Ning Hai class cruisers (1931)

Chinese Republic - Ning Hai, Ping Hai

The Last Chinese Cruisers

The Ning Hai class cruisers were the culmination of many "firsts" and "lasts": First cruisers of the feldgling Chinese Republic, first built in Japan, and last Chinese cruisers overall (although arguably the new Type 055 missile destroyers of the actual PLAN us locally called Renhai-class cruiser). The Ning Hai were in fact the only cruisers built for the Chinese Navy since the fall of the Empire in 1911, followed by a first repulic, the warlord era, and a more or less stabilized republic again, allowing to plan a modenrization of the fleet. Indeed in 1937, at the time of the start of the second Sino-Japanese war, after a quasi-war in the north since 1932, the Chinese Navy was in dire straits, with on paper a fleet of cruisers and gunboats dating back from twenty years and more.

They had received little modifications between them and were hopelessely obsolete and outmatched by the IJN. Both ships had a very short career under Chinese flag, both were sunk in the Yangtze River on 23 September 1937, by Japanese aviation. They were refloated and later repaired by the Japanese, and pressed into service in the IJN where they spent the rest of their career. Originally planned for transfer to the puppet government of Wang Jing-Wei, they were outfitted as barracks hulks and later the escort ships IJN Ioshima and Yasoshima, in 1944. Both were lost in action to USN torpedoes the same year.

Context in 1930

By 1928, Chiang Kai Chek's army overthrew the Beiyang government, unifying the entire nation at least nominally. This was the start of the so-called Nanjing Decade. So in 1930, the current government had the will to rebuilt and modernize the navy, based on the existing Beiyang fleet. However, no western yards would accept to built ships for China, not recoignising this government and rebuffed in general by political instability. Things seemed to stabilize and reforms were made by the new overnment however, but war reupted in the Central Plains in 1930, followed by the Japanese aggression in 1931, the Red Army's Long March in 1934 and Fujian Rebellion of 1933–34.

In 1929, the new Chinese Naval Ministry made a cal for tenders to international shipbuilders, notably Great Britain, USA, Germany and Japan for a tailored small light cruiser. The Japanese "Harima Zosensho" design was eventually chosen and on 5.12.1930 a contract was signed to build the lead vessel, Ning Hai, in Japan. The same contract specified Ping Hai was to be built in China with technical assistance of Japan. In August 1934, some 50 Japanese experts headed by director of "Harima" yard, went in China and overseen the construction between 30.10.1935 and 18.6.1936 of the Ping Hai, later outfitted in Japan at the same yard. It was a gamble for the Nationlist government to turn to Japan in retrospect, so soon before the aggression.

But at the time the Nationalist givermnent of China had sympathies for Japan, sharing some similar nationalist views. It was also close enough for the cruisers to be outfitted, maintained and repaired. Specifications were submitted for the light coastal cruiser were perfectly met by the proposal from Harima Dock Co., Ltd. which worked on very similar designes for the IJN, and theirs was approved with promises of a quick construction, and a hull laid down on 20 February 1931. The sister ship Ping Hai however suffered fro many issues mostly related to the difficult situation in China and was eventually completed much later. Her career was in fact particularly short. Both were not badly made cruisers and it can be suspected the Japanese already had plans either to create similar small cruisers for policing China in the future (they would not need such thing, just refloating them as seen later).


Author's rendition

Construction

The Chinese Government was in such need of these ships, the Japanese intervention in Mandchuria was not considered an issue, as long as the ship was delivered. Ning Hai was built fast, eventually launched on 10 October 1931 and completed on September 1932. When commissioned in China she gave full satisfaction. However this contract was particular as the Chinese wanted to acquire experience and asked for for her sister ship to be built locally at Kiangnan Dock and Engineering Works at the same time. Worked commenced with parts and tooling arrived from Japan, with assistance of the on 26 June 1931. Ping Hai's construction was suspended amidst the troubles in mandchuria. After a dispute resolution, construction resumed, and she was eventually launched on 28 September 1935, and on 18 June 1936. The deterioration of relations with Japan in 1933 meant technicians went back to Japan, leaving the yard with an unfinished ship. The Chinese government seeked technical helpabroad to complete the ship and eventually reached agreement with German experts, but the latter imposed some design modifications. Notably they dropped the axial shaft for simplification, retaining the two external ones only. The armament was also modified, as well as the fire control (with two telemeters placed for and aft), the masts and superstructures.

