after rebuilding) x 7.6 m
Displacement: 15.892 tonnes standard, 18,986 tonnes FL
Powerplant: 2 shafts Parsons geared steam turbines, 4 boilers, 40,000 shp, 23.5 knots 12,000 nm range
Armament: 12 x 40mm AA
Electronics: Radars LW-01, LW-02, DA-01, Guiding VI-01, ZW-01
Air group: 21 aicraft (see notes)

De Ruyter class cruisers (1953)


The very interesting cruisers were one of many projects to bolster the Dutch East Indies Squadron, facing the Japanese Fleet. Tne other project was a battlecruiser, which never came to fruition. But two large light cruisers were also planned, to replace the 1920s HTMS Java and Sumatra. These the De Ryuter class cruisers, a radically enlarged version of the prewar HTMS De Ruyter. Both were started at Wilton-Fijenoord (De Zeven Provincien) and Rotterdam (Eendraght), laid down in September and May. However, little work has been done when the invasion began on May, 10, 1940. They could not be launch and therefore evacuated and both were captured as they were by the Germans. The German Navy supervised the pre-launch completion of the hull by orderding an "atlantic bow", with more flare and raked. Later, as work progressed very slowly plans has been to launch her to block the Port entrance of Rotterdam but it never happened. Her sister ship remained on slip, with too little work for any hope of launch completion by the end of 1944. The Germans deided to removed all equipments to prevent their completion as the allies advanced and wrecked the yards.

As the war ended in Europe, the allied and new Dutch government assessed what could be done, there has been indeed plans to mobilize ships to be sent in the Pacific. Launch and Completion was postponed until 1947 but it was agreed the design was completely obsolete. New plans were established by the british, putting the emphasis on AA in the idea of using them as task force escorts. The original eight 6-in (152 mm) guns were kept but fitted with a new high elevation mount of 60°. They were partly manufactured at Wilton-Fijenoord, under licence by Bofors. They were fully automated, allowing 15 rpm and radar-guided. The secondary battlery was also brand new and comprised four twin Bofors 57 mm/70 AA guns, in tri-axial stablized mounts, also radar-guided, and eight single Bofors 40 mm/40. There was also a 103 mm flare launcher. The powerplant was completely revised, from separated rooms with three boilers rooms and three turbines, to a more united system with two De Schelde/parsons geared steam turbines four boilers 85,0000 shp for a top speed of 32 knots. The internal layout was also completely revised, in the arrangement of magazines and hoists and boiler trunking.

In the end they were fitted with two tall funnels instead of the original one, and tall tripod lattice masts supporting the radars -locally designed and built- in which the funnels were embedded, a bit like French "macks". The bridge was also considerably enlarged to integrated general C&C, ASW task group command and admiralty facilities. To reduced topweight (1,000 tonnes more than originally planned), welding and aluminium were used everywhere possible. Of course of armour of fany sort was used. Also the electric generators (much more powerful by the way) were spread to avoid a single hit disability, a war lesson, and using AC current instead of DC. The dispersal of living quarters, and latest damage-control techniques were also integrated, drawn from war lessons also. Air conditioning and ventilation was also considerably improved. The ships after all were still planned to serve in the west an east indies.

This was pretty constistent but still "light" for nearly 190 m long ships, displacing 11,850 tonnes fully laden, which were launched respectively in December 1944 and Kijkduin (ex-Eendracht) in August 1950. Compelted in December 1953, De Ruyter was renamed, ex De Zeven Provincien. In December De Zeven Provincien followed (ex-Kijkduin). The ships underwent considerable changes during their career. To ensure their service globally both ships were tested in the arctic and equator. In the 1960 it was envisioned to convert both ships with Terrier missile for north atlantic service. Budget cuts and life expectancy however limited this conversion to De Zeven Provincien only. The plating of the main deck to the forecastle deck because of the extra depht needed to installed the missile magazine ring. All aft 6-in, 57 mm and 40 mm guns were removed and the superstructure completely modified. The terrier Mark 10 SAM system (long range) comprised 40 missiles in a barillet and a new mainmast was erected with the 3D SPS-39 radar and guiding system placed well behind the aft funnel, on which was placed the LW-01 radar. Thos was completed by a SW-01 unit and an M25 and M45 sets, plus two SPG-55 for each of the Terrier missiles.

De Ruyter carrying the royal family at St. Annabaai.
De Ruyter carrying the royal family at St. Annabaai.

