Dresden class cruisers

Light Cruisers SMS Dresden, Emden (1908)

Two famous ships

The Dresden class followed the Königsberg class, but improved in size and speed a bit. Launched in 1907-1908, their fates were among the most interesting of the war: Both Königsberg and Dresden were part of the overseas squadrons of the Kaiserliches Marine in 1914. Dresden was in Mexican waters and has to quickly head for the eastern Indian Ocean via Good Hope, and became one of the most famous German commerce raiders, joining Admiral Von Spee's squadron at the Coronel battle, duelled at the Falkands with Kent and Glasgow, but ended scuttled in the maze of islands of Chile in March 1915. Emden was in China, heading with Graf Spee's East Asia Squadron and was detached for independent raiding in the Indian Ocean, also attacking Penang and the Cocos Islands, but lost a duel to HMAS Sydney. The Crew then managed to get back to Germany, in a true odyssey which was turned into two movies.


SMS Dresden through the Kiel Canal

Design

Profile overview in a German publication
Profile overview in a German publication

The origins of the design could be found in the 1898 Naval Law, authorizing construction of no less than thirty new light cruisers. The Gazelle class has been the first, developed into the Bremen, and then Königsberg class. Both had many incremental innovations and improvements over globally the same basic design. The two Dresden class just proceeded with the same caution, design-wise. Ordered in the 1905–1906 construction program, they were not just a repeat of the Königsberg but consituted an improvement. Keeping the same main battery they had a slightly greater displacement, the internal machinery space be generous enough to accommodate an additional boiler, and thus, increase engine power. Like on the previous class, engineers differentiated both vessels by testing different machinery: VTE for SMS Emden and steam turbine for the lead ship, in order to compare their performances. But it was the last and decisive test of tht kind. After this, the admiralty decided from then on all cruisers would be fitted with turbines only.


The previous Bremen class - Illustrated London News, 20 March 1915

These cruisers were built at Blohm and Voss shipyard (Dresden) and Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Emden). They were launched in 1907-1908, and entered service in 1908-1909. Larger by one meter, wider by 30 cm and heavier by 200 tonnes, they were slightly faster (23.5 and 24 knots compared to 23), but possessing the same firepower, they really shows this almost timid incremental process. The next Kolberg class (1909) were much larger and faster, and better armed.But the true really first innovative designs were the Magdeburg (1912).

Hull & general characteristics


Model of the Emden: Note she was not in overall grey in 1914


Model of the Dresden

Both ships had this characteristic three-funnels silhouette. Their hull measured 117.90 meters (386 ft 10 in) long at the waterline and 118.30 m (388 ft 1 in) long overall, for a beam of 13.50 m (44 ft 3 in), with a draft iif 5.53 m (18 ft 2 in) forward, greater aft. Standard displacement was 3,664 metric tons, reaching 4,268 t (4,201 long tons; 4,705 short tons) fully loaded. Construction called like previous ships for transverse and longitudinal steel frames. They had a transverse metacentric height of .59 m (1 ft 11 in), which was reasonable. This ensure a gentle, predictable motion.

Dresden and Emden carried 18 officers for 343 enlisted men. Like all vessels of that era, they carried many small boats, a fleet including a single picket boat, a barge, a cutter, two yawls and two dinghies. The last four were mostly used for physical training, sailors making regattas against themselves or other crews, and to carry personal, or land armed parties, somehing which will proved handy for Emden in two occasions. The steam picket boat was the standard laison all-weather vessel used to carry officers to port or used to carry dispatch to other ships in the fleet at sea. The barge was used for coaling and carry supplies, and the cutter as a fast dispatch vessel with ample sail. It was used generally by captains as their own leizure boats when not in service;

Protection


Jane's 1914 Dresden class diagrams and drawing

Their armour was slightly improved, with the deck and turrets protected by 50 mm (2.5 in) to 80 mm (3 in) of armor: It was thicker on the slopes either side.
To be more precise, the main armoured deck at the waterline reached up to 80 mm (3.1 in) amidships with sloped 50 mm (2 in) thick, but tapered down to 30 mm (1.2 in) aft and 20 mm (0.79 in) toward the stern.
The main belt was about 30 mm thick (1.8 in), only on the central section, between the forward bridge and extending to the aft gun. An extra stray of armour of 50 mm was fitted over the machinery spaces aft.
The conning tower had walls 100 mm thick (4 in) with a saller communication tube going two decks below.
The gun masks were 50 mm thick (2.5 in) and in addition the forward and aft guns were protected by a partial structure. The four on the corner of the main battery were inside casemates.
The hull was subdivided under the waterline into thirteen watertight compartments, with a double bottom below, extendeding for 47% of the length of the keel.