Design

The Ning Hai class were probably the smallest newly built cruisers between world wars. Perhaps the Greek Elli was at its level or even smaller, but actually built before the war. They were thought actually by the Chinese admiralty as large gunboats or sloops, with a shallow draft to keep the capability of being based and operate in the Yang Tse. They however had all the trademarks of a cruiser under international treaties: Besides a very low 2,000t displacement and more than 20kts making it superior to any gunboat, it was given no less than six 130mm main guns in three turrets, like in an average light cruiser tailored to hunt down destroyers.

Chinese cruisers were developed loosely on the basis of IJN Yubari (1923) but with significant differences in appearance, armament and protection.

Armament:

-Main: Three twin 140mm/50 "type 3" guns: They were similar to those installed on all Japanese light cruisers of the first interwar decade, with identical turrets, loading systems and mounts as seen on IJN Yubari. The turrets were however placed in a classic scheme with one forward on deck, forecastle, and two aft, one on deck level and one on the quartedeck superstructure roof aft.
-Secondary: Six single 8 cm/40 3rd Year Type naval gun (AA guns). These were assimilated to 3-in guns in western literature (76 mm). They were in tandem, a pair forward on the upper deck, two the the quartedeck behind the funnel, two in a raised superstrcuture aft.
-Tertiary: Eight 7.7mm/87 Machine guns, in individual positions.
-Torpedo armament: Two twin 533 mm (21 inches) Toprpedo tubes, Japanese 1923 pattern, placed in recesses in the forecastle at the level of the funnel amidship.
-The design also provided some facilities for two Aichi AB-3 seaplanes, including one in a covered hangar. But only one AB-3 was eventually delivered but no catapult was installed.

Powerplant

The Ning Hai class Machinery comprised four water-tube "Kampon" boilers (working at 15.5atm pressure) plus three vertical 4-cylinder VTEs. They delivered 3500 hp each. The powerplant was provided by Mitsubishi. The choice of VTEs instead of conventional, modern geared steam turbines was a Chinese request actually, due to low crew qualification. It was clearly a step back in comparison with even previous Chinese cruisers of the 1910 program. This also explained a lower speed than average. The Boilers were installed in four separated rooms to enhance ASW protection, two boilers in forward rooms, burning coal, two boilers aft burning oil. The VTE engines were also placed in two rooms. There were side-shaft engines forward and the central-shaft in the aft room. The latter was used for cruising, the two external for fast manoeuvers. On trials, Ning Hai made on 24 May 1932 22.20 knots based on 10,579 horsepower.

Armour protection


ONI sheet about the Ioshima/Ning Hai class

The first line of passive defense was 25 mm (1 in) main belt. It was only covering machinery compartments, running for about 60% of the overall lenght. It was however connected with an upper armoured deck, and went on with a second upper layer 3.35 m in height. Forward and aft there was no protection. The upper belt was limited to a 76 mm strake (3 inches), over 1.52 m in height, protecting the magazines. However its upper edge was above them and the lower edge below than the lower edge of main belt. Armour deck was flat, and over machinery the deck it was higher up, placed at the level of an upper deck, 19 mm (0.7 in) in thickness. Over the magazines there was an upper stray with 25 mm in thickness (1 inch). Turrets and the conning tower were both protected by an uniform 25 mm armour too (so in inches back, top, sides and front). This figures were quite small. Indeed, an average destroyer round at the time was at least 120 mm (4.5-in). Speed was not sufficient here to play any role. At least the armour scheme was multi-layered, allowing to break cinetic energy enough to protect the vitals against rounds up to 100 mm (3 in to 4 in).

