HMS Adventure (1923)

United Kingdom - Minelayer Cruiser (1923-47)

The first dedicated British minelayer cruiser

With the unusual pennant number M23, HMS Adventure was the first dedicated minelaying cruiser of the Royal Navy. Inspired by WWI German minelayer cruisers, she was built in the 1920s but saw action in the Second World War, with a famous commander in 1928-1929 John H. D. Cunningham. Not only she was tailored to carry and lay a large number of mines (most cruisers had that capability), she was fitted with diesels to ensure the best range, also a first. She acted with the Atlantic fleet as a minelayer from 1939 to 1944, before being converted as a landing craft repair and accommodation ship. She also inspired the Abdiel class built in 1939-41.

hms adventure
HMS Adventure as completed.

Design Development

The path leading so such experimental concept was at first dictated by the simple need to replace the converted WWI HMS Princess Margaret, but her design was influenced by the German minelayeng cruisers like SMS Brummer and Bremse. Initial requirements came out in 1919, urging both a large mine capacity and good cruising range as prime design objectives. The mineload was to be carried internally also contrary to the usual practice, and thus, to allow a better service of the mines by the crew and better protection from the elements. This however, imposed a particular lighting and aeration.

This particular requirement forced the adoption of a long and ininterrupted internal deck, and a main deck above for a roomy and tall hull. Attention was also given to the stern, which had specially designed chutes and a tailored transom shape, a first at that time. The latter was supposed to clear up the mines faster, but the concept was not sufficiently tried in real conditions, at least for minelaying purposes.

Design in detail

The mine deck presented four sets of rails, running the length of the hull down to the stern chutes. This transom (flat in marine term) stern, was envisioned by engineers to improve cruising efficiency, but more about that later. The hull was reminiscent of the standard "D" class, and for simplification she borrowed much of the superstructure also to gain time. So in essence she was a Danae class with a mine deck. This much simplified the design time, but led to some compromises as well. Although she did not shared the same powerplant (but had the same output), but her range doubled. Her hull was both longer and larger, 6,740 long tons in standard displacement versus 4,850 tons standard. Her draught was about the same however at 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m), 17 ft 3 in (5.26 m) full load versus 14.5 ft (4.4 m) and 16.5 ft (5.0 m) when fully loaded.

Stern view of HMS Adventure before reconstruction
Stern view of HMS Adventure before reconstruction

Hull construction & protection

HMS Adventure's hull measured as built 520 feet (158.50 m) long overall and 500 feet (152.40 m) between perpendiculars. Her beam was 59 feet (17.98 m) - again versus 46.5 ft (14.2 m) (47 ft (14 m) on HMS Despatch and Diomede, for a draught of 17 feet 2 inches (5.23 m) deeply load. Displacement reached 6,740 long tons (6,850 t) standard, up to 8,370 long tons (8,500 t) deeply loaded; It retake most of the internal compartimentation solutions on the D-Class, separating her six Yarrow-type water-tube boilers from the Parsons geared steam turbines.

Protection-wise, Conway's states she was protected by one inch of steel (25 mm) on her side and that's it. Precise informations are not available. It was clearly not the main focus of engineers; To compare, the D class cruisers had a much more extensive protection between a main belt 2.25 inches (57 mm), 1 in (25 mm) over her machinery, steering gear and gunshields. We can at least suppose this was the same on her side, since she also shared the same artillery and needed extra protection on her vitals as well;

hms-adventure-completed
hms Adventure as completed

Controversy and reconstruction

In 1920, Marine British engineering started to play around with new hull shapes and discovered the usefulness of the transom stern. Basically chopping the aft section as it started tapering made the ship faster. This also saved materual, and thus cost while keeping the advantages of a longer ship. In a budget-restrcicted time, this seemed a good idea. At least as far as the theory went: It was tested in basin, and worked in full scale, so as the HMS Adventure (the name also reflecting her innovative stance) was chosen to evaluate it. She became the world's first ship with a transom stern as a test.