Machinery


Binnacle of Emden, salvaged in Australia

Propulsion relied on two propellers, and they possessed three 4-cylinder engines, 12 standard boilers, for a total of 13,500 hp, and top speed of 23.5 knots.
The Dresden were reputed to be good sea boats, but cranking and rolling up to 20° in heavy weather, being also very wet at high speeds. they also suffered a slight weather helm. But they turned tightly, and were very maneuverable and agile. Their relatively small size and hull design made speed losses on a hard turn limited to 35%, which was very reasonable for this class of ship.

Armament

SMS_Emden_10.5_cm_gun_AWM_fwd
SMS_Emden_10.5_cm_gun_AWM_aft
10.5 cm SK/L40 salvaged on the Emden's wreck by the Australians after the war, AWM.

Main armament: Ten 105 mm (4.1 in) (4 in) SK L/40 guns, which were placed as follows: Two side by side on the prow and bow, and the others six on the sides, the two amidship with their own masks and the remainder in casemates. They reached 12,700 m (13,900 yd) and were supplied with 1,500 rounds of ammunition (150 per gun).

Secondary armament: Both cruisers were armed with eight 5.2 cm (2 in) SK L/55 guns, with 4,000 rounds of ammunition. This was an improvement over the previous Königsberg, which had none. The danger indeed of torpeod boats was recoignised as it was estimated that the main guns had not enough rate of fire to deal with them until reaching critical distance. The 5.2 cm had a short career in the Kaiserliches Marine. The next Kolbergs had only four of them, and the Magdeburg class has none, but gaining the excellent 8.8 cm SK L/45 from 1917, which became the de facto standard light gun in the Navy.

Torpedo armament: Like all previous cruisers, the Dresden class were provided with two 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes. They were submerged, fixed in the broadside, with five reloads.

emden
Old author's illustration of the SMS Emden, in 1914 white colonial livery, Tsingtau, China.

Dresden class specifications

Dimensions118,30 x 13,50 x 5.53 m
Displacement3660 t/4270 t FL
Crew361
Propulsion2 shafts Brown-Boveri Steam turbines/VTE 15,000/13,500 cv
Speed24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
Range? nmi (? km, ? mi) 19 knots (35 km/h, 22 mph)
Armament10x 105 mm, 8x 52 mm, 2x 450 mm sub TT.
ArmorBelt 50 mm, deck 30mm, bulkheads 50 mm, CT 100 mm

Resources

Janes profile on alamy

On historyofwar.org
On deutsche-schutzgebiete.de
On worldnavalships.com
On scapa-flow.co.uk
On battleships-cruisers.co.uk
On worldwar1.co.uk
SMS Emden's incredible true Odyssey
The class on wikipedia

Docu-Movie about the Emden (Unter kaiserlicher Flagge (1/2))
Docu-Movie about the Desden (Unter kaiserlicher Flagge (2/2))

Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921.
Delgado, James P. (2004). Adventures of a Sea Hunter: In Search of Famous Shipwrecks. Douglas & McIntyre
Forstmeier, Friedrich (1972). "SMS Emden, Small Protected Cruiser 1906—1914". Warship Profile 25.
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels.
Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. Annapolis
Herwig, Holger (1980). "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918. Humanity Books.
Lenz, Lawrence (2008). Power and Policy: America's First Steps to Superpower, 1889–1922. Algora Pub
Levine, Edward F. & Panetta, Roger (2009). Hudson–Fulton Celebration of 1909. Arcadia Pub.
Mueller, Michael (2007). Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster. Annapolis
Nottelmann, Dirk (2020). "The Development of the Small Cruiser in the Imperial German Navy". Osprey.
Staff, Gary (2011). Battle on the Seven Seas: German Cruiser Battles, 1914–1918. Pen & Sword Maritime.
Von Mücke, Hellmuth (2000). The Emden—Ayesha Adventure: German Raiders in the South Seas and Beyond, 1914. Koop, Gerhard & Schmolke, Klaus-Peter (2004). Kleine Kreuzer 1903–1918: Bremen bis Cöln-Klasse. Bernard & Graefe Verlag.

Movies about the Emden:

"How We Beat the Emden" and How We Fought the Emden and in 1928 The Exploits of the Emden, all produced in Australia. On the German side 1926 the silent Unsere Emden (footage) later incorporated in Kreuzer Emden, a 1932 feature film, and Heldentum und Todeskampf unserer Emden (1934). All three films were directed by Louis Ralph.

More recently, in 2012,Die Männer der Emden (The men of the Emden) was released, but only covering how Von Mücke's stranded crew made their way back to Germany after the Battle of Cocos.