Modifications of Ping Hai

Under German expertise, Ping Hai was modified, notably after the defects shown on trials by her sister ship in 1933, further delaying completion. Trials indeed revealed acute problems of stability, peculiar to all Japanese ships of that era. It became clear after the "Tomozuru affair" on 12.3.1934. Revisions were made on all IJN vessels, duly inspected, so the Chinese requested to made some too. During outfitting of Ping Hai, several measures were taken for stability improvements (like ballasting, better counterkeels) but they slowed her down in the process. In particular the superstructures were curtailed and the aft mast removed, the forward tripod lightened as its fire control position tower, hangar and aviation eliminated, 76 mm AA guns and 7.7 mm MGs halved, TTs removed. For the machinery, the central shaft and one boiler were removed, feering space to add lead ballast. On trials, without surprise, Ping Hai only reached 21.256 knots at 7,488hp. This was acceptable for a gunboat, not for a modern cruiser.


Conway profile of Ning Hai as completed


Schematic of the class


Author's HD dedicated illustration of the Ning Hai

Chao Ho class Specifications

Dimensions105.5 m (346 ft) Beam 13 m (43 ft) Draught 4-4.3 m (15 ft)
Displacement2,500-2,750 t (2,707 long tons)
PropulsionThree-shaft Parsons ST, 4 cyl. 4 Yarrow boilers, 6,000 hp (4,500 kW)
SpeedTop speed 20 knots (23 mph; 37 km/h)
Range4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 10 kn (12 mph; 19 km/h)
Armament2x 6-in/50, 4x 3 in/50, 2x 3 in, 6x 3-pdr, 2× 1pdr, 2× 18 in TTs aw
ArmorDeck: 19-51 in, CT 3 in (7.6 cm)
Crew331

Src/Read More

Brown, David (1990). Warship Losses of World War Two. Annapolis
Cressman, Robert (2005). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis
Dull, Paul S. (1978). A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Annapolis
Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Annapolis
Lacroix, Eric & Wells II, Linton (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. Annapolis
Tamura, Toshio (1984). "The Chinese Light Cruisers Ning Hai and Ping Hai (1930–1936)". Warship International
Whitley, M.J. (1995). Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis
About the general situation in China in the 1930s
On navypedia
Ioshima class on navypedia
On alchetron.com
Model kit
wiki

Ning Hai in service

In Chinese service 1932-37


Ning Hai 1932


Ning Hai 1931

Ning Hai was laid down at Harima Shipyards in Aioi, Hyogo, Japan on 20 February 1931. She was launched on 10 October 1931, completed 30 July 1932, commissioned on 1 September 1932. She immediately became flagship of the Republic of China Navy (ROCN) until her sister ship Ping Hai was commissioned in turn in April 1937. She was back in Japan in May 1933 for maintenance, fixes and repairs, and again in June 1934, but this time to assist and represent China at the funeral of Japanese Fleet Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, making afterwards another drydock maintenance before her return to China.

Following the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War she became a target of the Imperial Japanese Navy. She was not present at the Battle of Shanghai, but on 23 September, a Japanese assault on Kiangyin Fortress saw her involved. At the time ths fortress was guarding a segment of Yangtze River, near Nanking. Ning Hai came under attack by bombers, taking four bomb hits. Her nearby sister ship Ping Hai was also hit, but even more severely with eight bombs, and sunk almost immediately (see later).

Ning Hai was crippled but her macinery still was operable and she managed to escape at low speed. But on 25 September, a group of Yokosuka B3Y1 torpedo bombers spotted and attacked her. They scored two direct hits, sinking her in the shallow waters of the Yangtse. IJN Kaga's pilots shared her loss with those from detached airfields around Shanghai. The Imperial Japanese Navy however still valued a ship buuilt in their own yard, and captured her eventually on 5 December 1937, starting work on a salvage operation.


Ping Hai


Ping Hai launch ceremony 28 Sept. 1935


Ping Hai in 1936


Ping Hai damaged in 1938

In Japanese service: IJN Mikura/Ioshima 1939-44

The first attempt to re-float Ning Hai in April, 1938 was unsuccessful, notably causing the death of two salvage divers. Another was made on 8 May, successful this time. The refloated hulk was towed to Shanghai for basic repairs, peding her return to Japan. Originally thz admiralty planned her to be transferred to the puttet navy of the Nanjing Nationalist Government as flagship. However they changed their mind and wated her to be towed to Sasebo for other uses. On 11 July, she was re-classified as training vessel, static, and later became the coastal defense ship Mikura. She was moored permanently at Sasebo as barracks ship from July 1938, until December 1943, her longest assignation.

