The Saga or Ocean Liners

UK, France, USA, Germany, Italy... (1830-1970) - More than 2000+ liners
SS Normandie Wikipedia SS Normandy (1936, French Lines), one of the most classic and gorgeous ocean liner ever... Ocean liners descended from "packet boats", steamers built to carry mail, which incidentally also carried passengers in the XIXth century. This started with not really passenger-friendly steamers to the classic rival liners that chased the famous "blue ribbond" fast, luxurious leviathans on the conveyed Atlantic line (to New York) in the 1900-1940, and to this day, immense glass and steel floating hotels/theme parks that represent modern cruise industry.

Queen Mary
Here is the actual list (more to come):

Definition

What is a liner ? A ship capable of following a regular "line", which was the definition of a maritime route between two points, with a regular service. Needless to say it has to do with steam. Before steam power, ships relied on wind power (and rowing, but on coastal areas and enclosed seas like the Baltic, Mediterranean and also rivers). Wind is of course not predictable, although signs and pattern of the sky could be readable for those who manned these ship in open air, "true sailors" or the "old salts".

Steam, developed from 1800 was not only the start of the industrial revolution, it was also the start of a deep transformation of navigation. Because of raw power and reliability issues, but also some resistance from the sea community and the navy steam power for long has to exist alongside sail, at least until the late 1870s. In the 1830s, steamships were longer a rarity, they were everywhere, relying at that stage on paddle wheels. The screw had yet to be tested.

Steamships of that era bring something on the table which was brand new: Regularity. They could sail from, and arrive to, any destination in the imparted schedule, which was unheard of since most sailships could be stranded either in a totally 'flat' sea for days (completely deprived of wind) or having to re-routing to another direction in case of incoming storm, delaying their voyage again. Perhaps when the art of sailing for trade reached its zenith, the Clipper era (1850-1870) showed sail can be significantly faster on any given route;

But on the long run, the regularity of steamships compensated for their relative slowness. Clippers started to carry passengers on a regular basis at that moment, but at the same time classic steamship were mostly used to carry mail, and the name applied for them in the British language was "packet-boat". It was also translated in French as "paquebot" which is still used to describe a liner.

Therefore, a "liner" was a generalization for all types of ships (mixed, therefore steam and sail) which followed the same route. It did not excluded that a ship could re-route in case of a storm, nor that a steam engine could breakdown, but the security of sail (and addition of, in some case) allowed a captain to reach its schedules on a far more reliable way. Therefore a "liner" become synonymous with regularity of service.

It could have been extended to all steam navigation, including for cargo, but at that stage many of these 1840-50s mixed steamships carried passengers AND cargo, and sometimes made many stops on their way. It has been generally understood that a "liner" reached point A to point B with no or a single stop to gather more passenger. And with the attractiveness of the new world and the difficulties of Europe, transatlantic lines begin to appear. So nowadays it's assumed that a liner is: -A passenger ship (which can carry also mail and freight) -A ship sticking to a regular, long maritime line, with limited or no stops en route. Modern Ferry boats, even if they made just a few nautical miles, are considered "liners", but not cruise ships, in both accounts. Needless to say "liners" disappeared in the 1960s, with the advent of jet airliners, which just succeeded them.

The first Liners

ss savannah

As said before the beginning of the century saw many steamships being tested, and the first "lines" on rivers or short distances (Like 1811' Henry Bell's Comet) but it's really in 1820 that things really get going. And this was done by an American ship, the SS Savannah (see first steamers). The Savannah was small, a dwarf compared to many sailships of that time. And she was slow, making the trip from Savannah, Georgia to Liverpool in a blasting 28 days;

The major issue at that time, by a wide margin was ...water. Indeed, indeed boilers by then needed large quantities of water to produce steam, which came from the sea. As a result, salt rapidly encrusted the boilers, which had to be removed on a regular basis - every two days in fact. This was a painful and backbreaking work to say the least. Meanwhile, sails just took the relay, until the whole operation was completed and the boilers hot and ready again. There was however soon the invention of condensation balloon, allowing to recycle steam into fresh water. In the following decades, two, three and even four stages of expansion allowed to use every bit of steam to produce movement.