Model Kits

Dresden model kits on scaleway: , HP-Models & Arno 1/700 (etc.) Deans Marine 1/90

Revell 1/350 Kaiserliches Marine

Gallery

SMS Dresden in New York
SMS Dresden in New York, in prewar two-tones livery (white hull, canvas brown superstructures)

SMS Dresden in New York
Hudson-Fulton Celebration, 1909, Dresden in company of other cruisers


Battle painting (cc)

Emden stranded
Emden stranded, painting by Hans Bohrdt


Transferring wounded on Empress of Augusta after the battle


Aft view of the wreck

Battle damage of the Emden
Battle damage of the Emden

Forward deck damage
Forward deck damage

The deck of SMS Eden, showing extensive damage
The deck of SMS Eden, showing extensive damage

French article on the end of Dresden
French article on the end of Dresden

SMS Emden

SMS Emden

Interwar service

SMS Emden entered service in 1909, taking part in autumn manoeuvers and escorting the imperial yacht Hohenzollern with the Kaiser aboard. She was decommissioned after completing trials and on 1 April 1910 assigned to the Ostasiengeschwader (East Asia Squadron) in Tsingtao, 1897 Kiautschou concession (China). She left Kiel on 12 April 1910, but made a goodwill tour of South America (12 May, Montevideo to meet Bremen, Ostamerikanischen Station), and headed for Buenos Aires, to participate in the celebrations of the hundredth anniversary of Argentinian independence. They passed the Horn and stopped in Valparaíso, and separared off Peru, as Emden headed for the Pacific, stuggling at frst to get good quality coal.

Emden carried 1,400 t of coal from the Chilean naval base at Talcahuano and was en route on 24 June, making her long-term shakedown cruiser along the way. Everything was noted on a report for future cruiser designs. She met severe weather along the way, notably off Easter Island, stopped in French Papeete, Tahiti, and made the next 4,200 nautical miles trip to German Samoa (22 July) to meet the East Asia Squadron (Konteradmiral Erich Gühler).


The crew of SMS Emden before the war

In October, the squadron headed for Tsingtao and for the first time, Emden entered the Yangtze River, exploring it from 27 October to 19 November and stopping in Hankou. Next she headed to Japan, stopping at Nagasaki and was back in Tsingtao on 22 December, and a refit, interrupted by the the Sokehs Rebellion at Ponape in the Carolines. She was ordered there, departing on 28 December, and joined by SMS Nürnberg from Hong Kong.

They met at Ponape the old Cormoran and all three bombarded rebel positions, completing the mission by sending a large combined landing force, which were added to the colonial police troops. This ground offensive was made on mid-January 1911 and by late February the revolt was suppressed. On 26 February the old cruiser SMS Condor arrived arrived to relieve them and Emden departed on 1 March for Tsingtao, via Guam, arriving on 19 March and starting her overhaul.


Emden in Tsingtao, early 1914

By mid-1911, she toured Japan and accidentally rammed a Japanese steamer, during a typhoon, which caused enough damage to sent her in drydock in Tsingtao. Next she was ordered in the Yangtze to protect Europeans as the Chinese Revolution broke out on 10 October and by November she was placed under ordered of Vizeadmiral Maximilian von Spee. The cruiser won the Kaiser's Schießpreis for her gunnery marksmanship, in the whole East Asia Squadron. She was sent off Incheon to assist the steamer Deike Rickmers, grounded, and by May 1913 Karl von Müller took command, soon promoted Fregattenkapitän. In mid-June she cruise German colonies in the Central Pacific. In between she was sent to Nanjing to protect nationals during a fight between Qing and revolutionary forces and in August, she was attacked by rebels believing she sided with Qing. Her gunners returned fire, which was efficient.

Wartime service

In August 1914, Commander Von Müller decided to leave the base quickly so as not to be cornered by a superior forced and to join Von Spee's squadron in the Pacific through the Strait of Korea. In between the spotted and caught a Russian liner, the Riasan, take the crew in custodu, recoaled and scuttled the ship. Müller learnt in between Admiral Jerram's squadron had arrived off Tsing tao, Von Spee then having no other option but to make for home, or die trying. The Japanese went at war in turn on 23 August but after a conference between Spee and Müller, Emden was to be left in the Indian Ocean as a diversion, while the squadron was steaming to the Cape Horn.

The Indian Ocean raider

SMS Emden
The SMS Emden at sea.

By leaving Spee, Emden started a formidable raiding spree that would enter the annals of the Kaiserliches Marine as one of the most successful. After roaming off Indonesia, with a fourth fake funnel built to look like a British cruiser, she missed her coaler, the Markomannia on September 8th but persuaded the captain of the neutral Greek coaler Pontoporos to supply him. Later she seized the freighter "Indus" loaded with food a welcome addition.

