King Edward VII class Battleships (1903)

United Kingdom (1902-1922)
King Edward VII, Commonwealth, Dominion, Hindustan, Britannia, New Zealand, Africa, Hibernia

The tipping point of British pre-dreadnoughts

HMS_King_Edward_VII

The eight battleships of the King Edward VII were the pinnacle of British capital ship development in their age, as the lead ship was launched in 1903. They retook the lead over innovative designs to Italy and the USA, introducing a powerful secondary battery to almost double their firepower. However this was paid with some sacrifices design-wise, and in 1914, these now obsolete vessels were seen largely as "expandable". But they were a brave leap forward, as the first British "Semi-Dreadnoughts" followed by the even more radical Lord Nelson class.

They also played their part in WWI. After all were based for years in the Mediterranean, the logical place for British pre-dreadnoughts after 1906, in WW1 they were back to the North sea and the channel, left more vulnerable since the Grand Fleet was way north, in Scapa Flow. HMS Hibernia was flagship in the Dardanelles, served alongside New Zealand. HMS Hindustan participated in the Zeebrugge and Ostend raids, King Edward VII hit a mine off Cape Wrath, but sank slowly with few losses. HMS Britannia was the second loss, torpedoed by UB 50 on November, 9, 1918, a mere three days before the armistice. They were all stricken in 1920.

Design development



Design work on the future "King Edward VII" class actually started in in 1901. The Royal Navy back then seen with interest Italy's latest battleships of the Regina Elena class but also on the other side of the pond, the US Navy's Virginia class, older, but mounting a heavy secondary battery with 8-inch (203 mm) guns on superfiring turrets.

Interested by this additional "medium-heavy" caliber, the British design staff started their own study without approval by the director of Naval Construction, William Henry White (The latter was indeed also ill at the time). They had two examples of seocndary heavy artillery in superfiring and wings turrets, and started with the known, trusted London class.

The goal was to arm them with a secondary battery, either with the 7.5 in (191 mm) or 9.2 in (234 mm) caliber. Assistant DNC, J. H. Narbeth however reported the challenge it was to provide a workable solution, in which these secondary turrets would not interfere with the main battery, and this, eventually ruled out the superimposed turrets solution. Light the USN later, it was found that due to loading issues, it was not worth the complication. In fine, that's the Italian arrangement with four secondary turrets which was retained, with one at each corner.

Next was the choice of artillery caliber. pros and cons were weighted, as a large caliber would most likely built single-gun turret, therefore less firepower, and also broadly similar water plumes as the main guns, making spotter's work more difficult. Based on these arguments, the Admiralty provisionally settled on the first draft with eight 7.5 in guns in twin gun turrets. However soon, the DNC William Henry White returned to office, and suggested the 9.2 in guns were more effective for dealing with other battleships. Due to his prestige and seniority, he eventually reversed the Admirakty's decision, which choose the second draft.

fuck you

Next was the more precise design phase, with precise calculations to see it was workable on an engineering standpoint. The heavy secondary guns were much heavier, took up more space on deck, and thus it appeared quickly compromises were needed. Designers started to sacrifice the secondary battery, getting rid of most casemates, relocating them to a central box battery protecting the whole, instead of individual casemates. They also modified their mount to have these lower, and further reduce the gravity center relative to the waterline, and decreased the freeboard.

But that decision doomed these secondary guns in rough seas. Water spray would just prevent them to fire. Also, due to a generally higher metacentric height caused by the secondary turrets, combined with a low freeboard, and the King Edward VIIs were suceptible to plough heavily in heavy seas and rolled a lot more than conventional designs. Was the cost of this worth it ?

In the end, yes, because with this secondary battery, they almost doubled the firepower compared to earlier British battleships, and was on par with these Italian and American designs. It seemed to give back the edge to the Royal Navy in warship innovation as well, creating what is seen retrospectively by modern authors, as it's first "semi-dreadnought". Nevertheless, due to the habit of building large series of battleships, there were risks to see the last vessels obsolescent at completion (indeed, Hibernia was completed in 1907, whereas the keel of the first ship was laid down in 1902): The HMS Dreadnought made them all obsolete overnight.

Indeed, these ships were still slow, and weakly armed compared to the new breed of capital ships and in 1914 were largely seemed as "expandable", sidelined in secondary theaters, or deployed at the front of dreadnought battle squadrons, screening for naval mines. These were the last battleships of what was called later the "White Era" which started with Royal Sovereign class in the late 1880s, and many classes afterwards, all under his directorate. They were a culmination in British classic battleship design, although succeeded by a very last class, also of "semi-dreanoughts", but more radical and modern in their approach: The Lord Nelson class.

Sir John Arbuthnot Fisher, now at the head of the admiralty as first sea lord from 21 octobre 1904, completely rebooted the "Navy"'s software", and among others, stopped the contruction of possible follows-up of the Nelsons, to embark on the dreadnought race. A new era began, a race up to 1914 which with a new fleet of dreadnoughts to face the Kaiser's Hochseeflotte grand ambitions, while all these older "pre-dreadnoughts" were now relegated as second-fiddle. The King Edward VII ultimately were a transitional breed, that played their part in a two-step move for the Royal Navy to retake the lead over any navy.

Design in detail


Brassey's blueprint in 1907

The King Edward VII class was the first to get rid of the aft conning tower, replaced by a torpedo control tower, directing the stern torpedo tubes. Two heavy pole masts were installed, with foremast's tops unarmed but reserved for wireless telegraphy cabling, and fire control. The tops differed on King Edward VII, Commonwealth, Dominion, Hindustan, and New Zealand, having large oval tops with a smaller top below, and Africa, Hibernia, Britannia have smaller square tops plus two smaller tops lower.

Underwater, they innovated by having balanced rudders, not seen on a British Capital ship since 1870. Due to this, they were very manoeuvrable, showng on trials, hard rudder, a tactical diameter of just 340 yards (310 m) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). However in service this installation was paid by some unability to keep as a straight course, earning them the nickname of "Wobbly Eight" when manoeuvering with the Grand Fleet in WWI. They also had a faster roll, while still making excellent gun platforms. However, compromises with ther freeboard meant they became very wet in bad weather.