The other limitation was coal. Indeed, coal was taking a large space onboard, reducing therefore the overall carrying capacity. In addition coal supplies were to be installed in many stations around the globe to ensure steady provisions on the longest routes. This explains why the Australian and pacific areas were reached so late by liners. In addition, coal was a pain to work with. Coaling was a long, backbreaking operation, with a toxic cloud of coal dust that settled everywhere; Quite a nuisance for a passenger ship. But the move was started. Just as the locomotive and railroads conquered land, steamships conquered gradually the most remote places on earth, on a steady, regular basis.

Carrying passengers was at first, just an afterthought. There were paying passengers which just "piggybacked" on decks, living with the crews, but an evolution towards more comfort for paying (and wealthy) passengers stirred some ship owners and lines managers to insert cabins with and accomodation dedicated to passengers. This was the start, but there was still a long way to go before the advent of democratization of passenger transport. This only came with larger, more stable ships.

The legend of Cunard

Samuel Cunard British subject Samuel Cunard could be granted the title of precursor of passenger lines; In 1840 he ordered four paddle steamship to carry cargo and passengers on a regular basis between Liverpool and Boston, crossing the Atlantic every two months. He literally wrote the guidebook of transatlantic lines. The SS Britannia was soon celebrated by Charles Dickens was the first "packet boat" as she carried mail (in small packets). However the name could also be related to the freight which was generally bagged and carried in bulk in large nets.

RMS Britannia
Isambard K. Brunel was certainly a serious contender to Samuel Cunard, and possibly the best engineer of his time. Even before he inaugurated his famed Great Western Railway in 1835, he also projected a regular line between Bristol and NyC. He funded the Great Western Steamship Company, headed by his trusted associate Thomas Guppy. Combining large size to carry more coal applying the experimental evidence of Beaufoy, combined with surface condenser for boilers, he argued the only way forward was a larger ship. In 1838 he launched the Great Western.

SS Great Western

For her time, this ship was a masterpiece. Still an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship, she was nevertheless prodigiously large, carrying 1,340 GRT, later 1,700 GRT, displacing 2300 ton, while being 71.6 m (234.91 ft) (later 76.8 m/251.97 ft) long, by 17.59 m (57.71 ft) across wheels, which were moved by a 2-cylinder Maudslay steam engine rated for 750 HP, bringing her to 8.5 knots. She of course was also fully rigged and her clipper-style hull allowed a fraction of this speed on sail alone, although the drag of the large hull and wheels was considerable. More importantly she carried 128 passengers in 1st class and 20 servants plus 60 crew and officers. Living quarters for passengers was a step above anything made before, with precious woods and furniture and the equivalent of a first class Hotel service. She was als the longest ship in the world, but was alone, meaning the line could only operate a crossing at best once every month;

SS Great Britain 1843 (Author's illustration) The 1843 SS Great Britain also innovated in another way: She was the first liner with a screw instead of paddle wheels. The innovation made the ship quieter, and safer as paddle wheels could be wrecked by bad weather or collisions. The Navy was soon interested, but it would take until 1849 for a large warship propelled that way to materialize (the French Le Napoléon), triggering a wave of new constructions and conversions by the two leading navies of the time, right in time to participate in the Crimean war.

In short, the SS Great Britain was really the first, true, transatlantic liner. She was large enough and well equipped enough to accommodate many more paying passengers than any ship before, and it was fast: In 15 days she was able to reach New York, burning 1,100 tons of coal to do so. In the 1810s, that was reduced to just four-five days, showing the immensity of progress done there.
launch of Great Eastern
Failed first launch of the Great Eastern, showing her scale. Oddly enough, she was fitted with a screw propeller AND paddle wheels in addition to rigging.

In 1848 of course, a big step forward was carried out by the order of the SS Great Eastern, Isambard Kingdom Brunel's pet project and at that time not only the first steamship entirely in iron but also the largest ship afloat in 1852, dubbed "Leviathan". The Great Eastern was the ship of all superlatives. Still using the same principle that the more larger the ship became, the more efficient she was related to her coal capacity, he designed a behemoth, so inflammatory of imagination that she was also the subject of Jules Vernes famous novella "the floating city". She was almost 700 ft (210 m) long, and fitted out with the most luxurious appointments with a total capacity of 4,000 passengers in various classes (already!). The size was just a traduction of her intended route: London-Sydney. She was to be able not to stop anywhere for coaling along the way.