By December 1943, Japanese maritime trade in the newly conquered "sphere of co-prosperity" was under attack by a vigorous USN campaign, in particular submarine warfare. IJN Mikura therefore was towed to the Harima Shipyards for a complete rebuilding. She was to be recommissioned as a "Kaibōkan" or "escort ship", in dire need. However at that stage, lack of materials and workforce had completion dragging until 1 June 1944. At last she became IJN Ioshima on 10 June. After trials she was based at the Yokosuka Naval District, trained in the Seto area and departed for her first escort mission to Iwo Jima from 22–31 July. There, she was attacked, but missed bu an unknown submarine on 26 July but filled her mission and wen home. On 10 September IJN Ioshima departed for her second (al dlast) escort:Underway she was ambushed and torpedoes by USS Shad, on 19 September. She took three hits. She rapidly capisized and sank, south of Cape Omaezaki 85 nm (157 km) from Hachijojima and was later removed the the lits on 10 November 1944.


Under Japanese flag: Design modifications

In late 1937, both sunken cruisers were inspected after capture. On 5 December 1937, both were provisionally commissioned into the IJN to be administratively refloated and repaired, the first named Mikura. In 1938 both were salvaged, helped by the low tide of the river, and after temporary repairs, they were laid up in drydock. Modifications and repairs took however two years due to shortages of materials and manpower. It's only by 1943 thet these cruisers wete reonfigured and ready for service. Decision was taken in 1941 already to use them as escort flagships, coordinating other smaller vessels like destroyers and sub-hunters. Their armament was completely modified. Their boilers were all converted to oil-firing on Ning Hai while Ping Hai gtot brand new ones (the original were too damaged). Ning Hai was completed in December 1943, Ping Hai in January 1944.

On 1 June 1944, shortly before commission, the lead ship became IJN loshima (ex-Ning Hai) and her sister ship Yasoshima (ex-Ping Hai). They carried two new twin dual-purpose 120mm/45 guns and five triple 25mm AA guns. ASW armament included 2 depht charge throwers and 2 depht charge racks. On September, 25th, 1944, IJN Yasoshima gained the new classification of 2nd class cruiser. Her sister ship received in addition eight single 13.2mm/76 type 3 heavy AA machine guns.

Ping Hai in service (1937)

Ping Hai, freshly commissioned, served as the flagship of the Republic of China Navy (ROCN) for a very short time: Her career started in April 1937, as one of the most powerful surface combatants within the ROCN (Republic of China Navy). However by the end of the year, Shanghao was attacked and Ping Hai was in turn attacked by Imperial Japanese Navy air groups while serviing with her sister off the fortress of Kiangyin. On 23 September, Ping Hai was struck by no less than eight bombs from Kaga and Shanghai airfields. Damage was such that she blew up and sank rapidly in shallow waters, with few survivors. In comparison, Ning Hai managed to sail away (only for a short while).

IJN Mishima/Yasoshima 1938-44




Re-floated in 1938 she was towed to Shanghai to be repaired enough to be towed to Japan. The admiralty at first wanted to have her transferred to the Collaborationist Wang Jing-Wei puppet navy but she was badly needed for other missions and towed to Sasebo. There, she was repaired more exensively but stayed largely inactive as the barracks hulk Mishima, and later a coastal defense ship. Like for her sister ship, in 1943, the admiralry concluded the navy badly needed escort vessels so she was to be converted as such. Work went on at the same time as her sister-ship and she was eventally commissioned as Yasoshima on 10 June 1944. and then as an escort vessel. She received a new received radar sets and standard Japanese dual-purpose artillery plus standard AA 25 mm guns, as well as depht charges.

IJN Yasoshima was first sent in a combat mission as an escort, to reinforce a convoy sent on 25 September 1944. She participated henceforth in the famous, epic Battle of Leyte Gulf, escorting troop convoys. She was eventually spotted by Aircraft from the USS Ticonderoga and Langley. They fell upon her, sank her and the two merchantmen she escorted west of Luzon, on 25 November 1944.

Naval History

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GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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