Hull construction

All eight vessels had the same dimensions, being 425 feet (130 m) long between perpendiculars, 453 ft 9 in (138.30 m) overall. Beam was 75 ft (23 m), draft 25 ft 8 in (7.82 m) fully loaded. They were about 1,000 tons more than the previous thousand tons heavier than the previous Duncan.

They displaced 15,585, up to 15,885 long tons normal, and 17,009-17,290 long tons fully loaded between them. As saif, theior freeboard was rather low, just 22 ft (6.7 m) forward, 16 ft 6.5 in (5.042 m) amidships, 18 ft (5.5 m) aft. This measured made them wet, but save weight also, combind with the fact they only carried supplies for the crew limilited to three months instead of four, the usual practice. The crew was around 755 in peactime but grew during WWI to 815.

Powerplant

The King Edward VII-class differed little fro previous classes, with two 4-cylinder triple-expansion engines connected to sgats driving inward-turning screws. Steam was from eighteen water-tube/fire-tube boilers. On this matters, yards had some freedom in their choice, and composition avried from ship to ship. Only common ground, they were all coal-burning as designed (see later).
-King Edward VII: 10 Babcock & Wilcox boilers +6 Scotch marine boilers -Africa, Britannia, Hindustan, Hibernia: 18 Babcock & Wilcox boilers +3 cyl. return tube boilers.
-New Zealand: 12 Niclausse boilers +3 cyl. return tube boilers
-Dominion, Commonwealth: 16 Babcock & Wilcox boilers.
Yards also received instructions to test comparative arrangements effectiveness for a future standardisation, and between boiler types. The mixed boiler ships proved to be disappointing, complicating powerplant management, and this experiment was never repeated.

Boilers were trunked into two funnels amidships, like previous designs, and if they all burned coal, they saw oil sprayers installed during construction, which was an innovation in British battleships propulsion. Their main advantage was to raise quickly the internal temperature, and thus steam pressure, but could be used also to boot their acceleration at sea. This system proved the effectiveness of oil, and draw the idea of all oil-fired boilers, even though this was a transitionl long process, lasting until the Queen Elizabeth-class super-dreadnoughts in 1913. New Zealand was the only one in her class having Niclausse boilers, not adaptable to oil sprayers.

Performance-wise, the new Battleships stuck the usual top speed, managing 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h; 21.3 mph) as specified, based on 18,000 indicated horsepower (13,000 kW) but on trials, some reached 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph), the fastest being HMS Dominion and Hindustan. Cruising radius was limited to 5,100 nmi (9,400 km; 5,900 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), and when filling the fuel oil tanks, 6,700 nmi (12,400 km; 7,700 mi), equivalent to the Duncan class, which were also marginally faster (19 knots).

Protection

The heavy armour of the King Edward VII class was made of Krupp cemented armour, apparently excmusively whereas the previous Duncan/Londons had a mix of Krupp, Harvey and mild steel for the lass sensitive parts. The Krupp process was replicated under licenced and produced in UK. The layout was still reminiscent of previous classes, but the main change was an armoured box to protect the 6-inch guns, rather individual armoured casemates, a heavier solution.

The belt armour, the main and secondary turrets and their barbettes plus the conning tower were all made in Krupp Armor. The secondary 9.2 in turret barbettes were just 4 in (102 mm) thick as they were very low over the deck and on the assumption side armour provided sufficient protection, with little chance a shell would exploding below the barbette in the ammunition hoists. However it was a good compromise, never seriously tested in combat.

Armament


King Edward VII's side turret

Main: 2x2 12-in/40 Mk.IX

The main armament was very much the same as previous classes: Two twin turrets (with flat plating), 12-in BL 12 in (305 mm) Mk IX guns fore and aft, at each end of the superstructure. They were mounted slightly lower than usual due to weight-savings, but high enough to be safe from sea spray.

The 49 long tons, 40-foot-5-inch long ordnance pieces fired a 850 pounds (390 kg) separate charge/shell and used a Welin interrupted screw breech. The mount elevated -5/+15 degrees, for a rate of fire of 1 round per minute and a shell (AP) muzzle velocity of 2,612 ft/s (796 m/s) specifically on the King Edward VII class, effective range of 15,000 yards (14 km) at 15° elevation.


HMS Britannia's Forecastle (October 1914)

Secondary: 4x1 9.2-in Mk.X/46


Australian soldiers visiting HMS Commonwealth in 1919. To the left, the barrel of the 10-in gun is visible, as well as a superstructure's

Manufactured by Elswick Ordnance Company, these BL 9.2 in (234 mm) Mk X guns were placed into four narrow turrets placed on the four corners of the superstructure. As wing turrets their traverse was limited to about 45° for and aft. The Mk X weighted 28 tons, were 35 ft 9 in (10.897 m) long, 46.7 caliber, with a Welin interrupted screw Breech. They fired a 380 lb (170 kg) shell at 2,643 ft/s (806 m/s) (extact caliber of 9.2-inch, 233.7 mm), 15° elevation on the Mark V Barbette mount) and 29,200 yd (26,700 m) range.

Tertiary: Ten BL 6 in (152 mm) Mk VII guns

Placed as it was said above, these guns were not in single casemates, but rather protected by the same armoured box, in the battery amidship. They suffered from sea spray in heavy weather, being lower than previous class. Four were in the corners of the casemates, in recesses, while the rest had more limited traverse. Albeit not sponsoned they still can fire almost 90° forward or aft. They fired HE shells at 8 rpm and over 14,600 yd (13,400 m) with a light charge and 15,800 yd (14,400 m) with an heavy charge.


BL 12 inches Cordite Cartridge, 63.5 Ib, model used by the King Edward VII class.

Anti-Torpedo Boat Light guns & torpedoes

The KE VII class had an extensive light battery of 28 light QF guns, more impressive than on the previous Duncan class, which had just 16 of them: fourteen 12-pounder or 3 in (76 mm) guns (10 on Duncan) and fourteen 3-pounder 47 mm (1.9 in) guns (6 on Duncan). They were dispersed around the ships, four 12-pdr being under shields on the battery roof on either side, the others's location being mostly in the superstrcture.

As usual, these battleships had a standard torpedo battery of previous British Battleships, composed of five submerged 18-in (450-mm) torpedo tubes, four in the broadside, one in the stern.