However, the ship was so humongous her launch proved almost impossible. And afterwards, proved to be an economical failure. She was a white elephant when operating from 17 June 1860, just too ahead of her time, and remained the largest ship afloat for more than 40 years (until 1899's SS Oceanic), ended her career in peculiar roles, without much glory. Brunel's project most often than not ran over budget and behind schedule, facing along the way series of technical problems.
Scotia

Cunard on the other hand was nothing of the sort. A cold, reasonable businessman using proven technologies in a larger scale. He was the real progenitor of transatlantic lines and would in the future certainly not shy before large ships when they could generate some profit. After his first four liners, he ordered his last paddle wheeler, the Scotia, burning 140 tons of coal everyday. The Scotia was able to reach New York from Queenstown in just eight days, and the idea of a prize, the blue ribbond, was not far away. His last wooden ship was the Arabia in 1853, just after the first freezer was installed on the Cleopatra. 1st class passengers saw quite improvements in the 1850s, but second-class ones, those between decks, carried their hammocks with them.

Despite these progresses indeed, sea travel was still not for the faint-hearted: Sea sickness as the ship rolled badly, brutal moves, no artificial lighting, nor heating, and limited food made of cans and sea biscuits, and little to do but wandering on the main deck until noon. Central heating only appeared in 1878 on the SS Adriatic, using gas lighting for the first time.


But it's really from 1900 that liners reached their golden age, which would last until 1970. They really embodied the best of luxury, grace and power, gradually improving their time in the most prestigious of all lines, the Transatlantic one. The main revolution mirrored the improvements in ship propulsion. While the triple and quadruple expansion steam engines, with boilers soon converted to oil, steam turbines made their promising debut.

As speed was part of the package sold by any transatlantic line, steam turbines soon found their way in liners as well. The Brown-Curtis turbine, an impulse type, originally developed and patented by Curtis in the 1900s was installed first on the Curnard's RMS Lusitania and RMS Mauretania, the fastest ships on earth at that time in 1906.



The same year the Royal Navy launched the first battleship with turbines, HMS Dreadnought. She was able to reach 21 knots, while the Mauretania won the blue ribbond first at 22 knots, but she was designed to cruise at 24 knots, which was unheard of at that time. She held the record for a passenger ship for... 20 years, quite an achievement.

Confidence in technology and opulence in luxury, backed by the masses of immigrants which really paid for the whole enterprise, spawned legendary ships the public never forget to this day. However overconfidence also led to disaters. Such was the case of RMS Titanic in 1912, which led to a tragedy, and a serious re-examination of safety measures at sea. The Titanic was just one of three liners, with the Olympic (1911) and Britannic (1915), that matched Cunard's ships for the famous rival line, the White Star.

USS Imperator

At the same stage, France tried to compete by creating the CGT or Compagnie Generale Transatlantique in 1912, launching for the occasion the SS France, not the fastest but certainly one of the most luxurious. Germany, not to be undone on this prestigious competition of engineering and craftsmanship, created the same year the Hamburg America Line. Soon the Kaiser unleashed his credits lines with in 1913 the SS Imperator followed in 1914 by SS Vaterland, larger than Cunard's liners. The Bismarck's construction was suspended as the war broke out.

The Great war, liners in battle dress

RMS Olmypic in razzle dazzle

It would be misleading to think the war stopped passenger lines to continue service around the globe. Wherever they were not impacted by war, at first constrained to the Flanders and champagne in northern France or the Russian border, the Balkans, passengers and freight went on despite material and manpower shortages, whenever possible.

The transatlantic line at first was not even impacted. The Unites State's own lines and liners continued to work until the the sinking of RMS Lusitania in 1915. From then on, submarine warfare became systematic and ugly, and would only grow in strength and ferocity until the end of hostilities, three years after.

Submarine warfare however rarely hit great liners. They were fast, while submarines were slow. It was only a combination of luck and skills which allowed the commander of U20, Walter Schwieger to ambush the liner on her expected route. The result, as we know was way more than a tragedy. This triggered the start of a rapid shift in the population against Germany, and up to a declaration of war in 1917.

lusitania sinking

When carrying passengers became perilous, liners became either troop transport or hospital ships, their appearance changing from colorful razzle dazzle to white dotted with red crosses of the second. With all their luxury fittings gone, making way to practical housing, entire divisions could be carried onboard these gargantuan hulls, under the vigilant protection of destroyers. Smaller liners, of secondary lines and ferries also played often significant roles.