In 1971-72, the last modification, the obsolete VI-01 was removed and DA-01 added relocated in place in its place toreduced topweight. The SPS-39 scanned was also replaced by an SP/SPA-72 planar antenna and the Corvus chaff system added abreast the bridge. These cruisers served as quadron flagships throughout their career, until replaced by the Tromp class guided missile destroyers. In 1973, De Ruyter, still in its original conventional configuration was sold to Peru, and became Almirante Grau. Her sister-ship was also sold in 1976 and became Aguirre in Peruvian service. They were decommissioned in 1999 and 2017 respectively, quite a remarkable service for ships designed in 1937.

blueprint and evolution of De Ruyter class - Conway's, from navypedia


Dimensions: 182.4/187.3 (185.7) x 17.3 x 6.7 m
Displacement: 9,529 tonnes standard, 11,850 tonnes FL
Powerplant: 2 shafts De Schelde-Parsons geared stem turbines, 4 boilers, 85,000 shp, 32 knots.
Armament: 4x2 152 mm DP (6-in), 4x2 57 mm AA, 8x 40 mm AA, see notes
Electronics: Radars LW-01, DA-01, VI-01, M25 and M45 (guidance), see notes.

Cold war Dutch Destroyers

Banckert class (Transferred 1945)

HtMs Banckert, Evertsen, Van Galen, Piet Hein, Tjerk Hiddes, Kortenaer, Marnix
HrMs Evertsen off Yokosuka in 1951

By simplification these different destroyers are studied here in one go, based on their origin: They were all British WW2 destroyers, built in 1941-43, of the Q, N and S class, 1760-1796 tonnes. The first, Tjerk Hiddes and Van Galen were transferred in 1942 for the Free Netherlands navy, and served with distinction, but the other four were transferred in 1945, the last, Marnix, in 1947. They were the ex-Quillian, courge, Serapis, Sentinel, and Noble, Nonpareil and Garland (ex-Polish) for HtMs Marnix. She was rebuilt as a training ship the next year and stricken in 1964. No changes for all but three, Evertsen, Kortenaer and Piet Hein, overhauled at Rijskswerk Willemsoord from 1957, and classed as fast ASW frigates. They showed in particular a flying pad over the torpede banks for an helicopter.

After reconstruction, they had four 120/45 QF Mk IX, a twin 40/56 Bofors Mk VIII/IX, four twin 20/70 Oerlikon Mk IV, two quadruple 533 TT four DCT and four 2 DCR (70 - 130 DC) and for electronics carried a radar type 275, type 277P, type 283, type 291M, and a type 144 or type 146B sonar. They were stricken from 1957 (Banckert) to 1964 (Marnix) but Tjerk Hiddes was resold to Indonesia in 1951.

Van Amstel class (DE, transferred 1950-51)

Van Amstel, De Bitter, Van Ejwick, Dubois, De Zeeuw, Van Zjill.
These were Six WW2 ex-Cannon class (DET type) escort destroyers purchased on MDAP funds on 1950. The first four that year and the others in 1951. They kept their unique torpedo tubes bank for some time but it was removed as most of the AA guns, 20 mm Oerlikon. Their main advantage for ASW warfare was their ASWRL hedgehog, four depht charge throwers and racks. They served until 1967 and were returned to the USA for scrapping. All but the first has been built by Federal, Kearny NyD.

Holland class (1953)

Holland, Zeeland, Noord Brabant, Gelderland.

HTMS Holland off Chatham

These four destroyers still had some superficial classic WW2 DD looks but they were the first in Europe planned and completed without any torpedo tubes. They had been indeed designed in 1947 as pure ASW destroyers. They were to protect a task force agai,st submarines all around, while the De Ruyter clas cruisers provided AA cover (as the carrier's air group). This was their hunter-killer group duty, but they were also intended to carry out missions singly. To defend the fleet against light surface forces showever they still had four Bofors QF 120 mm guns, in dual automated turrets.
They elevated to 85° and were capable of 45 rpm, radar-guided. AA was reduced to a single 40 mm and originally five 57 mm guns, but the core of their capabilities were represented by two quadruple 324 mm ASWRL at the front, several ASW mortars and the British squid system were also planned, but ultimately only the Bofors 375 mm Rocket Launchers were considered, installed on a raised platform behing the forward turret.

When the design was accepted, they were ordered in 1948 at Rotterdam DD (the first), Royal Schelde (the next two) and Wilton-Fijenoord (the last one), laid down in 1950-51, launched in April 1953, June, November and September respectively. They were completed in December 1954 (Holland), March, June and August 1955 for the other three. Delays in the early phase were caused by the state of Dutch infrastructures in 1950. To speed up completion they used equipments from the uncompleted wartime Isaac Swers class DDs, now mothballed. The class originally comprised twelve destroyers, the other group was modified and became a separate class (see below).

HtMs Gelderland aft section, Rotterdam

HtMs Noord Brabant at Vlissingen, showing her aft section

Powerplant-wise, they had been fitted with the Swers class engines which were smaller, so their performances remained modest, but good, at 32 knots. On trials, they proved able to even reach 40 knots, a testiment to their hull lines, but with the "cheating" of having no equipment present yet. There was some armour protection on the vitals but they were structurally part of the hull, made with high-tensile A52 steel weherver possible fornthe structure and armor plating, and aluminium everywhere else. A great attention was paid to watertight subdivision also. Electric welding was also used for construction, quite extensively, also to save weight. The adoption of the funnel embedded in the lattic mast was the result of wind tunnel tests. The configuration was adopted for many other designs. The aft mast however was placed behind the aft funnel, closer to the aft turret, which rested on the rear deckhouse. When completed, no home-built radar was ready yet.

