Spanish Cruiser Navarra (1920)

Spanish ArmadaSpain
Reina Victoria Eugenia aka Republica (1931) aka Navarra (1936)

Too late for the Great war

The Reina Victoria Eugenia was a single ship, close in superficial appearance to the following Mendez Nunez class, but totally different ships nonetheless, so the latter will be seen separately. They are part of these ships ordered before or during the great war, but not yet seeing the second world war as Spain remained neutral. So we talk about an interwar cruiser here, which fate was narrowly linked to the political turmoil of the interwar. And the very peculiar situation of Spain in the 1930s. She even missed most of the civil war as she was entirely rebuilt and served until 1956.

A class of prewar British design

Basically the three cruisers were part of the 1914 program approved by the Cortes (parliament) following the 1908 navy law for the building of three dreadnought battleships. These were the accompanying cruisers. The British design was then favored and in 1912, the "Town" class was the one that the Spanish Admiralty was interested in, but authorization in July 1914 meant the war erupted and the keel of the first ship was actually laid down at Ferrol NYd on March 1915 only, and completion was delayed by the provision of artillery, telemetry and other equipment from the UK. So much so that this Spanish "town" cruiser was only launched in April 1920, well after the war and completed in 1923.



In between, the Spanish admiralty has renounced to order more ships of the same sort and rather had to accept a smaller, more economical ship, known as the Mendez Nunez class, authorized by the Navy Law of 15 February 1915. They too were laid down at Ferrol quite late, in April and September 1917 to see any useful wartime completion. They were launched in 1922-23 and completed in 1924-25, by which time their design was hopelessly obsolete.

Design of the Reina Vitora Eugenia

In all-out appearance, it was like the Spaniards purchased the Birmingham class blueprints and modified the design to suit their needs. The Reina Vitoria Eugenia was a 5500 tons light cruiser, 25 knots, armed with nine 6-in guns, and with limited protection. The main differences however with the British design was that the boilers were rearranged in three separate boiler rooms, and one funnel was sacrificed while the other were better truncated.

General specifications:

The Armada ship Queen Victoria Eugenia (named after Queen consort Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg) was the sole cruiser built in Spain since the Reina Regente in 1906. The British design was a good way to leapfrog design advancements, at least as far as prewar design was concerned since the original ship was from 1914. She displaced 5502 tons standard, with dimensions of 134 m long (440 ft) by 15.1 m (49ft 8in) and 4.8 m in draught (15ft 9in). Crew was 404 sailors and officers. She was built at the Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval in Ferrol

Power and performances:

The Vitoria Eugenia was propelled by two shafts connected to steam geared turbines from Parsons, while they were fed by 12 coal-firing Yarrow boilers, for a total of 25,500 hp. This was enough for a top speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h). 660 tons of coal was carried, allowing a range of about 4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h).

Armament:

Her main armament was comparable to the standards of the time, while secondary armament was almost an afterthought:

Protection:

Protection was maximized around the conning tower, with walls 6-in thick (152 mm) while the belt ranged from two to three inches (76 mm) in thickness. To be precise 1.25 in (32mm) on both ends of the belt. The decks were, as customary at that time, only 76 mm thick (3 in). However, it is not precised what type of steel was used, Harvey, Vickers or local steel.

Reina Vitoria Eugenia class (1922)

Dimensions140 x 15.1 x 4.8m (440 x 50 x 16 ft)
Displacement5,400 t standard, 6,400 t FL
Crew404
Propulsion2 turbines, 12 Yarrow coal-fired boilers
Speed25.5 knots (40 km/h)
Range4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h)
Armament9 × 152 mm (6 in)/50, 4 × 47 mm AA (3 pdr), 2 MGs; 2x2 533mm (21 in) TT
ProtectionBelt 32-76 mm (1.25-3 in), Deck: 76 mm (3 in), Masks: 76 mm, CT 152 mm (6 in)

The interwar

Upon completion, Reina Vitoria Eugenia served actively with the 1st cruiser division. In January 1925, together with the Destroyer Alsedo, she went to Lisbon to commemorate the IV Centenary of Vasco de Gama. She became the flagship of the Spanish squadron deployed in support of operations in the Rif war, in Morocco. However in 1931 Spain the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed and the cruiser was renamed accordingly, Republica. From then on, however budgetary cuts imposed limited yearly training exercises. Compounded by the consequences of the 1929 crisis.

The civil war: Cruiser Navarra

When the civil war broke out, Republica was decommissioned, in drydocks at Cadiz on July 18, 1936 for a refit. She has been disarmed and her boilers has been removed. However she was later captured by the insurgents.
After the fall of Bilbao in June 1937, the possibility of modernzing this old cruiser was overviewed and a reform project was presented and approved at SECN's Ferrol Yard. A towing of the ship was ordered from Cádiz to Ferrol, arriving in the end of July 1937 under the name Navarra, which had come into force on June 19. Work on the ship began in the last months of 1937, initiating clear-scrapping of the structure and better access to the machinery below out in open air.


