rwd-table

Regina Elena class battleships (1904)

Regina Elena, Roma, Vittorio Emmanuele, Napoli

The world's fastest battleships

The last Italian pre-dreadnought battleships were by far the best, and even precursors of a new type of battleship, the Dreadnought. The minister of the navy in 1899, Giovanni Bettolo asked Vittorio Cuniberti, the chief shipbuilding engineer, to prepare the design of an 8000-ton armored cruiser uniformly armed with twelve 8 inches (203 mm) guns.

Regina Elena

His theory of a forcefully armed and fast ship went back a long way, and a naval battleship project gave him the opportunity to apply his principles. The latter was a fast battleship of 13,000 tons, faster than opposite battleships and more powerfully armed.

Cuniberti personally prepared also a more ambitious 17,000 tons design armed with twelve 12-in guns (305 mm), refused because seen as too ambitious by the minister. Cuniberti will make himself famous by publishing his famous "monocaliber battleship" design in the Jane's magazine in 1903, and received the special permission of the ministry to do so. This design was a game changer.

Cuniberti's battleships

The Regina Elena was of the very last pre-dreadnought class of Italian battleships. They were of the last generation, often seen as transitional to the dreadnought to the point some authors coined the term recently of "semi-dreadnought". What make them stand apart ? The fact their secondary artillery was now almost as powerful as their main battery, and generally in turrets. A whole generation of these ships, often laid down before or in some case at the same time as the HMS Dreadnought: Italy's Elena, France's Danton, Great Britain's Nelson, Austro-Hungaria's Radetsky, Japan's Settsu, or even Germany's Blücher.

The fact the Italians laid down these battleships in 1901-1903, well before the Dreadnought was even approved, said a lot about its chief artisan: Vittorio Cuniberti pioneered the concept, but the idea was launched in 1899 by the new minister of the Navy, rear admiral Giovanni Bertolo. He ordered the new chief engineer of the navy, Cuniberti, to design a ship armed with twelve 8-in guns. The design therefore looked like an armored cruiser, not morroring the usual practice of a twin gun turret arrangement for the main arrtillery. The other specs were largely superior to a battleship anyway with a top speed of 22 knots while the armor was limited to 6-in, so cruiser grade.

Development & design of the Regina Elena class

Brassey's diagram

The genesis of the Regina Elena, which was to lead to the construction of four ships, to form a powerful squadron, was, therefore, a compromise between the first armoured cruiser project and the latest specifications of the Ministry: A ship capable to maintain 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) thanks to 19-21,000 hp engine power, which was indeed superior to most pre-dreadnoughts.

On the other hand, if she remained indeed a pre-dreadnought by the choice of only two single turrets, housing 12 inches (305 mm) guns, whereas her secondary artillery was particularly powerful, composed of twelve 8 inches (203 mm) artillery pieces. This solution was common among last generation pre-dreadnoughts, so the Dreadnought design was the obvious next step.

The difference between the two calibers made it possible not to confuse the impact plumes, therefore, to adjust the range correctly, unlike British ships which opted for larger 234 mm pieces (Like the Nelson class) and could have some trouble identifying respective plumes.




One may wonder, however, about the use of single turrets. This can be explained only as a measure of economy, of weight and budget. In fact, the prestigious "Proceedings" of the United States Naval Institute noted that "it should be borne in mind that a pair of guns in a turret do not make twice as good shooting as a single gun," and that given the limited displacement of the design, it "was the wisest choice that could be made." In addition these guns were served by reputed Barr and Stroud rangefinders.

For protection, these ships adopted an original protection for the magazine, that were refrigerated. Also, they were given an armor made of Krupp cemented steel manufactured in Terni. The main belt was 9.8 in (249 mm) thick down to 6 in and 4 in on ends. Decks were 1.5 in (38 mm) thick and the conning tower 10 in (254 mm) while the turrets and battery guns were protected by 8 in (203 mm) down to 6 in. This was not impressive, but speed was already seen as an active protection. Reaching up to 22.5 knots on trials, these ships, powered by classic VTE engines, were even faster than the Dreadnought and in general turbine battleships. They were almost seen as upgraded armored cruisers with an heavy armament and equally good protection. Their range was also good, of approximately 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

In general, these ships were applauded by the admirals of the world, at the time when the potential adversaries of Italy, allied with the central empires, were France and Great Britain. Cuniberti profoundly influenced Lord Fisher who pushed the admiralty to start the HMS Dreadnought, notably to avoid foreign navies do it first... So it was only because of a minister tight budget that UK, and not Italy, which industrial GDP was way below, authorized such ship first. Soon, Germany and the US will join this race, whereas Italy and France as well Austria-Hungary or Russia were already engaged in their last pre-dreadnought projects.

Career of the Regina Elena class

Four ships were laid down, Regina Elena and Roma in March 1901 and September 1903 at La Spezia, and the Vittorio Emmanuele and Napoli in September 1901 and October 1903 at Castellammare di Stabia. They were launched in 1904-1907, commissioned between September 1907 and December 1908. In 1912, forming the first line division, they participated in the Balkan war, pounding Rhodes and Tripoli and capturing the first. They formed the second division of the line in 1914, and were less active than the Italian dreadnoughts, although as fast. Shortly after entering service, their masts were removed and their funnels were shortened by a few meters. After a career without glory, they were deleted from the lists in 1923 for the first two, and 1926-27 for the last, the Roma being however disarmed and used as floating barracks and training ship at anchor until 1932.