They were fitted aft with a pole mast, later replaced by a lattice when electronics was installed in 1957-58. This consisted in the ZW-01, M45 radars, and the type 170B and type 162 sonars. So basically the ships operated "blind" for three-four years. The topweight of the electronics made for a drastic choice: The 57 mm mounts were removed and only a single 40 mm Bofors left. There was a proposal to removed their aft turret and convert them to missile, but this never happen. They were disposed of in the 1970s: Holland was sold to Peru in 1978, Zeeland scrapped in 1979, Noord Brabant in 1974 after a collision, and Gelderland in 1973. The latter had its twin turret removed and resued on the new Tromp class missile Frigates.

Profile rendition (navypedia)
Profile rendition (navypedia)


Dimensions: 109.9/113.2 x 11.4 x 5.1 m
Displacement: 2215 standard, 2765 FL
Powerplant: 2 shafts Werkspoor-Parsons geared turbines, 4 boilers 45,000 shp, 32 knots
Armament: 2x2 120 mm/50 Bofors DP, single 40/70 Bofors SP48, 2x4 375 Bofors ASWRL, 2 DCR
Electronics: ZW-01, M45 radars, type 170B, type 162 sonars

Friesland class (1953)

Friesland, Groningen, Limburg, Overjissel, Drenthe, Utrecht, Rotterdam, Amsterdam

HtMs Friesland in the 1960s

The second group was virtually a repeat of the Holland class. They were laid down in 1951 to 1955, launched 1953-56 and completed in 1956-58. The main difference was their custom-built powerplant, allowing 60,000 shp and a top speed of 36 knots (42.8 on trials). The powerplant was identical to the Grearing class cruisers, and they were subsequently deeper and wider, also heavier. Their AA was therefore improved, with six single 40 mm Bofors but the rest of the armament was identical to the Holland class, as much of the construction details. The aft structure was modified and lattice masts installed from the beginning.

In 1960, HtMs Utrecht was experimentally fitted back with two quadruple 324 mm ASW TT banks, and Overjissel the next year, but they were ultimately removed as new developments in ASW made them obsolete. The two forward Bofors 40 mm AA guns were removed in the mid-1960s and the AA fire control radar in 1977-78. British sonars were replaced by home made CWE-610 models, same as on the Tromp class Frigates. These destroyers really made the backbone of the Dutch ASW hunter-killer groups well-valued inside NATO. They were all but Friesland (scrapped 1979), sold to Peru in 1980-81 and replaced by the new standard (Kortenaer) class Frigates.

HtMs Amsterdam, D-819 in 1958.

Profile of the class - Navypedia
Profile of the class - Navypedia


Dimensions: 112.8/116 m x 11.7 m x 5.2 m.
Displacement: 2497 tonnes standard, 3070 tonnes FL
Powerplant: 2 shafts Werkspoor Geared steam turbines, 4 boilers, 60,000 shp 36 knots - Range 4000 nm/18kts
Armament: As Holland but six 40 mm/70 Bofors AA
Electronics: LW-02, DA-01, ZW-01, M45 radars, type 170B, type 162 sonars

Cold war Dutch Frigates

The concept of destroyer was superseded by ASW Frigates due to the context of NATO's focus on the Soviet submarine threat in the 1950s. Therefore, it became soon apparent that the Dutch Navy soon will have a part to play in it, between the north sea and north atlantic. Its destroyers were kept as escorts for its aircraft carriers, complementary to cruisers, but along NATO's priority, the Dutch Netherlands Navy will soon have to play its part in combined ASW operations. Just after the war, there was no design available suited for the task, so the obvious choice was to provide the navy with US aid (MDAP funds), giving birth to the 1st generation of Dutch ASW Frigates, retired in the 1960s: The Van Amstel and Roodfier class. They were all classed as Frigates under NATO pennants F806-811. But of course the game changer was the first Dutch-built Frigates, the Van Speijk class. At the time, nearby Great Britain, always a strong influence, was though after, as a Dutch adaptation of the 1960 Leander class design.

After twenty years of loyal service they were resold to Indonesia. Because in development in the 1960s were a much ambitious endavour: The replacement of the De Ruyter class cruisers with missile frigates: The Tromp class. Also in the 1970s were planned a new generation of cheaper vessels, the Kortenaer class 12 large vessels built over eight years (1975-83), representing the best of European ASW Frigate tech within NATO, also replacement for the old 1950s destroyers. They are still mostly in service, although the 1980s saw the construction of two more ambitious, larger vessels, the Van Hermskerck class, and eventually the 1990s Karel Dorman class, scheduled to replace the Kortenaer (mostly resold to Belgium and Portugal). As we speak in 2021, the current Anti-Submarine Warfare Frigate program started in 2013 is about to be concluded by the construction of the first ship in 2023. Specs were just precised by the Dutch MoD in 2020.