In the first sea trial, it was found out that that transom stern worked perfectly as predicted. However it has been very simplified as the taper "tricks" the water, into thinking the ship is longer than it really is. The ship went faster for the same output as a result, but by creating a pool of "dead water" filling in the space where the tapered hull should be. This "pool" followed the ship around. It was fine for any ship. Less so for a minelayer !

Indeed this dead water also caused by such a form meant that mines tended to be sucked back into the hull after launch. As discovered when she made her first operational tests. An obviously dangerous situation for a minelayer and as a result, she was rebuilt with a traditional cruiser, or rounded, stern, increasing the length by 19 ft (5.8 m). At a time without computers, fluid mechanics were still relatively unknown, and that particular shape, on paper seemed rational, but the wake created behind the ship was quite complex, resulting in counter-vortexes that could have been only worked out using computer calculations based on modern models. Nothing at that time was available. But the result of these was that some mines, after clearing of the ship tended to be drawn back in the wake, counter-intuitively as it seemed. At least the clean wake, well known, from a standard "pointy" stern was more predictable.

HMS Adventure's innovative mixed propulsion

Propulsion was decided early one to maximize range over speed, even though top speed needed to be sufficient to fler battleships. The initial plant was as installed in the C-class cruisers, but to increase cruising efficiency, she was given a novel diesel-electric plant for tests, propellers being driven by either set of turbines or diesels through gearboxes. We also can see it as a primitive CODOG. The diesel-electric plant howeve rproved troublesome and was removed entirely during her second repair inactivation by 1941, along with the small diesel exhaust trunked up the second funnel.

So this powerplant comprised two Parsons single reduction geared steam turbines fed by six Yarrow water-tube boilers, and four Vickers 8-cylinder diesel engines working with two alternators and two electric motors.

Armament

The main problem with the design was that the mine deck was already above her metacentric center, so she was already off-balanced. Engineers knew they could not have her armed like a standard D class cruiser. Instead of the six BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) L/45 Mark XII gun completed by four DP/AA smaller guns and two torpedo tubes banks, HMS Adventure was equipped with the following:
-Four QF 4.7-in Mark VIII (single mountis HA Mark XII)
-Four QF 2-pounder Mk.II (single mounts HA Mk.II)
-280 Large Pattern mines or 340 small pattern mines

Modifications

By 1941 during her repairs, HMS Adventure was fitted with a Radar for the first time, a Type 291 air warning type, installed at the masthead. She was also fitted with a Radar Type 285 on the high-angle HACS Director Control Tower (foremast spotting top), and a Type 272 centimetric target indication radar on the foremast, below the spotting top. In xxx she was rearmed with eight QF 2-pounder Mk.VIII (Single octuple mount HA Mk.VIII) and eight 0.5 in (13 mm) Vickers machine guns (two quadruple mounts Mk.I). In 1944 her electronics suite was unchanged, but nine 20 mm Oerlikon AA guns on single mounts P Mk.III were added to her decks, two of which replaced the old quad tandem Vickers HMGs. As a repair ship for landing craft this was unchanged but if course her mines were get rid of.


Image from the Imperial War Museum (cropped)


Image from the US Naval History & Heritage Command


Comparison between the 1928 and 1942 versions of the cruiser

HMS Adventure (1925)

Dimensions164.3oa x 18 x 4.42m (539 x 59 x 14 ft 6 in)
Displacement6,740 t standard, 8,370 t FL
Propulsion2 shafts geared steam turbines, 4 diesel electrics, 6 Yarrow boilers, 40,000 shp (30,000 kW)
Speed27.75 knots (51.39 km/h; 31.93 mph)/17 kts diesels
Range4,500 nmi/12 kts, 1,820 nmi (3,370 km; 2,090 mi)/25 kts
ArmorBelt, gun shields 2 in, armored deck 2 in
Armament4 × 4.7-in Mk VIII QF, 4 × 2-pdr Mk.II DP QF, 280-340 mines
Crew392-560 wartime