The first naval action of the war was led by Germany, with the Königin Luise, a modest liner converted as an impromptu minelayer, with deadly consequences. In the night that followed the declaration of war, she slipped into the Thames estuary, laying minefields which would later claim many ships, before being caught and sank.

Other liners became auxiliaries, sometimes completely rebuilt as aircraft carriers (like the Campania) or seaplane carriers. Other were armed and used as escort vessels and auxiliary cruisers.

Interwar Years: The golden age of liners

Hamburg-America-Line

Luxury hotels of the modern cruise industry :

Norwegian Epic of the NCL (built in St Nazaire, issue: May 2010 - 330 meters, 153,000 GRT, 14 restaurants, 18 bars and lounges, 7 bridges and 2109 cabins.

Transition (1970-1990) :
There is no doubt that cruise market remains flourishing despite the crisis. The concept was born when the last great transatlantic liners disappeared, victims of the aviation after the war. Yet these great floating palaces, since the beginning of the century had rivaled two chapters: Luxury on board and speed, not to mention their dimensions.

The time when the new fortunes of the industry of the first classes lived in a pomp worthy of the European nobility, while the interior's dephts were crowded by candidates for emigration from all over Europe to the new world. The goal is no longer to travel, but to live on board. The new floating palaces of the 21st century are thus motorized floating cities, neither more nor less.

Since the 90s, the date of the explosion of this new market, several companies have established themselves: The very first pioneer of the genre was the NCL (Norwegian Cruise Line), followed by the Royal Carribean Cruise Line (RCCL) of Knut Kloster and Edwin Stephan, two Norwegian shipowners who felt demands for this new market.

Their approach to the new ships was radical and will hardly change since the 1970s: While classical Liners were built around an enormous propulsive group capable of exceeding 33 knots, they had several classes, relatively poor in recreational facilities and with a non-negligible load of goods.

The new cruise liners were to be floating hotels, designed for and around one-class passengers, very rich in leisure facilities, and designed for one-week trips to paradisical destinations, with one stopover per day. In 1970, three buildings were built, the Nordic Prince, Song of Norway and Sun Viking, by the Finnish shipyards Värtsilä of Helsinki, the future leader in this field. Other projects, such as Fincantieri, Howaldswerk in Hamburg, Meyerwerft, Naval Union of Levante in Valence, Saint Nazaire, Papenburg, Vickers-Armstrong and John Barrow, were also solicited for similar projects.

Several were indeed based on the success of the two Norwegian owners: The current US leader, the Carnival Cruise Line, Princess Cruises, Costa Cruises, Crystal Cruises, Disney Cruises, Regency Cruises, Celebrity Cruises, Star Cruises, and famous companies such as the Cunard, P & O, Holland America Line, and other mining companies that found new, juicy outlets, even if it entailed a radical overhaul of former liners dating back to the 1950s and 1960s.

From these giant companies, they arm four to twelve cruise ships and more, and offer year after year, more and more facilities, cabins, and a debauchery of tinsel according to the American taste, strongly inspired by the delusions of the hotels of Las Vegas.

Thus these liners since the 90s, have swelled spectacularly, matching and surpassing in dimensions all liners of yesterday. One can quote for example the Grand Princess of 1997 and her 283 meters for 104 000 GRT to compare with the legendary Norway, ex-France, with her 315 meters and 76 000 GRT. It was during the 1990s and especially 2000s that cruise ships crossed the limit of 300 meters. Due to their unmatched interior layout, life on board even improved due to the ratio between passengers, livable space (cabins of 12-25 m2 on average), recreational areas, and prolific personal.

Interiors diversified greatly: From the turn of the century sports fields and swimming pools on the upper decks, restaurants and concert halls were commonplace, but since the 1990s all the eccentricities of modern construction seem to have been reached: Atriums on 5 to 9 levels lined with glass lifts and tropical plants, giant shopping malls sometimes as long as the ship itself, even real streets reconstructed like Broadway on CCL ships. This, added to athletic-size swimming pools for Las-Vegas type water-shows, numerous theme restaurants and bars, operas and theatres, open air aqua-parks and golfs, rock climbing... There seems to be no limits to the industry's imagination, in a race to awe in entertainment.