Van Amstel class (1950)

Van Amstel, De Bitter, Van Ewjick, Dubois, De Zeeuw, Van Zilj
The first Dutch ASW Frigates were six long-range (mid-atlantic) stock DET type (Cannon class) destroyer escorts of 1942-43 purchased for the first four in June 1950, and May 1951 for the last two. Most has been built at Federal, Newark NyD. Their armament was kept intact, but with some minor changes, notably between De Bitter & Van Amstel and the rest. However all other specs were identical to the US ships.
Armament: 3x3-in guns (76 mm) DP, 3x2 40 mm AA, 8-10x 20 mm AA, 1 Hedgehog ASWRL, 4 DCT, 2 DCR, triple 21-in TTs (none on Van Amstel and De Bitter). These TTs were later removed, as seemingly obsolete to deal with the new generation submarines. Also in 1959-61, most of the 20 mm were also removed, also judge obsolete to deal with jets. In December 1967, they were all returned to the USA and scrapped on arrival.

Conway Profile of De Zeeuw in 1966

Roofdier class (1954)

Wolf, Fret, Hermelijn, Vos, Panther, Jaguar
Also provided under MDAP funds to the Dutch Navy, these six vessels (pennants F817-822) were coastal ASW escorts, designed for the slow convoys in the channel and north sea. There was a single squadron of 800 tonnes vessels buuilt in the US (Avondal and General SB) between 1952 and 1954, similar to the Agile class multipurpose vessels of 1944 (originally designed as minesweepers/escorts). Although much larger than the ww2 flower class they retained their WW2-pattern armament and detection systems but did much more service than the Van Amstel class due to their peacetime tasks, notably fishery protection, well helped by their long range (General Motors diesel engines). They were sold indeed between 1985 and 1988, which, combined with the fact they were built in the early 1950s (Commissioned March-December 1954). Like the Amstel above, they diverged in armament, Panther and Jaguar having four single Bofors instead of six, compensated for four DCT instead of two on the other four vessels. Their 20 mm AA were retired in the early 1970s. It seems thir modernization was limited to electronics, notably the navigation radar. See also,, NL FFs List

Conway Profile of Vos in 1970


Dimensions: 54.9/56.2 m x 10 m x 2.9 m.
Displacement: 808 tonnes standard, 975 tonnes FL
Powerplant: 2 shafts GM 12-567 ATL diesels 1,600 bhp, 15 knots - Range 4,300 nm/10kts
Armament: 1x 3 in, 4-6x 40 mm AA, 8x 20 mm AA, 1 Hedgehog, 2 DCT, Sonar QCU-2
Crew: 96

HNLMS Lynx (1954)

HNLMS Lynx (F 823) Source:

As far as Dutch Frigates are concerned, this ship was a curios standoff design. She was built in the Venice-based Italian naval yard, Cantiere Navale Breda Marghera (Now Fincantieri). She was entirely funded by MDAP. Laid down in July 1953, she was launched in July 1954 and completed in October 1956. HLMNS Lynx was in fact an attempt to test the Albatros design in the north sea, something already done with the closely related Danish Triton class Frigate. So this vessel spent only five years in service with the Royal Dutch Netherlands Navy, before being sent back to the Marina Militare when she was recommissioned in October 1961, as "Aquila". There, she was reclassified as a Corvette, like the Albatros class and served until the late 1980s.


Dimensions: 126.4/134.8 m x 14.6 m x 4.5 m.
Displacement: 4,400 tonnes standard
Powerplant: 2 shafts CODOG 2x WR-21 GT, 2 diesels 28-30 knots - Range 5,000 nm/18kts
Armament: 2x 3 in, 2x 40 mm AA, 2 Hedgehog ASWRL, 2 DCT, Sonar QCU-2
Crew: 109

Van Speijk class (1965)

HNLMS Isaac Swers circa 1969 (L&L Van Ginderen via Conways)

Van Speijk, Van Galen, Tjerk Hiddes, Van Nes, Isaac Sweers, Evertsen
When the admiralty decided to start its domestic naval construction program in 1960, to gain time it was decided to take an existing design to spare R&D time and money, and rather adapt the model chosen to Dutch electronics of the time. Basically, soon the Dutch commission turned to the latest kid on the block, the Leander class ASW Frigates (1961) the largest, best and last avatar of the long lineage started with the Type 12 (Rothesay class). The British design was also intended to fill the proper role awaited by NATO for the Dutch Navy in ASW patrols. They also became the first missile Frigates of the Dutch Navy, provided with a better SAM capability even than the Leander class.