Left side of the Navarra after refit - http://www.revistanaval.com

Work on the ship consisted, as José María González-Llanos stated:
"A tour of all her hull and equipments, which were practically new, the modification of the artillery, with six brand new 15,24 cm guns, with mounts allowing greater elevation, belonging to shore batteries. This went also with modifying deeply all the provision of accommodations and services of the ship, thus totally modernized.

The main work that was carried out was the transformation of the machinery. This ship had always been defective, due to the large direct turbines of 22,500 HP of power, which by the large masses that constitute them provoked dilatation effects and considerable relative movements, creating faults in the drives. On the other hand, radial clearances due to corrosion were exaggerated and made consumption was really excessive, to the point that the twelve mixed boilers coal-oil original Yarrow boilers that the ship had, were not able to give the steam necessary to develop the designed power and corresponding speed, of 25 knots."


Regarding the armament, the new cruiser mounted a main battery, centerline, of six 152.4 mm Vickers cannons, delivered by the Army from the coastal artillery unit of the Cantabrian coast. For air defense, four 88mm L/45 guns were ordered from Germany and received in kits for assembly and as many Italians as Isotta-Fraschini Breda "Scotti" IF 20mm /70 machine guns were purchased from Italy.



After modernization the ship's displacement rose to 6,500 tons at full load, and length jumped to 140.8 m for 15.2 m of beam, and 5.6 m draft. Top speed was almost unchanged at 25 knots and the armor was unchanged. The crew was down to 350 sailors and officers. Officially, reconstruction started in 1937 and was achieved in 1938.

The reconstruction included: Navarra was back in service at the end of the fight, to replace the loss of the Balearic Islands. She re-entered service in June 1938. But her usefulness was limited as she was the slowest of all three Spanish nationalist cruisers, Canarias and Almirante Cervera.

Reina Vitoria Eugenia and Navarra after reconstruction
Russian illustration of the Republica in 1933 and Navarra after reconstruction in 1938 - In July 1938, Navarra joined the Nationalist fleet and the Cruiser Division, along with the Canarias and Admiral Cervera, serving as a replacement after the terrible loss of the cruiser Baleares on March 6. Commanding Officer José Ramón Carbonell Rubio noted in his journal:

"Aesthetically, the new Navarra left a lot to be desired. Not only the heresy of chimneys was her main sin, but her horrible bridge, half Egyptian pyramid and half dovecote, reminiscent of the Graff Spee and the Canarias, but worse in effect as it was not high enough to escape the infernal smoke from the new chimneys, clouding permanenlty the fire control."


Navarra in WW2

Navarra, despite her modernization, was mostly kept for training and served as such until 1951, in May. She was auctioned and scrapped in June 1956, and her battery however had survived. Two of her deposed guns in 1936 has been relocated at Costa J-4 in Cabo Silleiro, Pontevedra, fighting during the civil war and relocated in 1943.

Navarra (1938)

Dimensions141 x 15.1 x 4.8m (440 x 50 x 16 ft)
Displacement4,857 t standard, 6,500 t FL
Crew450
Propulsion2 Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow oil-fired boilers
Speed26 knots (48 km/h)
Range4,500 nmi (9000 km) at 15 knots (25 km/h)
Armament6 × 152 mm (6 in)/50, 4 × 88 mm/45 AA, 2 x 20 mm AA
ProtectionBelt 32-76 mm (1.25-3 in), Deck: 76 mm (3 in), Masks: 76 mm, CT 152 mm (6 in)



Shipbucket's modified, "rendered" profile of the Navarra in 1938

Read More & sources
Beevor, Antony (2000) The Spanish Civil War.
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921 and 1922-1947
Fernández, Carlos (2000). Alzamiento y Guerra civil en Galicia 1936–1939. Vol.1.
Moreno de Alborán y de Reyna, Salvador (1998). La guerra silenciosa y silenciada: historia de la campaña naval durante la guerra de 1936-39. Vol.3.
Whitley MJ. Cruisers of World War 2: an International Encyclopedia
http://www.revistanaval.com/www-alojados/armada/buques1/navarra.htm
http://hemeroteca.abc.es/nav/Navigate.exe/hemeroteca/madrid/abc/1923/01/21/030.html
http://www.navypedia.org/ships/spain/sp_cr_reina_victoria_eugenia.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_cruiser_Navarra_(1923)
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navarra_(1923)
https://foronaval.com/2013/08/18/del-republica-al-navarra-historia-de-una-transformacion/
https://www.balearspotting.com/armada-espa%C3%B1ola/crucero-navarra/
http://www.kbismarck.com/mgl/crucer.htm

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TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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