Nothing seems to restrain the ardour of shipowners in terms of gigantism and facilities: The last liners in the computers or in construction sites are all overpanamax of more than 350 meters and 180 000 GRT. The Freedom of the Seas, the flag bearer of the RCCL and its 340 meters, the Queen Mary II of 346 meters, the Genesis of 360 meters... were only a prelude: The current Pharaonic projects, of these future buildings the biggest movable objects ever built of the human hand (but not the heaviest ones, like the supertanker Jahre Viking and its 565 000 GRT)

Thus the Oasis and Allure of the Seas, two giants of 380 meters, 220,000 GRT, 16 bridges, 2700 cabins and 5400 passengers, would be the first to offer a central space open on most of the ship, open to the rear. Another, more hypothetical project is the floating island of Alstom Marine designed by architect Jean-philippe Zoppini and 400 meters long, 300 wide, 30 high apartments, an inland marina and 10,000 passengers (below). Or the Princess Kayuga, its 505 meters, 20 bridges and 550,000 GRT, designed to have all the functionality of a self-contained floating city.

AZ Island
But the biggest and utopian of all is undoubtedly the Freedom Ship, a kind of floating barge of 1317 meters long by 221 wide, the upper deck serving as an aerodrome and having 18,000 habitable modules for permanent residents. The ship would be a kind of "floating country", with its own citizenship, which would sail in the offshore zone for years... Like any good utopia, for the time being this project has not found investors.

Read more:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_liner
http://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/navires-civils.php

Nomenclature of Liners since 1820

Work in Progress

SS Atrato (1853)

ss atrato

The ship SS Atrato was launched at Caird and Co. of Greenock in Scotland. It was then the largest ship in the world. It had wheels and not a propeller and was entirely made of iron. This was the first of this type issued at the Royal Mail Lines. It was however lighter than the famous Great Britain, ten years earlier, and more end of line. It was sold in 1880 to Adamson and Ronalds Lines, under the name of Rochester. It was under this name that he sank in 1884. His title as the largest ship was quickly taken over by the Himalayas of P & O in 1854.

Specifications
Displacement: 3500 tons light
Dimensions: 98m long x 15.2m wide x 6.5m draft.
Propulsion -1 propeller, 1 engine 4-cylinder, 500 hp.
Speed: 10 knots max.

SS Oregon (1883)

ss oregon

Large liner of the prestigious "Alantic line", 1883. Launched in 1883 for the Guion Line, this transatlantic built in iron and not steel by John Elder, delights the blue ribbon to its competitor Austral, of the same line. 152.8 meters long, 16.5 wide and moving 7400 tons, it was sold to the Cunard in 1884 because of the economic difficulties of its owner.

In 1885, he was requisitioned and served as a reconnaissance ship for the Royal Navy, in the midst of tensions with Russia, and was armed with ten pieces of marine. He then resumed his civil service, but in 1886 paid the price of the lightness of its construction by hitting a ship off Fire Island, and sank slowly, fortunately without loss of life, crews and passengers being collected by the Fulda, a passenger liner. the North Deustcher Lloyd ...

Specifications

Displacement: 3466 tons light
Dimensions: 106.7 m long x 12.8 m wide x 9.5 m draft.
Propulsion -1 propeller, 1 engine 4-cylinder, 700 hp.
Speed: 12 knots max.
Crew, passengers:?

SS Britannia (1885)

ss britannia

The Britannia and Victoria were built at Caird & Co, launched in 1887 and the Oceania and Arcadia at Harland & Wolff and launched in 1888 for P & O on its lines to the East and Oceania. The construction of the Britannia was accelerated to participate in the Queen Victoria Jubilee in 1888. So they were all called "Jubilee class".

Fast, thanks to their triple expansion machines driving a propeller, they loaded 220 + 160 passengers in two classes and the first two were used as fast troop transports in 1894-95 during the Boer War. This test was a success and this practice spread quickly. They were both removed from service in 1909, but the Oceania was still in service in 1912 when it struck a large German three-mast near Beachy Head and sank with 700,000 gold pounds in its holds. The Britannia saw the first world war and was disarmed in 1915.