Thanks to the adaptation made to the Dutch design, the process was quick and the first ship authorized and laid down in October 1963 at NDSM Amsterdam. Swapping British electronics and electrical equipment to Dutch manufacturers standards took most of the redesign work. Hollandse Signaalapparaten supplied all the electronics, notably their LW-02 long-range air-surveillance radar, DA-02 medium-range air/surface search radar, M45 combined radar and optical FCS for their main guns. Slaved to the Seacat anti-aircraft missiles was the Dutch-designed HSA M44 radar/visual director for elevation and bearing. Ths Dutch system outperformed the british one so two launchers were installed intead of just one each with their own director.

The six ships were built between Amsterdam and Royal Schelded, Van Speijk launched and completed in March 1965 and February 1967 and Evertsen in june 1966 and December 1967 respectively, Isaac Swers being the last commissioned, in late 1968. The first two were ordered in 1962, the next four in 1964. They were also the first to carry an helicopter, a small Westland Wasp, and were tailored to operate with the ASW hunter-killer groups alongside the Holland and Friesland classes.

Mid-life modernization

HNLMS Evertsen (F 815) after modernization, circa 1986 (cc)

Plans were drawn for a mid-life refit and modernization in order for them to stay relevant in the 1980s. It was planned in 1974, and changes were considerable, from armaments to electronics. For example, the twin 4.5-inch turret was discarded and replaced y a single, very fast OTO Melara 76 mm gun. Also SSM capabiliy was added by placing two quadruple canisters with Harpoon anti-ship missiles (abaft of the funnel). The old Limbo ASW mortar was replaced by triple Mk 32 torpedo launchers installed abaft the hangar, and the the flight deck modified to hourse and operate the larger Westland Lynx helicopter. This was helped notably by the elmination of the variable-depth sonar. The ships benefited from the new LW-03 and DA-05 radars but above all, the automated combat management system SEWACO V appeared. The CO (Central Operation) greatly helping the captain decision making process. The power plant was modernized also and extensively automated, but did not changed overall. Automation also helped reducing the crew from 250+ to 180 allowing roomier facilities and better comfort. In 1986-89, the ships were shedeiled for replacement by the Karel Doorman class, and were resold to Indonesia, as the Ahmad Yani-class frigates. There were discussions about a new and really modern powerplant to be fitted before transfer, and it was done between 2003 and 2008, with diesel propulsion, varying in type, 2 x Caterpillar CAT DITA 3616, with Reintjes WAV 1000 P/WAF 4566 gearboxes or 2 x SEMT Pielstick 12PA6B, Renk SWUF 98 gearboxes. The Ahmad Yani class is in service today, and probably well into the 2030s.

Conway Profile of Isaac swers in 1988


Dimensions: 113.4 m x 12.5 m x 5.8 m
Displacement: 2,200 tons standard, 2,850 tons full load
Powerplant: 2 shaft geared steam turbines, 30,000 shp (22,370 kW), 28.5 knots, Range 4,500 nmi at 12 kn
Armament: 2× 4.5-in guns, 2 × Seacat SAM, ASW Limbo mortar
Electronics: LW-02, DA-02, M45, sonar Types 170B, 162
Crew: 254/180 (1980s)

Tromp class missiles frigates (1973)

HNLMS Tromp circa 1995 (cc)

HNLMS Tromp (F 801), HNLMS De Ruyter (F 802)

Certainly the most ambitious program in the Netherlands for a warship at that stage. These missile frigates had the task of replacing cruisers, those of the De Ruyter class. The idea should have seemed ludicrous 20 years ago, but missile technology went so far ahead that rather than the old "spray and prey" of conventional artillery, no longer relevant, a few missiles which accuracy was close to 100% could be carried by smaller vessels. The staff requirements made in the 1960s stipulated they should be able to protect either a stak force or a convoy against both aviation and guided weapons, with sophisticated and compherensive command and control electronic facilities, but also ASW and anti-ship capabilities. In short, they were missile destroyers in disguise and indeed were often assimilated to these in publications of the time, despite their pennant, F801 and F802. One argument was political. It was easier for the admiralty to make "swallow the pill" to the diet (parliament) if labelled like a "light ship" such as a frigate. Destroyers like cruisers, sounds old-fashioned and costly.

General design

But in the end, they were indeed small enough to be frigates at the time, when missile destroyers were closing to 8-9,000 tonnes. The end specs asked for them to lead two of the three ASW task groups created in accordance to the 1974 naval plan. They were 30% longer and larger than the previous Van Speijk, with a flush-deck, roomy, tall freeboard hull and extensive superstructures, plus new powerful radars and communications suites, making them clearly appear as leding the pack indeed. The only concession to nostalgic of the old school were their unique 120 mm twin turret straight from previous Dutch destroyer HNLMS Gelderland, retired.