Construction

Brasseys view

The naming convention of the new class changed compared to the previous Duncan clas (honoring ancient admirals) and the London class (mixed references). HMS King Edward VII was the first battleship laid down after the start of Edward VII's reign, and thus as an hommage, was named after him. The Paid hommage to the British Empire at large, ships took the name of Australia, Canada, Hindustan (India), New Zealand, and the entire African colonies ("Africa"). It also looked towards the antiquity, with Hibernia (ancient Roman name for Ireland) and of course Britannia itself.

HMS King Edward VII was laid down at Devonport Dockyard on 8 March 1902, launched on 23 July 1903 and completed in February 1905, in roughly three years, usual in UK, but twice faster than French or Italian standards at the time: Seven years for the Patrie class, or six for the Regina Margherita class battleships.

HMS Commonwealth was built at Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., laid down on 17 June 1902, launched 13 May 1903, completed March 1905. HMS Dominion was built in Vickers, laid down 23 May 1902 and launched 25 August 1903, Hindustan at John Brown & Company (laid down 25 October 1902, launched 19 December 1903), HMS Britannia at Portsmouth Dockyard on 4 February 1903, launched 10 December 1904 as HMS New Zealand, laid down a few days later on 9 February. HMS Africa was laid down at Chatham Dockyard on 27 January 1904. HMS Hibernia was laid down at Devonport Dockyard on 6 January 1904, launched 17 June 1905 and completed on January 1907, as HMS Dreadnought was completed also.

Modifications


King Edward VII in drydock for maintenance, likely Mediterranean WW1.

According to photos, livery wise, these battleships were never painted in the classic black hull-canvas yellow superstructure, but in medium gray from ther completion, as it became the norm from 1903. However, funnel identification bands were to their funnels. Their location and order made these ships all unique, easily spotted in the battle line. This was a current practice at the time.

The Battleships being caught by advances in technology went through a wave of modifications during their almost twenty year career:
In 1907, King Edward VII saw a relocation of some of her 12-pounder guns to the main turret roofs, soon found unsatisfactory and reverted the same year. In 1907-1908 like her sisters Commonwealth, Dominion, Hindustan, and New Zealand, she had her 3-pdr in the bridge removed entirely. She gained however search lights, some installed on the the 9.2-inch turret roofs and bridge wings. Onne can marvel at the result of a blast on these glass devices...

in 1911-12 HMS Hibernia and Hindustan received new rangefinders placed on their aft superstructure. These years, most had alterations to their search lights. Also in between, their anti-torpedo nets were all removed. They were seen since years as an hinderance in operation for little gain.


Hibernia-seapane-tests.


Fleet_Air_Arm_Museum_Short-S27-hms-africa

HMS Africa in 1912 started to experiment aircraft launching, on a dedicated ramps installed on her bow. Many flight tests were done to validate a procedure, the use of a spotter aircraft. Many tests were performed but ultimately the installation was retired, transferred to HMS Hibernia the same year, and removed form the latter soon afterwards. The use of platform-launched aicraft would have to wait until 1917 to resurface, on Dreadnoughts.

After the First World War broke out, HMS Zealandia (ex-New Zealand, name given in between to a battlecruiser) had one 12-pounder retired, sent to a Q-ship, but she received two 3-pdr instead. In 1914, HMS Dominion had her bridge enlarged.

The most radical modification was done from 1916 and until April 1917: All 6-inch were removed but four, relocated a deck higher in open pivot mounts as it was shown they were useless in heavy weather. They took the place of 12-pounder guns previously located there. The remainder quickly found uses on many vessels in completion. They also received additional search lights.

In 1918, HMS Zealandia and Commonwealth were completely modernised and converted as gunnery training ships: -Pole masts replaced with tripods supporting the latest fire control directors and rangefinders. -Remaining 12-pdr guns removed -Two 3 in (76 mm) anti-aircraft guns added, aft superstructure. -Anti-torpedo bulges on Commonwealth only. -Dazzle camouflage for Commonwealth and possibly, but not photo-confirmed, Zealandia.


HMS Commonwealth as a TS, modernized and camouglaged in 1918, Scapa Flow. Src reddit.

General assessment of the "Wobbly Eight"


KE VII class battleships on maneuvers, 1909

The King Edward VII class were quicky obslete as they entered service from 1905 with the Atlantic Fleet. The lead ship became its permanent flagship due to the will of its namesake. In 1907, they were transferred to the Channel Fleet, KE VI kept as fleet flagship. She and HMS Africa were next assigned to the Home Fleet in 1908, followed in 1909 by the rest of the class. HMS New Zealand was renamed "Zealandia" in 1911, freeing a battlecruiser name and from 1912, their division was now part of the 3rd Battle Squadron, Home Fleet.

By mid-1912, both HMS Africa, followed by HMS Hibernia were involved in airplane tests: They launched from a platform the Short Improved S.27 biplane "S.38". It first flew by Commander Charles Samson and it was a British first. Later the feat was repeated underway. These tests showed their utility for spotting and scouting, but also that suitable equipments and procedures were needed. The 3rd BS first foering deployment was in the Mediterranean, protectin British interests in the First Balkan War (1912–1913), als part of the international blockade of Montenegro due to the occupation of Scutari, assigned to Albania.

The First World War was the first serious test for the 3rd Battle Squadron, reassigned to the Grand Fleet in Sapa Flow, ready for any Hochseeflotte sortie, depite their lower speed and being substandard compared to modern German dreadnought. In case of an operation, they would have been at sea as a reinforcement line (the first échelon being the scout battlecruisers, and the "anvil" being the dreadnoughts. They were temporarily detached to reinforce the Channel Fleet in November 1914 but quickly back to the Grand Fleet, tasked with conducting operations off Scotland, and the North Sea (Northern Patrol).

The 3rd Battle Squadron also made a sortie with the entire Grand Fleet in the central North Sea through mid-1915, notably after the Scarborough, Hartlepool, Whitby raid of December. They were still assigned as second balckup for the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, mobilized during the battle of Dogger Bank in January. Nothing much happened until January 1916. While steaming to Ireland for a refit, King Edward VII struck a mine but sank slowly enough to save their entire crew which was rare at the time.