Scr/Read More

Logs on naval-history.net
On the dreadnoughtproject.org
On navypedia.org
On battleships-cruisers.co.uk (also 1935-39 logs)
Charles Carslon memories
On reddit.com
wik
On uboat.net
collections.museumsvictoria.com
maritimeoriginals.com

Books: Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds. Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1921-47
British National Archives at Kew, London
Brown, David K. (2010). The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development 1906–1922. Seaforth Bublishing
Brown, David; Majeski, David V.; Buxton, Ian L. & Smythe, A. J. (2001). Cruiser-Minelayer HMS Adventure, Warship International.
Cocker, M. P. (1993). Mine Warfare Vessels of the Royal Navy: 1908 to Date. Airlife Publishing
Haarr, Geirr H. (2013). The Gathering Storm: The Naval War in Northern Europe: September 1939–April 1940.
HMS Adventure - Ship's Log - November 1939, The National Archives, Kew
Lenton, H. T. (1998). British & Commonwealth Warships of the Second World War. Naval Institute Press.
Rohwer, Jürgen; Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Greenhill Books
Nore Command War Diary ADM 199/375 & War History ADM 199/1454
Board of Inquiry Report ADM 1/10857
J P Foynes "Battle of the East Coast 1939–1945).
Modeller's book

HMS Adventure's career (1927-45)

Interwar service

Officers_of_HMS_Adventure_in_Shanghai_June_1938
Officers onboard posing in Shanghai, June 1938

As the 13th ship bearing that name, HMS Adventure was laid down at Devonport in November 1922 and launched in June 1924. She was commissioned when completed in May 1927. Her first commander between 1928 and 1929 was the future First Sea Lord John H. D. Cunningham. Not much is known after that, and she probably alternated training and cruisese between the Channel, North Atlantic, Mediterranean but also Asia. This was interrupted by a reconstruction of her stern early on. To read more about this, see the recollection of Colin Jones's service from 1935 on battleships-cruisers.co.uk (link above in the sources). Her motto was 'Dare all' and heraldic Badge was a silver anchor between two shields on a back field, bearing the Cross of St George and the Irish Harp respectively.

Wartime service - 1939

On the outbreak of the War the RN strategy comprised an operation of blockade as in WWI against Germany, and so the laying a series of defensive minefields in British coastal waters for defense, and English Channel, were the first phase, preventing attacks. From 11 to 16 September 1939, HMS Adventure (Under command of Capt. A.R. Halfhide) sailed with the smaller coastal minelayer HMS Plover and converted train ferries Shepperton and Hampton for the mission, escorted by HMS Cairo and destroyers of the 19th Destroyer Flotilla. In all they laid 3,119 mines in the Straits of Dover. This secured the east end of the Channel from any penetration by submarines.

This started on the night of 24-25 Oct 1939, departing Immingham to laid mines off Flamborough Head escorted by HMS Cossack and HMS Jupiter and back to Immingham. The 30 October 1939 she sailed for another mission off the Humber escorted by HMS Janus and Juno, and when done, she sailed to Rosyth. HMS Adventure was deployed for a Yorkshire coast large minefield. On early November she departed to lay mines off the Firth of Forth with HMS Juno and Jupiter again, and moved to Portsmouth on 12 Nov 1939 with HMS Basilisk and Blanche.




In 1942, credits USN Naval Historical Command

The night of 12/13 November 1939 saw a sortie by German destroyers Z 18, Z 19, Z 20 and Z 21, laying themselves a minefield in the Thames estuary. HMS Adventure hit a mine there shortly after 05:00 hours near the Tongue Light Vessel, disabled. The injured were transferred to HMS Basilisk while the HMS Blanche (Lt.Cdr. R.N. Aubrey) stayed in close defence. Thy were proceeded to safety when HMS Blanche herself also hit a mine around 08:30, starting sinking by the stern. The tug Fabia tried to take her in tow, but she capsized and sank before, lossing two crew with twelve injured by the explosion and flooding.