Regina Elena Taranto 1915

Regina Elena

Before the Italo-Turkish war, the battleship made naval demonstration off Asia Minor, and sailed to Messina for assistance in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake. During the 1911-12 war with the Ottoman Empire, she served under Vice Admiral Augusto Aubry with the 1st Division, 1st Squadron along with her three sisters in the operations to seize Libya. She escorted a convoy carryingd half of the 2nd Infantry Division to Benghazi and shelled the city when refusing to surrender. After the city was taken she stayed in harbour, contributing to landing parties and providing fire support, even repelling an Ottoman counter-attack. In March 1914 she took part in groundbreaking experiments by Marconi with the wireless telegraph in Syracuse, Sicily.



During the great war, she remained mostly inactive as it was decided to blockade the Austro-Hungarian fleet with lighter ships instead, including MAS boats. However if the latter was to exit from Pola, Italian battleships were preserved for this potential major naval battle. Head of staff Paolo Thaon di Revel also thought the presence of submarines and TBs in the Adriatic made it a real threat for capital ships -as shown by the loss of the Amalfi- the cruiser equivalent of the Regina Elena.
Stationed at Taranto, Brindisi, and Valona, part of the 2nd Division she remained idle, even when the Austro-Hungarian cruisers were raided Otranto. They should have been deployed fast enough to catch them but were forbidden to depart by their commander, fearing enemy submarines. We can imagine the frustration of the crews in 1917. After the war and 1922 Washinton treaty they could have been kept (they would certainly had more value if modernized than the ships allowed to the Weimar Republic marine), but were scrapped in 1923 to order to make room for new ships (see schematics).

what if modenrization of the Eegina Elena
What-if modernization in the 1930s of the Regina Elena, as second class BBs.

Napoli

Italian Battleship Napoli drawing circa 1909
Italian Battleship Napoli drawing circa 1909

Like her sister-ships, Napoli spent seven months of the year in active service, training and taking part in multiple naval exercizes while spending the rest of the year in reserve. Nothing really notable is coming forward. She took part in the war with the Ottoman Empire in 1911, blockading Tripoli and later covering the assault on Benghazi. The city was razed by the guns of the four sister-ships, and afterwards repelled a counter-attack. She was anchored at Derna, to prevent any Ottoman ship to enter the harbour. She later withdrew to Italy for repairs and refit. She later sailed to Rhodes from Sicily, escorting a convoy, and covering the assault. She also covered further landings to seize several islands in the Dodecanese in 1912 an later pattrolled the Aegean. During the Greeat war she remained inactive with the 2nd Division, rotating between Taranto, Brindisi, and Valona and after the war she was scrapped in 1923.

Battleship Napoli cica 1909
Battleship Napoli, date unknown -src

Roma

Battleship Roma in 1912
Battleship Roma in 1912

For a few years, she took part in the 1st division in many fleet exercize for part of the year, During the italo-Turkish war she made a sweep in the Aegean and later participated in the operations to seize Libya from the Ottoman Turks. She took part in the assault on Benghazi and remained there with Regina Elena, San Marco and Agordat. She returnd to italy for a short refit and to be resupplied. She also took part in the assault on the Dardanelles, cutting submarine telegraph cables between Imbros, Tenedos, Lemnos, Salonica, and the Dardanelles. However these agressive moves were not responded by the Ottoman fleet as expected.

She sailed to Rhodes, then taking part in the convoy escort and assault. She later patrolled between Crete, Rhodes, and Samos. From late August to October she was back in Italy for a new refit and taking suppies. During the great war, she remained in various naval bases, rotating but idle, waiting for the major battle that never came as the Austro-Hungarian fleet remained at Pola. The threat of submarines, though, was real. She was written off in 1926 and scrapped.

Vittorio Emanuele

Same observation as above, the battleship participated in the italo-Turkish war, and the campaign of Libya, as flagship of Vice Admiral Augusto Aubry. When the war broke out, she was patrolling the Aegean Sea, searching for the Ottoman training squadron which sailed from Beirut, and bound to for Constantinople two days before. She was part of the escort for the 2nd Infantry Division to Benghazi, covering the landings and city assault operations, and later the Ottoman counter-attack to retake the city.

Afterwards, together with Pisa, and the cruisers Etruria and Etna she was stationed in Tobruk. After a refit in Italy she went back under command of Admiral Luigi Faravelli. She escorted the convoy of the 1st Division from Taranto, bound to Rhodes and operated to cover operations in the Dodecanese and the Aegean. She remained inactive during the great war, rotating between three naval bases as part of the 2nd Division. In 1922 she was in Constantinople when one of ther cutters collided with the American destroyer USS Bulmer. Written off in 1923, she was scrapped soon after.


Illustration of the Regina Elena in 1914


Colorized photo of the Regina Elena by hirootoko Jr

Regina Elena (1914) specifications

Dimensions144,20 x 22,40 x 8,6 m
Displacement 12 550/12 660 - 13 770/13 914 Tonnes FL
Crew565
Propulsion2 shaft TE, 28 Belleville boilers, 19 300/21 900 ihp
Speed21-22 knots ()
Range
Armament2 x 305, 12 x 203, 16/24 x 76, 2 x 450 mm TTs sub.
ArmorBelt 250, Decks 68, Blockhaus 250, turrets 250, battery 150 mm

Sources/ read more

Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860–1905. Annapolis: Conway Maritime Press
Also Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regina_Elena-class_battleship
http://navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_bb_regina_elena.htm
Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I.
Halpern, Paul G. (2004). The Battle of the Otranto Straights
lindipendente.eu/wp/en/2013/08/11/cuniberti/
Beehler, William Henry (1913). The History of the Italian-Turkish War
Google Books Tech and Naval combat in the XXth Century

Naval History

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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
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Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
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M/repeat M class (1914)
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R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
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160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
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33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
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✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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