KE VII BP

In 1916, the 3rd BS was assigned to the Nore Command (British southern coast) while HMS Hibernia and Zealandia were detached and sent to the eastern Mediterranean in late 1915, as reinforcement for the Gallipoli Campaign. However their role was just to act a mere presence here. They were not risked close to Turkish guns. They saw little activity until covering the Allied forces retreat in early 1916. HMS Zealandia as back to the 3rd Battle Squadron but Britannia stayed in the Adriatic Sea, taking part in the multinational fleet protecting the Otranto barrage, with the Regia Marina, trapping the Austro-Hungarian Navy.



KE VII BP

HMS Africa took the lead of the 9th Cruiser Squadron, started a round of Atlantic Patrols in 1917, but escorting convoys way down south, between Sierra Leone and Cape Town in South Africa, a rather cushy assignation. In 1918 he crew was stricken by the Spanish flu in Sierra Leone, having 52 deaths, more than any other ship of the class, which speaks volumes about the active combat use of the class. In 1918 also, Commonwealth and Zealandia, having no more use as capital ship due to their type obsolescence, were modernised to be used in the Northern Patrol briefly and as gunnery training ship (for Commonwealth). Zealandia was used only for fire control experiments and barracks ship.

HMS Dominion and Hindustan also ended as depot ships, in distant support of the Zeebrugge Raid, in 1918. HMS Britannia, torpedoed by UB-50 off Cape Trafalgar (9 November 1918) remained afloat long enough for her crew to be evacuated with just 50 men were killed in the torpedo explosion and fire. None of them ever took part in an active battle, not fired on German ships. Their operational qualities is difficult to judge, but the only positive point was their apparently successful ASW compartimenation, even if designed in 1902, at a time, submarines were considered largely experimental and could be counted with two hands. They were just doomed by HMS Dreadnought. As a consolation perhaps, the previous Duncan and London classes did not saw much service either, but at least were considered "expandable" enough to be more involved in the Gallipoli campaign. Their inactivity is partly explained by the fact they were too recent to be fully expandable. The more recent Lord Nelson class however saw far more action in the Mediterranean.

Author's illustration of the KE VII class
Author's illustration of the KE VII class

⚙ King Edward VII class specifications, as built

Dimensions138,3 x 22,9 x 7,82 m (454 x 75 x 26 ft)
Displacement 15,500/15,885 t standard, 17,000-17,300 t FL
Crew777 wartime
Propulsion2 shaft VTE, 16 WT boilers, 18.750 ihp (13.420 Kw)
Speed18.5 knots top speed
Range 6,700 nmi (12,400 km; 7,700 mi)
ArmorBelt 9 in, Bulkheads 12 in, Barbettes 12 in, Turrets 5-9, 8–12 in, Casemates: 7 in, CT 12 in, Decks 1–2.5 in
Armament2x2 12-10, 4x1 9.2-in, 20x 6-in, 14x 3-in, 14x 3pdr, 4x 18-in TTs Sub.


Read More/Src


A King Edward VII class battleship in Scapa Flow in the evening (painting)

Books

Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905
Burt, R. A. (2013) [1988]. British Battleships 1889–1904. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing.
Corbett, Julian Stafford (1920). Naval Operations: To The Battle of the Falklands, December 1914.
Corbett, Julian Stafford (1923). Naval Operations: The Dardanelles Campaign. Vol. III. London
Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations
Jellicoe, John (1919). The Grand Fleet, 1914–1916: Its Creation, Development, and Work. New York
Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press
Manning, Thomas Davys & Walker, Charles Frederick (1959). British Warship Names. Putnam.
McBride, Keith (2001). "'The Wobbly Eight': The King Edward VII Class Battleships, 1897–1922".
Thetford, Owen (1991). British Naval Aircraft Since 1912. Annapolis
Vego, Milan N. (1996). Austro-Hungarian Naval Policy, 1904–14.
Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: Complete Record, Chatham Publishing.
Dittmar, F. J. & Colledge, J. J. (1972). British Warships 1914–1919. London: Ian Allan
Gibbons, Tony (1983). The Complete Encyclopedia of Battleships and Battlecruisers. Salamander Books
Parkes, Oscar (1990) [1957]. British Battleships. Annapolis
Pears, Randolph (1979). British Battleships 1892–1957: The Great Days of the Fleets

Links

On worldnavalships.com
On battleships-cruisers.co.uk
From KE VII to Nelson on avalanchepress.com
On navypedia.org
On historyofwar.org
On alchetron.com
KE VII on dreadnoughtproject.org
Naval operations by Corbett, Julian Stafford; Newbolt, Henry John 1862-1938
The Grand fleet 1914-1916 by VAdm viscount Jellicoe (archive.org)
wiki
Poster KE VII 1905 on Hugh Evelyn Prints

Model kits



Kombrig 1/700, the only one caring to represent this class.
3d rendition

Wartime service

HMS King Edward VII (1903)



HMS King Edward VII's construction was the most "Royal" event for obvious reasons: Her first plate was laid down, signed, by King Edward VII in person, while at the same time, his wife, Queen Alexandra, was attending the launching ceremony of her namesake, HMS Queen (A London class battleship laid down in March 1901), a fitting parallel event. King Edward VII (KE VII) was again, launched by the King himself on 23 July 1903. The King obliged the Royal Navy to keep her as flagship at all times for the honor to carry his name. Commissioned on 7 February in Devonport she hoisted the C-in-C Atlantic Fleet. After a short 1906–1907 refit, she was paid off at Portsmouth on 4 March 1907.

Recommissioned in March as flagship, Admiral Lord Charles Beresford C-in-C Channel Fleet she soon had another refit at Portsmouth and her unit became the 2nd Division, Home Fleet still being its flagship on 27 March. After another refit until 1910 she was placed in reserve, then recommissioned at Portsmouth, 1 August 1911 now at the head of the 3rd/4th Divisions. From May 1912 she took the head of the newly form 3rd Battle Squadron, First Fleet, Home Fleet. Their first foreing assignation was the Mediterranean in November 1912 (First Balkan War) based in Malta from 27 November 1912 and blockading Montenegro, watching over the occupied Scutari. The 3rd BS was back to the Home Fleet on 27 June 1913.