They looked only tailored for classic naval combat, but both because of their elevation and automation, they could be used also as AA guns. Their missile suite was comprehensive for such small ships, with no less than three systems: Long range SAM (Standard SM-1)*, short range SAM (Sea Sparrow) and antiship with two quad canisters SSM harpoons. The ASW suite comprised 324 mm triple TTs for close range and the very capable Lynx helicopter for long range. Antimissile systems were provided with illuminators and EEW systems plus two Corvus Chaff launchers. *At the origin, the British Sea Dart was designed for integration, but latter dropped due to dimensions issues, in favor of the US Tartar/Standard instead.

The original propulsion was to be composed of steam turbines but the need to spare room for extra ammunitions and weapons sytems forced the adoption of more compact COGOG systems instead. The Olympus turbines were downgraded to improve the gas generator life and reduced maintenance. Speed, at 28 knots was still compatible with the needs of the fleet, while ensuring a range of 5,000 nm which was the norm for NATO operations in northern Europe. They were also agile, with twin-spade rudders fitted with each its own electrohydaulic steering gear. Reduction of noise was also a priority and so all machinery was resiliently mounted and silencers in uptakes and uptakes were installed. The entire achinery could be monitored from a single control room near the operation room. Ventilation and air conditioning was also installed while the ships were designed with NBC standards in mind. Both ships were built and delivered by KM de Schelde, Vlissingen, laid down in 1971, launched 1973-74 and completed 1975-76, a rather long construction tile contrasting with the previous Van Speijk class, but explained by the sophisticated systems onboard and difficut requirements based on the limited tonnage.


HNLMS Tromp in Belfast 1990s (cc)

The Dutch-designed and built SEWACO system was based on the DAISY-I computer suite and displays. In 1980, both ships, after barely five years of service, received plastic radomes fitted ove their main SPS-01 radar and in the 1980s, the RAMSES electronic system was set in place, basically an improved ECM suite. Four super SBROC chaff launchers replaced the old British Corvus. In 1988 it was panned to adopt the new SMART 3 radar suite, but these plans were shelved in 1989 with the Berlin wall falling, and then back after the gulf crisis. Since, the ships had received a Super RBOC Chaff launcher, modernized ECM and CIWS antimissile systems. In the late 1990s they were scheduled for decommission, proposed to international sales, but failed to acquire any order, because of their initial high cost. They were decommissioned in 1999 and 2001 respectively.

Conway Profile of Tromp in 1975


Dimensions: 131.4/138.2 m oa x 14.8 m x 6.6 m
Displacement: 3,665 tons standard, 4,308 tons full load
Powerplant: 2 shaft COGOG TM3B GT 44,000 shp, 2 RM1A GT 8,200 shp, 28 knots, Range 5,000 nmi at 18 kn
Armament: 2× 5-in guns, 1 SM-1 SAM, 1 Sea Sparrow SAM, 8 Harpoon SSM, 6x 324 mm ASWTTs, 1 Helicopter
Electronics: SPS-01, WM-25, SPG-51C, sonar CWE-610, Type 162
Crew: 306

Kortenaer class missiles frigates (1976)

HNLMS Kortenaer (F 807) of the kortenaer class in the 1980s (cc)

Kortenaer, Callenburgh, Van Kinsbergen, Banckert, Piet Hein, Abraham Crijnsse, Philips van Almonde, Bloys van Treslong, Jan van Brakel, Pieter Florisz.

The Kortenaer class is quite famous in late cold war Europe, as it formed a "northern standard", a new generation of specialized Anti-submarine frigates for the Royal Netherlands Navy, featuring COGOG (combined gas or gas) propulsion and and armament more specialized than the previous Tromp class. They were not boxing in the same category anyway, supposed to replaced the small Roodfier class of the 1950s. This was the largest order in Netherlands's naval history woth no less than ten ordered and built by de Schelde in Vlissingen and Wilton-Fijenoord in Schiedam.

The entire program spanned only five years, between 1978 and 1982. In reality a grand total of 12 were built, but the last two were sold to Greece while still under construction (Elli class). Soon they were replaced by the two Jacob van Heemskerck-class frigates, essentially AAW variants of the Kortenaer class. In post-cold war budget restrictions environment, three more were later sold to Greece in 1993-95 and three more, plus the last two to UAE. They are no longer active in the NL navy. Eight very similar ships were built in Germany, known as the Bremen class and leading to the standard said above.