In all, 23 of HMS Adventure's crew were killed or fatally injured. The bridge was wrecked also with fittings thrown against bulkheads and down hatchways. The Medway tugs had her in tow from Ramsgate until she reached Chatham Dockyard for repairs. Originally floating mines were blamed but nowadays it is clear magnetic mines were used. Captain Arthur Robert Halfhide left command on December 1939 and the whole crew was reaffected elsewhere while a one year long repair took place.

Wartime service - 1940

Capt. Norman Vere Grace took his functions on 18 August 1940, during repairs, and remained so until 12 August 1942. HMS Adventure returned to service only by October 1940 and the context of operations already changed. On 30 November, she was met en route by HMS Kashmir, Kipling, Jackal from Plymouth for a patrol to lay the minefueld GQ 1. HMS Adventure departed Milford and the destroyers were detached shortly before noon, arriving at Plymouth in the second half of the afternoon. HMS Adventure was back to Milford Haven in the evening. On 29 December at 10:55 she was escorted with HMS Kashmir and Jersey, Jupiter to Plymouth, and with the last two she departed Milford Haven to lay minefield GQ 2. On 30 December she was back in Plymouth after completing her mission.


May 1943 IWM


Blockade Runner's end, 10 April 1943, Bay of Biscay, Silvaplana

Wartime service - 1941


Stern view, 1942

In January 1941, HMS Adventure was in mission when she again struck by a mine in Liverpool Bay. The damage was again considerable and she was towed out of harm but out of action for five months. It's only by July 1941 that she sailed out with the Operation EF task force sent for the raid of Kirkenes and Petsamo in Norway. This was made in support of the Soviet Union, and on 1st August she arrived in Murmansk with a cargo of parachute mines to be used by the Russian Naval Aviation. She stayed in Murmansk until sailing home at the end of the year.

Wartime service - 1942

In February 1942, HMS Adventure was due to make another run to Murmansk. However the lucky cruiser was damaged in a collision en route, in the Clyde. This cost her further repairs for three months. It's only by June 1942 that HMS Adventure was active again. She was tasked to take part in a decoy operation called Operation ES, covering the passage of convoy PQ 17. Capt. Ronald George Bowes-Lyon took command on 12 Aug 1942, and stayed until December 1943. The winter of 1942/43 saw her making fast re-supply missions to Gibraltar and the Mediterranean in general.


HMS Adevnture in 1943 - IWM

Wartime service - 1943

In April 1943, HMS Adventure wasn sent to try spotting and sinking the German blockade runner Irene. On 10 April, KMS Irene was intercepted at last, and sunk off the coast of Spain. In November 1943, HMS Adventure was sent home for a conversion as a tender and repair ship, for landing craft. By that popint she has done 20 mining operations throughout the Western Approaches and North Sea. But the conditions changed and minelaying was no longer a priority. Specialized ships were urgently needed and the large interdeck space was ideal for her task. Cdr. Charles Bettesworth Sanders of the RNVR (New Zealand) took commad on December 1943.

Wartime service - 1944-45

During the Normandy landings of 1944 HMS Adventure was deployed off Mulberry B, as a support and repair vessel, landing repair parties on 19 June which were hard at work to recover damaged landing craft, needed elsewhere. Many of these were used indeed in Operation Anvil (southern France). Her following captains were William Bagot Walker from 1st January 194 and Cdr. Charles Bettesworth Sanders of the RNVR until 20 March, then A/Capt. Alan MacGregor Sheffield until August, Cdr. George Alan Kenneth McCombe (RNVR) until 7 Jan 1945 and Cdr. Alan Holt Davies (RNVR) until 27 Apr 1945. Her last active captain was Donald Scott McGrath until the summer of 1945. HMS Adventure was decommissioned in August 1945, placed in reserve and stricken, but not sold for scrap before 1947 to Thos W Ward. and broken up at Briton Ferry.

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
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Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
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Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
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Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
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La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
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R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
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Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
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Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
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Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
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Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
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Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
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Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
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Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
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USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
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Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
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King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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