The First World War saw the 3rd Battle Squadron assigned to the Grand Fleet in Rosyth, and KE VII now under command of Vice Admiral Edward Bradford. The 3rd Squadron, which already comprised all seven pre-dreadnought gained in addition the five Duncan-class battleships, now used as distant cover for the Northern Patrol's cruisers. On 6 August, she provided a distant cover for a sortie off the coast of Norway, in search of a German naval base, which was found. On 14 August, the 3rd BS sortied for battle practice before, followed by a north sea sweep, until the 15th.

Having two 12-inch guns developing inner tube cracks KE VII left Scapa Flow for Devonport, Bradford moving his flag to HMS Dominion. Back on 2 September as flagship, Dominion sailed in turn for the same problem. On 2 November, the 3rd BS was detached for the Channel Fleet in Portland, then back on 13 November (30th for King Edward VII). Next sweeps saw her class spread away of the main fleet and more valuable dreadnoughts, watching for mines. These "impromptu minesweeper" role was not the most glamorous and certainly worried both captains and crews, but reflected the general opinion about pre-dreadnoughts at that stage.

On 14 December as a British force departed to hunt down the raiders on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, Grand Fleet's commander, Admiral John Jellicoe, ordered Bradford and his 3rd Battle Squadron to sail in support and four hours later, they arrive din sight of the 1st and 4th Battle Squadrons already folding down. The High Seas Fleet was already withdrawn. The Gand Fleet (and 3rd BS) were kept at sea until 17 December. King Edward VII's squadron made another sweep into the North Sea on 25 December, for nothing.

The 3rd BS made a gunnery practice sortie on 12 January 1915 until the 14th and back to Rosyth on the 15th. On 24 January, as the Battle of Dogger Bank developed, the Grand Fleet sortied in support, the 3rd BS leaving first, steaming at full speed to join the Harwich Force reporting contacts. They arrived around 14:00 jus to see the sinking, burning armoured cruiser Blücher. They patrolled the area and were back on 25 January. The 3rd Battle Squadron later patrolled the central North Sea with the 3rd Cruiser Squadron on 10–13 March, and also on 5–8 April. The 11 April saw the entire Grand Fleet at sea, and again the 12–13 April. Same on 17 April, 21 April. Lastly, the 3rd BS combined again with the 3rd CS, sweeping the northern North Sea (5–10 May). They were ambushed en route by an unidentified German U-boat, which fired but missed.

After an unsuccessful sweep on 17–19 May, the 29-31 May patrol south to the Dogger Bank, June was reserved to training, with a gunnery practice sortie for dreadnoughts on 11 June, northwest of Shetland. Again, meanwhile, the 3rd BS and 3rd CS patrolled the central North Sea. July was calm due to coal shortages (threatened strike by coal miners) from 18 July and to August. September was equally quiet, and the Grand fleet sortied without the 3rd BS.

Finally, on 6 January 1916, King Edward VII departed Scapa Flow at 07:12 on a voyage around the northern coast of Scotland, up to Belfast for a major refit. While underwy she struck a mine at 10:47. It was part of a large minefield laid previously by the German auxiliary cruiser SMS Möwe, off Cape Wrath on the 31 December 1915. In all she had laid 252 mines under cover of darkness in a snow storm. The mined detonated just under her starboard engine room. Intense flooding caused a rapid list of 8° on this side.

Captain Crawford Maclachlan ordered a hard turn to starboard, attempting to join the coast, possibly beaching his ship, but the helm was jammed hard to starboard due to the schock of the detonation, the flood quickly stopping all power onboard. Dead in the water, her captain ordered Counterflooding so she listed only by 5°. The scene was observed by the passing collier Princess Melita, which started to close, and attempted to tow her. Since an U-boat was reported, HMS Kempenfelt, leading twelve destroyers quickly arrived to patrol the area, finding nothing. After a while they came back in assistance to the sinking battleship. HMS Kempenfelt as a flotilla leader had powerful manchnery and attempted to join the towing attempt from 14:15. But it eventually failed as King Edward VII took too much deadweight by flooding, taking eventually a 15° list, her deck dangerously low. With rising sea and strong winds the captain assessed the danger and prepared the crew for a possible evacuation. Princess Melita dropped her towline and departed at 14:40, Maclachlan orderig Kempenfelt to do the same soon after.

With darkness approaching, order was given to abandon ship and the crew was evacuated in good order by the destroyer Musketeer, which went alongside from 14:45. She was soon assisted by HMS Fortune and Marne. Amazingly, the mine made no casualty, detonating alongside void compartments, and the machinery was evacuated in good order. Just one sailor died, by accident as he fell between the battleship and a destroyer. The last man to leav was of course captain Maclachlan, boarding HMS Nessus, at 16:10.

Nessus stayed after other ships departed with the crews, leaving the captain seeing his ship continue her slow sinking. From 17:20 tugs arrived to assist while Nessus departed, but they could do little to tow King Edward VII at that stage, far too deep and heavy already. They saw her capsize at 20:10. It was nine hours after the explosion. Möwe's minefield was left undiscovered until practically the end of the war, HMS Africa even passing through the area before without incident.

HMS Commonwealth (1903)



Most of the King Edward VII sister ships was spent with the 3th Battleship Squadron, so since its activity had been seen in detail above, the following career records will be focused on the ships alone. Before the war, HMS Commonwealth was in Portsmouth Dockyard on 14 March after completion, in reserve, and full commission on 9 May, in Devonport, assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. She collided with HMS Albemarle near Lagos (Liberia) on 11 February, having a damaged hull and bulkhead and spent a part of 1907 in repairs, being rammed by Albemarle. Later she was assigned to the Channel Fleet in March but in August, ran aground, repaired again at Devonport Dockyard until October 1908.

Her unit in 1909 became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet, and she was refitted at Devonport (1910-1911) being assigned later to the 3rd Battle Squadron (3rd BS) sent in Mediterranean during the First Balkan War, blockade of Montenegro and an occupation of Scutari. Sje was back to the Home Fleet in June 1913.