Designed as replacement for the Holland and Friesland class destroyers, these 12 ships as planned initially, were the largest missile frigate program in continental Western Europe to that point. They were designed to be as cheap as possible, maximizing standardization, modularization, ease of maintenance and modernization, plus a common armament, shared electronics, and counting on mass construction effect over a short period. There were talked with UK to asso share a common hull, but discissions ended and the Dutch went on their way. The "standard" found in many publications however came from the fact the same ships were to be declined as ASW and AAW ships on a common basis. But it was limited to the Van Hermskerck class in 1983 (AAW version) eventually, making a 12 ship "standard". The idea of multinational frigate standards will resurface in the 2000s in a joint effort between France and Italy notably, with more success as the large Horizon-class "standard" won the competition for the future USN Frigate recently. The name "standard" also related to NATO specifications for an Ocean escort frigate, matched to the rivet.

Design of the kortenaer class

Eiht were ordered in 1974, four in 1976 with a hull form reminiscent of French construction, continuous upper and main decks, single rudder of the semi-balanced type, clipper bow with negative sheer, and good performances obtained by a better lenght/width ratio. They were shorter and 40 cm slimmer than the Tromp class, with reduced superstructures and armament, for a total displacement of 3,700 tonnes FL versus 4,300. The next AAW class was even lighter. However at the same time, the COGOG arrangement was better, with the same olympus turbines butnot down-rated, so to provided 51,600 bhp instead of 44,000 (and 30 rather than 28 kts). They were coupled with two sets of British Tyne CM1 C gas turbines providing for cruise, 9,800 shp for 20 knots. Range was a bit less however. The ASW component comprised four single 324 mm modernized TTs, and two WG-13 Lynx helicopters with a proper hangar, a single OTO Melara 76 mm gun and a 40 mm or Goalkeeper CIWS 30 mm depending of the ship (plus two Corvus - later RBOC) chaff RL) and for overall defence, a short ranhe Sea Sparrow 1x8 ramp forward and for antiship defence, eight harpoons behind the main mast. The last of the class was completed in 1983. Apart the hul sonar, all electronics systems were Dutch.

Modernization and fate

They only served a bit more than ten years, the end of the cold war making a wave of sales. The first ships had a second 76 mm OTO on the hangar roof, later replaced on all ships by a much smaller 40 mm Bofors, and later CIWS. Like the previous Tromp class, they were planned to received the SMART-3D radar, and SQL-18A towed array, but these plans were shelved. Now Greece inherited no less than eight ships of the same type, quite a potent force which makes as of today the bulk of its frigate force, together with light MEKO class vessels.

Kortenaer as completed in 1978


Dimensions: 121/130.2 m oa x 14.4 m x 6 m
Displacement: 3,000 tons standard, 3,785 tons full load
Powerplant: 2 shaft COGOG TM3B GT 51,600 shp, 2 Tyne TM1C GT 9,800 shp, 30/20 knots, Range 4,700 nmi at 16 kn
Armament: 1× 3-in gun, CIWS, 1 S.Sparrow SAM, 8 Harpoon SSM, 4x 324 mm ASWTTs, 2 Helicopter
Electronics: LW-08, WM-25, STIR-180, ZW-06, sonar SQS-505
Crew: 200

Jacob van Heemskerck class missiles frigates (1983)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (F 812) (cc)

Jacob van Heemskerck, Witte de With In the early 1970s, the Royal Netherlands Navy started to take advantage of its 'Standard' frigate, and decline an AAW or anti-aircraft version of it. Common machinery, electronics and sensors were planned, and in total, 12 ASW vessels planned to operate in the Atlantic, with a single AAW version acting as flagship for the third task group (to replace the former Van Speijk-class frigates), covering the English Channel and North Sea. In 1981, however, decision was built only two the AAW 'Standard' class as replacement, a 13th abandoned. Like the previous ships, they had a flush-decked hull, and identical COGAG machinery rated for 19,200 kilowatts (25,800 shp). Of course the main difference would be in the armament, with a SM-1 medium range Mk 13 missile launcher aft with a 40-missile magazine; instead of the aft helicopter hangar and deck.

It was complemented with an octuple launcher Mk 29 NATO Sea Sparrow for short range forward (24 missiles carried) and from the start, a single Goalkeeper CIWS mounted aft, but no forward OTO Melara 76 mm gun. However the same canisters for eight Harpoon SSMs were kept at the same place as well as four tubes for Mark 46 torpedoes. They had the same overall appearance for superstrctures but carried a Signaal LW-08 long-range air search radar, DA-05 target tracking radar, while the SM-1 SAMs were served by two STIR-240 director radars and the STIR-180 for the Sea Sparrow missiles forward. The ships were also equipped with a PHS-36 hull sonar. Laid down in 1981, they were completed in 1986. In the 1990s they received the new SMART-3 3D tracking radar indended for the Tromp class ships. Both were in service until 2005, resold to Chile. They were expected to be replaced by the new 2023 type Frigates.

Conway profile of the Hermskerck in 1989.