Specifications
Displacement: 7400 tons light
Dimensions: 152.8 m long x 16.4 m wide x 5 m draft.
Propulsion -1 propeller, 1 engine 4-cylinder, 16 boilers.
Speed: 13 knots max.

S.S. Ophir (1891)

ss ophir

This liner built in Glasgow in 1891 was destined for the line to Australia, operated by the Orient Line. With a modern design, fast and very opulent, it was an offer of choice to this destination. However, being expensive to operate, it was sometimes put to sleep. Used by the Royal Navy as a magazine ship in 1901, then auxiliary ship in 1915 and finally ship-Hospital at the end of the conflict, service provided until 1922, date of its withdrawal and demolition.

Specifications
Displacement: 6525 light tons
Dimensions: 142.1 m long x 15.9 m wide x 5 m draft.
Propulsion -1 propeller, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines, 16 boilers.
Speed: 18 knots max.
Crew, passengers: 280

S.S. Canada (1896)

SS Canada

Built at Harland and Wolff in 1896, the SS Canada was commissioned by the Dominion Line to connect with Montreal and Boston. He served as a troop carrier during the Boer War, and after his 1910 reshuffle again began to convoy troops in 1914-18, before being demolished in 1926. He was judged at the time as the most beautiful ship ever to sail on the Saint Laurent.

Specifications
Displacement: 6800 tons light
Dimensions: 142m long x 16.2m wide x 4.8m draft.
Propulsion -1 propeller, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines, 16 boilers.
Speed: 19 knots max.

S.S. President Grant (1907)

SS President Grant

The British Wilson & Furness-Leyland Line could not receive in 1904 the two beautiful ships built at Harland & Wolff in Belfast, they were resold three years after their completion at the Hamburg-America Line. President Grant and President Lincoln were typical of this generation of cargo ships, betrayed by their numerous cargo tows and their singular superstructures designed to multiply the hatches. Both were seized in New York in 1914, with President Lincoln serving as a troop carrier who died under a torpedo in 1918, and the other was exploited until 1951, a fine career for such a ship, but which also shows legendary strength. ships from the famous Belfast shipyards.

Specifications
Displacement: 6500 light tons, 8000 t PC.
Dimensions: 152.5 m long x 17.7 m wide x 5.6 m draft.
Propulsion -2 propellers, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines,? boilers.
Speed: 20 knots max.
Crew, passengers:? - 1020 (including 800 emigrants).

S.S. France (1912)

SS France

The Penhoët shipyards of Saint-Nazaire have a long-standing relationship with the CGT (Transatlantic General Company). They produced for her marvelous wonders, able to confront the biggest companies of the world including at the time the unavoidable White Star Line, P & O and Cunard. This luxurious transatlantic boat, launched in 1912, the largest produced by the shipyards, could be measured against Mauretania and Lusitania.

In 1914-18, he was successively auxiliary cruiser, hospital ship and troop transport. It was rebuilt in 1923, passing oil, and demolished in 1935. It was quickly eclipsed by the sublime Normandy, and its name was taken up by the last great liner of tradition, launched in 1962. Specifications
Travel: 46,332 tonnes GRT (52,310 TPC)
Dimensions: 269.10 m long x 28.2 m wide x 9 m draft (air draft 53 meters).
Propulsion -3 propellers, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines, 29 boilers, 30,000 hp.
Speed: 22 knots cruising, 25 knots max.
Crew, passengers: 900 - 1/2 / 3rd class: 905, 564, 1134

S.S. Homeric (1921)

SS Homeric

This liner had a very original destiny: Started just before the war by Schichau of Danzig for the North Deutscher Lloyd, it remained unfinished during the war and the armistice, was transferred to the British government who sold it to the White Star Line , responsible for its completion. It was the largest ship in the world with two propellers.

It was not until 1922 that he sailed for his maiden voyage on the transatlantic line. However in 1923, he was driven to Harland and Wolff to be converted to heating oil. From 1932 he was removed from the transatlantic line and became a cruise ship. He left to scrap in 1936, after only 15 years of service. He embarked 2866 passengers.

Specifications
Displacement: 23 600 t PC
Dimensions: 217 x 23 x 8 m.
Propulsion -2 propellers, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines, 16 boilers, 12,000 hp.
Speed: 23 knots max.
Crew, passengers: 600 - 1826 (including 800 immigrants).