By August 1914, the 3rd Battle Squadron, she was based in Rosyth, backing up the cruisers of the Northern Patrol. Several sweeps and sorties followed until the end of 1914. HMS Commonwealth was drydocked and refitted until February 1915, back to the 3rd BS. She was involved later in a serie of uneventful sorties. From 29 April 1916, with her squadron she was based in Sheerness and from 3 May, the Nore Command. However HMS Commonwealth left the 3rd BS in August 1917. She was paid off, the admiralty having projects to convert her as a gunnery training ship. For this she received the most modern conversion and reconstruction of any other pre-dreadnoughts of the time: A solid tripod replaced her former pole, supporting an equally modern fire control system, the same as the latest British Dreadnoughts of the QE and Revenge classes. When she left Portsmouth Dockyard, she also had torpedo bulges, no longer her 6-inch guns, all but four removed (relocated on the battery roof).


Battleship_HMS_Commonwealth_IWM

Thuis long refit however was delayed by lack of resources and workmanship, so much so that her refit only was complete in April 1918, and she was recommissioned on the 16th, assigned to the Northern Patrol. Transferred to the Grand Fleet on 21 August 1918 she became a seagoing gunnery training ship, with Invergordon as base. Her gunnery TS career ended in February 1921. She was paid off, placed on the disposal list at Portsmouth (April 1921), and sold for BU to Slough Trading Company in November, and resold afterwards to German scrappers, towed to Germany.

HMS Dominion (1903)


HMS Dominion in 1914

HMS Dominion started her sea trials in May 1905, before completion in July and commission on 15 August, at Portsmouth Dockyard. Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet she ran aground in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on 16 August 1906, one year after commission, and damaged to her lower hull plating was bad enough, including severe flooding to be sent in Bermuda for temporary repairs. They were only completed by January 1907, so she can proceed to Chatham Dockyard for a final repair in February-June. She was in between transferred like her unit to the Channel Fleet and from 24 March 1909, 2nd Division, then from June 1912, the 3rd Battle Squadron, First Fleet from. She was deployed in the Mediterranean during the First Balkan War and was back home in June.

Under command of Vice Admiral Edward Bradford (head of the 3rd BS), she was based at Rosyth with her class and the five Duncan-class battleships, covering the Northern Patrol's cruisers by August 1914. After a first sortie off Norway in search of a German naval base where she stayed in distant support, she participated in a training sortie and a gunnery training revealing on 25 August that two of her 12-inch guns inner tubes cracked. It was decided to send the flagship, King Edward VII which had the same problem for her guns to be replaced, making HMS Dominion flagship until King Edward VII came back on 1st September allowing Dominion to leave in turn. She was back from Devonport later. On 2 November 1914 she was in the Channel Fleet, Portland.

She sailed in distant support of the answering quick reaction force to the German raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby. She also made a sweep into the North Sea on 25 December, on 12 January 1915 (gunnery training), stayed as distant cover during the Battle of Dogger Bank and went to sea repeatedly until the end of 1915. Her Squadron often patrolled with the 3rd Cruiser Squadron making sweeps after sweeps without ever spotting a German vessel. There was a "hot alert" by an U-Boat.

On 29 April 1916, her Squadron was based at Sheerness, then Nore Command and HMS Dominion remained there until March 1918, ambushed and torpedoed by a unidentified German submarine (which missed) in May 1916. Next she was refitted at Portsmouth in June 1917. Her sister ships from the 3rd BS started to disperse gradually. From 1st March 1918, HMS Dominion and HMS Dreadnought were the last left in the 3rd BS, finally dissolved that month. She paid off as a barracks ship, planned to be used for the Zeebrugge Raid and First Ostend Raid, with HMS Hindustan, housing crews of the ships involved stationed in the Swin until early May 1918 and transferred afterwards to the Nore Reserve as an accommodation ship. On 29 May 1919, about a year later she was on the disposal list at Chatham, sold for BU on 9 May 1921 to Thos. W. Ward, scrapped in Preston, Belfast from 28 October 1924.

HMS Hindustan (1903)



HMS Hindustan was launched on 19 December 1903, started her sea trials in January 1905, was completed in March 1905. Placed in reserve she was soon into full commission on 22 August, at Portsmouth, for the Atlantic Fleet. Like her sisters she served with the Channel Fleet in March 1907, 2nd Division, and after a 1909–1910 refit in portsmouth her only notable event was when she was hit during a target practice in November 1911 by a shell from HMS Colossus.

The fleet reorganization of May 1912 saw her sharing her fate with the 3rd Battle Squadron in the First Fleet, in the Mediterranean for the First Balkan War. Both HMS Hindustan and Africa came back in UK later, by February 1913, to join the 4th Battle Squadron and then back to the 3rd Battle Squadron in June. She was under command of Vice Admiral Edward Bradford in Rosyth by August 1914, in company of the Duncan class battleships, as cover for the Northern Patrol.

After a sweep in Norway, battle practice, the sweep into the North Sea she headed for the Channel Fleet in Portland and back to the Grand Fleet on 13 November 1914, later covering the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron after the Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby raid, but arriving too late to make an impression. The rest is made of uneventful sweeps in the north sea, punctuated by training sorties and gunnery practice. This routine went on until 29 April 1916:

The 3rd Battle Squadron in Sheerness was transferred to the Nore Command, HMS Hindustan remaining there until February 1918 and leaving in February 1918 to be a parent/depot ship for the Zeebrugge Raid and first Ostend Raid. She moored smaller vessels, carried crews and supplies, stationed in the Swin, Thames until May 1918. She also wollided with the destroyer HMS Wrestler in May 1918, badly damaged (Hindustan had nothing). On 15 May 1918, Hindustan was placed into reserve at the Nore, becoming an accommodation, Royal Naval Barracks, at Chatham Dockyard. Placed on the disposal list by June 1919 she was eventually sold to Thos. W. Ward, on 9 May 1921, towed to Belfast in 1923, Preston, for BU, which started in late 1923.

HMS Britannia (1904)



HMS Britannia was was completed in September 1906 and commissioned in Portsmouth on 6 September 1906, fully commissioned on 2 October 1906, Atlantic Fleet. Like her sisters, she went into the Channel Fleet in March 1907, then was versed to the Second Division, and then Flagship, Vice Admiral, Second Division, in April 1909. After a refit at Portsmouth (1909-1910) her only prewar notable event was a collision on 14 July 1910 with the barque Loch Trool, with light damage.

May 1912, saw her assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron, soon sent to the Mediterranean to assist the internationa fleet deployed in the First Balkan War, based in Malta. Back on 27 June with the Home Fleet, she was however detached to join the Second Division. Britannia was back at the start of WWI with the 3rd Battle Squadron. The rest of ha activity mirrored her sister ships. However in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 23 January 1915, she sortied to support the battlecruisers, at full speed to reach ships the Harwich Force, but they arrived too late, at around 14:00.