Dimensions: Same
Displacement: 3,000 tons standard, 3,750 tons full load
Powerplant: Same
Armament: 1 SM-1 SAM, 1 Sea Sparrow SAM, 8 Harpoon SSM, 4x 324 mm ASWTTs, 30mm CIWS
Electronics: LW-08, DA-08, 4 STIR-180/240, ZW-06, sonar PHS-36
Crew: 197

Karel Doorman class (1988)

Karel Doorman, Willem van der Zaan, Tjerk Hiddes, Van Amstel, Abraham van der Hulst, Van Nes, Van Galen, Van Speijk

In the 1970s, the Roofdier-class frigates were scheduled for replacement, leading to the study of a "small" frigate type, later evolving into the future Karel Doorman-class. The new design was finalised from the basis of the Kortenaer class in the 1970s but refined based on new requirements in 1978, revied in 1980. Called the "M-frigates" they were designed in close collaboration with De Schelde Yard R&D cell in Vlissingen, but also the design agency Nevesbu. For the first time, stealth was integrated into the design, with sloping walls and special coating. Facilities for the reduced crew, only 150, was refined, notably to intregrate more privacy for mixed personal and improved comfort.

The Karel Doorman-class were multi purpose frigates, reflected in their armament able to deal with AAW and ASW threats. They also had light armament to deal with anti-drug and piracy operations. Yhey were still armed with Harpoon and sea sparrown missiles, 324 mm TTs and RBOC Chaff launchers. HNLMS Karel Doorman was laid down in February 1985, launched in April 1988, so she belongs for her development to this cold ar section. She was hoever commissioned after the fall of the USSR, and the start of the Gulf war, in May 1991.

At some point, Dutch authorities tried but failed to negiotate foreign purchases, but they eventually obtained those in the 2000s with the Belgian, Chilean, and Portuguese navies. Despite their small size and powerful armament, they still kept a hangar with a single Westland Lynx helicopter, armed with two Mk 46 torpedoes, dipping sonar and infrared systems for night patrols.

Conway Profile of the Karel Doorman design, 1991


Dimensions: 114.4/122.3 m oa x 14.4 m x 6.1 m
Displacement: 2,800 tons standard, 3,320 tons full load
Powerplant: 2 shaft COGOG RR SM1 Spey 37,500 shp, 2 SW SWD 280 V12 diesels 8,450 shp, 30/21 knots, Range 5,000 nmi at 18 kts
Armament: 1 Sea Sparrow SAM, 8 Harpoon SSM, 1x 76mm, 4x 20mm, 1 CIWS, 4x 324 mm ASWTTs, 1 Helicopter
Electronics: LW-08, SMART, 2 STIR-180, sonar PHS-36, DSBV- 61A
Crew: 154

Future NL FF 2023

In the 1990s a "projected guided missile frigate" was in the studies. The strong point of its design is its use of the VLS Mark 41 SAM, launching the Evolved Sea Sparrow. It was completed by a panoply of eight Harpoon SSM missiles, a 127 mm gun for the first time, CIWS and 20 mm AA, individual ASW TTs and the new NH-90 helicopter. Electronics-wise it was to use the new SMART-L radar, APAR combat system and a new gen. hull mounted sonar by Thomson-sitra, using TNO-FEL ALF combination with twi 130 m flexible towed receiver arrays. As second medium to long range SAM was considered. Even the propulsion was advanced, with an intercooled recuperative gas turbines and COGOG configuration. The project was for a 4,400 tonnes vessel, but it evolved into a much heavier one: The actual De Zeven Provinciën class (2002) planned back in the early 1990s to replace Tromp and De Ruyter: Using the same name, four 6,000 tonnes ships, again destroyers in disguise were started in 1998, now at the head of the Dutch fleet: De Zeven Provinciën, Tromp, De Ruyter and Evertsen, commissioned for the latter in 2005.

Their own replacement is planned for 2025 at the earnest, and in 2020 it was announced together with the Bundesmarine, a common platform design to replace both the Sachsen-class frigates and De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates from 2030. Indeed, replacement for the M-class or "light" frigates of the Doorman class are since 2017 called Anti-Submarine Warfare Frigate (ASWF) and planned to be developed jointly with and for the Belgian navy as well. The program was started in 2013 but in 2017 it reached a new milestone as Belgium engaged to built four of these, the Dutch themeslves being committed to at least four. But all this is out of our field of study, which is the cold war.

Cold war Dutch submarines

Dolfijn class (transferred 1948)

Walrus class (transferred 1953)

Dolfjin (ii) class (1959)

Zwaardvis class (1970)

Walrus class (1985)

Cold war Dutch Corvettes and Misc.

Ternate class corvettes (transferred 1946)

MMS/BYMS class Minesweepers (transferred 1948)

Beemster class Minesweepers (transferred 1953)

'O' class Minesweepers (transferred 1966)

Dokkum class coastal minesweepers (1954)

Van Straelen class coastal minesweepers (1959)

Alkmaar class coastal minesweepers (1982)

Balder class submarine chasers (1954)

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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