S.S. Empress of Britain (1932)

SS Empress of Britain

Chartered by the Canadian Pacific, this large steamer (231.8 meters by 29.6) and weighing 42 350 tons was built by John Brown Shipyard of Clydebank and launched in 1931. It was specially designed for the Atlantic line, taking the blue ribbon in Bremen. But his maiden voyage did not take place to New York but to Quebec.

He was significantly faster on this line than his competitors. However he was also one of the first cruise liner, a new fashion, launched by the Jet-set of the Roaring Twenties. As such, it could work with half of its powertrain. He embarked 1195 passengers including 460 first class, and mobilized in 1939 and assigned to transport Canadian troops, he was torpedoed by a German submarine, then towed by a destroyer, poured for good by the torpedoes of another submarine. Fortunately, her embarked troops had evacuated her. Specifications Displacement: 34 350t PC
Dimensions: 236 x 25 x 6.8 m.
Propulsion -2 propellers, 2 TE 4-cylinder engines, 16 boilers, 6000 hp.
Speed: 23 knots max.
Crew, passengers: 500 - 2886.

S.S. United States (1952)

To come

The 'Big Four' of the White Star Line -Mark Chirnside

A Man and His Ship: America's Greatest Naval Architect and His Quest to Build the SS United States
A Man and His Ship: America's Greatest Naval Architect and His Quest to Build the SS United States by Steven Ujifusa

Crossing on Time: Steam Engines, Fast Ships, and a Journey to the New World
Crossing on Time: Steam Engines, Fast Ships, and a Journey to the New World by David Macaulay


Oceanic: White Star's 'Ship of the Century' by Mark Chirnside


SS Leviathan: America's First Superliner by Brent Holt


Queen Elizabeth 2 Manual: An insight into the design, construction and opera - by Haynes (Other primary creator)


Across the Pacific: Liners from Australia and New Zealand to North America - by Peter Plowman


White Empresses: And Other Canadian Pacific Liners of the 1920s & 30s - by William Ncsu Miller


Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isambard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships - by Stephen Fox


The Golden Age of Ocean Liners - by Lee Server


Last of the Blue Water Liners: Passenger Ships Sailing the Seven Seas - by William H. Miller


RMS Aquitania: The Ship Beautiful by Mark Chirnside


Ocean Ships by David Hornsby


Great Passenger Ships 1930-1940 by William Miller


Cabin Class Rivals: Lafayette & Champlain, Britannic & Georgic and Manhattan & Washington by David L. Williams, Richard P. de Kerbrech

Great Passenger Ships 1950-60 by William Miller


Liners in Battledress: Wartime Camouflage and Colour Schemes for Passenger Ships - David Williams

Paper Models

SS Olympic - Or Papersquare


SS Titanic - Also


SS Britannic - And on shipmodell

Fentens Papermodel - Queen Mary and others



RMS Mauretania on kartonmodellbau.de

Liner Camberra

LINKS

cruiselinehistory.com
ocean-liner-society.com
whitestarhistory.com
cherbourg-titanic.com
www.cunard.com
frenchlines.com
theshipslist.com
heritage-ships.com
thegreatoceanliners.com
maritime-database.com
worldshipping.org
maritimeinfo.org

3D MODELS

Great Eastern
RMS Lusitania
Immigrant transtlantic
Example 3d transatlantic
On thingiverse.com
Famous 1/1250 replicas
On hum3d.com
linerdesigns.com
Models by Lucas Gustaffson

Video-Great Liners
VIDEO: Great Oceans Liners: Speed Machines
Also:
youtube.com/watch?v=4oyNH8TjJ6A
youtube.com/watch?v=npUpZgSebJQ
youtube.com/watch?v=PPwhrra9mjY
youtube.com/watch?v=Er9wOadvvCY
youtube.com/watch?v=tafvJfFmg3Y
youtube.com/watch?v=nt7dbvKsEf8
youtube.com/watch?v=xmBacWD4M4M
youtube.com/watch?v=ma-j-Rm3W9k
youtube.com/watch?v=a9qRb0mp-5s
youtube.com/watch?v=zfMmmJrEE5I
youtube.com/watch?v=hHNTRDEb5NQ

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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