After a night at sea they were ordered back to Rosyth on 25 January to steam to Rosyth. But while off the Firth of Forth, near to Inchkeith on the 26th, HMS Britannia ran aground, being stranded for a full 36 hours until refloated. Rocky shoals cuaused her hull extensive damage and she proceeded to Devonport for lengthy repairs. She was back hover for the relocaton at Sheerness on 29 April 1916. Nevertheless, Britannia was detached on 3 May and transferred to the Nore Command.

HMS Britannia remained until August and a refit at Portsmouth, until September, after which she left the 3rd Battle Squadron for 2nd Detached Squadron organised in 1915 to reinforce the Italian Navy at Otranto, closing the Adriatic Sea. There, she was placed under orders of Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Italian naval chief of staff. He denied any sweeps due to his fear of Austro-Hungarian submarines and naval mines in the narrows. HMS Britannia was therefore permanently anchored as a support for the blockade while smaller vessels as screening. MAS boats on their part, were far more active.

As she needed maintenance, a refit was performed at Gibraltar, in February–March 1917. After this, she was assiged to the 9th Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Patrol. There, she started convoy escort duty from Sierra Leone, relieving the old armoured cruiser HMS King Alfred, in quality if flagship in March 1917. This was interrupted by a refit at Bermuda in May 1917, her battery 6-inch being removed and replaced by four of the same relocated in shielded pivot mounts on her shelter deck (battery roof), replacing older 12-pdr guns.


HMS_Britannia_sinking_on_9_November_1918

Her fate arrived as she was underway at sea in the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. This the early morning, still dark, on 9 November 1918, the war seemed soon over with negociations taking place with Berlin. Placed under command of Captain Francis Wade Caulfeild she was torpedoed off Cape Trafalgar, by UB-50. A first explosion caused by one or tow torpedoes flooded her machinery to port, and she start listing 10° on this side. A mere few minutes after, a second explosion put fire to her 9.2-inch magazine, in turn detonating the stored cordite bags.

This was violent enough to cause the ship a ful electrical failure, and she was found in total darkness below decks. The safety team therefore was unable to find the flooding valves for the magazines, in general poorly located. The captain order to flood the magazin failed and as a result caused most of the deads onboard, by toxic smoke from burning cordite: In all 50 men died, 80 were injured, mostly intoxicated. On the other hand, the battleships, which listed to 10° stayed stable, and too, 2 and a half houirs to sink, leaving ample time to evacuate her 39 officers and 673 men. HMS Britannia became the final capital ship to sink because of enemy action in WWI, just two days before the Armistice was signed.

HMS New Zealand (Zealandia) (1904)


HMS New Zealand as built

HMS New Zealand emerged from Portsmouth Dockyard in June 1905, commissioned on 11 July at Devonport, Atlantic Fleet. She was refitted soon like the others, but at Gibraltar, from October to December 1906 and went back to the Channel Fleet on 4 March 1907. After an otrher refit she became part of the 2nd Division, and in 1911 to release her name for a new battlecruiser presented to the Royal Navy by the government of New Zealand she was at first renamed HMS Caledonia (Roman name for Scotland,on par with "Hibernia" and "Britannia" also in the class), and was favoured, but New Zealand argued they would prefer Zealandia, which was a personification of New Zealand. It was eventually adopted on 1 December 1911. The battleship had a crew partly composed of New Zealanders.

The fleet reorganisation of May 1912 (3rd Battle Squadron) was followed by a peace keeping operation during the First Balkan War. Like the others she ws back home on 27 June 1913, the last peacetime routine year. In August 1914, HMS Zealandia was with the Northern Patrol, accompanying the sweep of Norway followed by another into the North Sea, also starting a routing of screening in front of dreadnoughts as "mine catchers". On 14 December, they wait as cover after the Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby raid and battlecruisers rush. Despite sailing at full speed, they failed to reach the German High Seas Fleet.

The rest of the year and 1915 were relatively uneventful, alternating training and north sea sweeps without encountering the enemy (see the KE VII career for more details and precise dates). On 6 November 1915, however HMS Zealandia, Hibernia (flagship), Russell, and Albemarle were sent to assist in the Gallipoli Campaign. HMS Albemarle had to return for repairs (badly damaged in heavy seas) escorted by Zealandia, in the outbound voyage. HMS Zealandia also had damage to her gun ports and needed repairs. With HMS Russell, and Hibernia in the Dardanelles she resumed operations on 14 December 1915. After HMS Irresistible, Inflexible and HMS Ocean struck mines, pre-dreadnought Battleships were definitively kept out of close operations. HMS Zealandia was kept as distant support, it's unclear if she even fired a short in anger.

Battleship_HMS_Zealandia_IWM
Battleship HMS Zealandia, IWM

By late January 1916, HMS Zealandia and Hibernia were detached back home, reaching Portsmouth Dockyard on 6 February 1916. Zealandia was refitted until March and was back with the 3rd BS on the 26th. The squadron was based for a shot time in Sheerness, then Nore Command in May. Zealandia left on September 1916 for a refit at Chatham, until June 1917. When back, she left again on 20 September 1917, paid off into reserve and refitted (January-September 1918) as a gunnery training ship with the same upgraded fire control as HMS Commonwealth but not torpedo bulges.

Ultimately however she was never recommissioned as a gunnery training ship, but was kept for experiments of fire control equipments instead, and later an accommodation ship at Portsmouth in 1919. Placed on the disposal list she was sold on 8 November 1921 to Stanlee Shipbreaking, resold to Slough Trading Co. ad to German scrappers, BU in late 1923.

HMS Africa (1905)



HMS Africa was completed at Chatham Dockyard in November 1906 and commissioned 6 November 1906, being also the very last battleship built at Chatham dockyard, which drydock size was never expanded afterwards. From the Atlantic Fleet she was transferred to the Channel Fleet on 4 March 1907, colliding with the merchant steamer SS Ormuz, off Portland (23 March 1907), but damage was light. After the Nore Division by June 1908, from April 1909 she was in the 2nd division of the Home Fleet, became flagship, Vice Admiral Sir William Henry May at the head of the 3rd/4th Divisions from 25 April 1911. She was relieved by HMS King Edward VII in refit. By November 1911 she was placed in reserve, Nore.

from January 1912, HMS Africa was the first British battleship experimenting with airborne reconnaissance, experimenting lunched and recovery of a Short seaplane at Sheerness. For this she received a 100 feet (30 m long) flying off, downward-sloping runway installed on her foredeck over her forward 12-inch (305-mm) turret. It was equipped with rails to guide the aircraft, especially to counter the wind. The crew held the Short Improved S.27 pusher seaplane in place as the Gnome engine was pushed full throttle. Lieutenant Charles Samson attempted the first British shipboard aircraft take-off. It was done on 10 January 1912 while at anchor, in the River Medway where wind was reduced. Samson circled the battleship several times to the cheers of the crew and later climbed to 800 feet (240 metres), landing safely at an airfield ashore.

After this success, the whole apparatus and planes were all transferred to her sister ship HMS Hibernia in May 1912. The battleship HMS London will soon also test it in turn and the Royal Navy concluded that shipboard aircraft could be useful for spotting, reconnaissance and carrying dispatches, but the runway platform in its form was a problem for artillery while recovering seaplanes was too difficult and inpractical in operation. From 1917, the system was completely re-thought, and became an important part of British fleet operations, with short runways solidary to the turrets and guns (allowing them to traverse and elevate), and launching more powerful models, although using wheeltrained. The RN also impressed into service scores of seaplane carriers in WWI.

HMS Africa was refitted at Chatham and was now assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron, making a tour of duty in the Mediterranean during the First Balkan War and back home in June 1913. She served the first half of WWI in the same unit, at first under overall command of Vice Admiral Edward Bradford with the Grand Fleet and based at Rosyth. She served with the Northern Patrol, made the Norway base coast sortie, North Sea sweeps, Channel Fleet, cover for the aftermath of the Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby raid, and resume 1915 with gunnery training and north sea sweeps. In December 1915 however, HMS Africa made her refit in Belfast, until January 1916, passed later unharmed through Cape Wrath minefield that claimed later HMS King Edward VII.


HMS_Africa

In 1916 she was based in Sheerness, then Nore Command, refit in Portsmouth, but by September 1916, was detached from the 3rd Sqn to be sent to the Adriatic Sea in support of the multinational forcethere blockading the Otranto barrage, to interdict the Austro-Hungarian Navy passage to the Mediterranean. She left the Adriatic in January 1917, was refitted at Gibraltar and after March 1917, attached to the 9th Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Patrol, for convoy escort duties from Sierra Leone, down to South Africa. Her more "exotic" refit, to the crew's delight, was at Rio de Janeiro (December 1917-January 1918). From September still in Sierra Leone, her crew was hit by the influenza pandemic, until 476 crew members were reported ill , and from there she sent burial parties ashore daily while being placed in quarantine. She lost 52 crew members in total.

In October 1918, back home, she was placed into reserve at Portsmouth, became a depot ship for the 9th Cruiser Squadron, accommodation ship and by December 1919 was to replace the protected cruiser HMS Diadem as a stokers' training ship, Portsmouth, but this was cancelled, and she was sold for scrapping to Ellis & Co, Newcastle upon Tyne by 30 June 1920.

HMS Hibernia (1905)



HMS Hibernia was completed in December 1906 in Devonport, last of her class. Commissioned on 2 January 1907 she became flagship, Rear-Admiral, Atlantic Flee, later transferred to the Channel Fleet also as Flagship on 27 February 1907. In January 1909 she was Flagship, Vice-Admiral and from 24 March, her unit became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet. As her sister ships she suffered an accident in these prewar years: On 14 July 1910 she was rammed by Loch Trool, a barque let loose after she collided with HMS Britannia, but damage was light. In January 1912, HMS Orion took her place as flagship and she was placed in semi-reserve with a skeleton crew in the Third Division, Nore.

In January 1912 she took part in aviation experiments at Sheerness following HMS Africa, with her flights performed in early 2 May. Pilot Samson also made a show when Hibernia was steaming at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in Weymouth Bay witnessed by King George V, which followed other flights for four days. Her equipments were passed on HMS London before the whole program was closed and a report written. Also in May that year, HMS Hibernia was versed into the 3rd Battle Squadron, First Fleet and became Second Flagship, Rear-Admiral. The 3rd Sqn went into the Mediterranean due to the First Balkan War and was back home in June 1913.

In August 1914, she was based in Rosyth, and supplemented the Northern Patrol cruisers, while she stayed as Second Flagship, taking part in the sweep to Norway in search of a German base, made a battle practice sortie, and several sweeps in the north sea. She was detached to the Channel Fleet, Portland. In December she covered the British attack after the Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby raid. The rest of her wartime career is the same as the 3rd BS.

In November 1915, Hibernia, as flagship, Rear-Admiral Sydney Fremantle was detached with HMS Zealandia, Russell, and Albemarle to take part in the Dardanelles Campaign leaving Scapa on 6 November 1915, but Albemarle was damaged in a storm and returned, escorted by Hibernia and Zealandia. The three remaining battleships arrived in the Dardanelles on 14 December 1915. Hibernia stayed in stand-by at Kephalo, covering the evacuation of V and W Beaches, Cape Helles on 8 and 9 January 1916. She was stationed later at Milo, in case they had to cover an evacuation of the French force at Salonika.

Russell became the new divisional flagship, allowingd Hibernia to return hime and be reassigned to the Grand Fleet, refited at Devonport on 5 February 1916-March 1916. On the 29th she moved to Sheerness with the 3rd BS, and later detached and transferred to the Nore Command until October 1917. Her ten battery 6-inch guns were removed and replaced during a refit (they ended on the monitor HMS Marshal Ney) and she was paid off into the Nore Reserve, Chatham Dockyard, as accommodation ship.

In September 1918, Admiral David Beatty wanted a large target for realistic gunnery practice for the Grand Fleet, and the admiralty suggested to convert Hibernia as a radio control vessel, but HMS Agamemnon was selected instead. In July 1919 she was stricken and placed on disposal, sold on 8 November 1921 to Stanlee Shipbreaking Company of Dover, then to German scrappers, BU there in November 1922.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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