The latter was abandoned as too slow, the crew transferred to Markomannia. Next, Emden captured the cargo "Lovat", the Kabinga, the small coaler Killin, the large steamer SS Diplomat. Next he sized the Italian Loredano, sunk the coaster Trabboch, but was betrayed by a communicaion by the captain of the Loredano, passing his position to the Admiralty, that scrambled all available forces. Leaving her small fleet, Emden loaded all she could and started to steam fast, now trying to attack British ports on the Indian coast. On September 22, she raided the oil tanks of Madras, and the shelled Colombo, also sinking a large transport of sugar.


Emden and Captain Müller in medallion

Next, she raided Diego Garcia, an important British colonial base, on the Mauritius islands. Von Müller briefed his staff of not to divulgate there was a state of war, and camed as for a "courtesy visit". He was well received by the Governor and be able to replenish serenely. By wireless however he soon learned about the arrival of British vessels, and left the island precipitately, leaving behind the Markomannia. She hid behind the island of Minnikoy, sinking five English steamers. Eventually Von Müller decided to leave the area and rally Von Spee via Malacca strait.

The Emden arrived on the 28th of October before dawn off Georgetown, Penange, all light shut and surprised four French ships at anchor, including the cruiser d'Iberville. One destroyer, the Mousquet, was patrolling nearby but failed to see her. The Russian cruiser Jemtchug was also there, a more deadly opponent. Emden opened fire from the best position, at point-blank while hoisting the flag of war and launched a torpedo on the Jemtchoug, whichremained afloat but was crippled by artillery. The latter counter-fired but without effect and she launched a second torpedo, apparently striking her ammunition store. The Russian cruiser blew up and sank. D'Iberville came, but was fooled by a change of flag, and reassuring morse about an accidental explosion, until her captain saw the Emden fourth fake funnel trembling in the wind, realizing his error. But it was too late, with the Aviso's light artillery and engines cold, she could do little before Emden escaped.

Steaming for the other side of the harbour she captured the steamer Glen Turret, but was surprised by the French destroyer Mousquet, which aptain decided to make a torpedo run. Emden's fire battered the French TB during her approach and she eventually capsized and sank. A second destroyer approached, but again Emden managed to escape. She was chased off by the French destroyer for hours, until running out of coal.

The Cocos Islands Battle and return home


Battle engraving emden and sydney, Imperial War Museum, Galleries at the Crystal Palace

The Emden arrived next in the Cocos Islands, one of which had a radio station that Von Müller needed to destroy, in order to refuel there. When the cruiser arrived, a message was sent nevertheless, intercepted by the Australian cruisers HMAS Melbourne and Sydney escorting a convoy nearby. The two ships steamed towards the Cocos Islands just half an hour later, while 50 of the crew (a demolition landing party) just were now on the island, including the second Von Mücke, proceeding to the destruction of the radio station of Direction Island.

HMAS Sydney soon spotted and engaged Emden, with her numerous longer range, hard-hitting 6-in guns. With a reduced crew, Emden could not fleet not answer effectively and she was soon blasted. Her telemetry was destroyed, and her guns silenced one by one as the funnels were falling. Soon, this was over.

Emden's wreck on North Keeling Island, took the day after
Emden's wreck on North Keeling Island, took the day after.

Von Mücke's company saw the unequal action from the roof of one building. They greeted the apparent 18 hits by Emden on Sydney (killing three, wounding 13) but she ended ablaze and dead in the water after 670 rounds spent, 100 claimed on target. Von Müller managed to beach her on the reefs of North Keeling, saving most of the remaining crew. Captain Glossop sent an injunction to surrender and two warning salvoes until a German white flag was hoisted. Emden lost 133 officers and men in this fight, out of 376. The remainder left the ship, which was scuttled properly.


The wreck of Emden

Survivors of SMS Emden under guard on a boat, to become POW in Australia and Malta
Survivors of SMS Emden under guard on a boat, to become POW in Australia and Malta

Sydney left quickly to head for Direction Island and land her own company of riflemen to engage Von Mücke's men, but the latter in between seized the governor's schooner, Ayesha, and sailed to the island of Padang, Dutch East Indies. Von Müller's men were later made POW, some interned in Australia, the others in Malta, back home in 1920. The rest of the trip was near-legendary. Von Mücke managed to conduct the Ayesha to Sumatra on November, 7, later waited and embarked in a German steamer for Yemen. They reached Bab-el-Mandeb, crossed all the Arabian peninsula and arrived in Constantinople in june 1915. Latter they took the train and reached in June 1915 the fatherland, greeted as heroes. The rampage of Emden would span 30,000 nautical miles (56,000 km; 35,000 mi), added to the formidable tally she could claim.


Reunion of former adversaries in Germany, 1967

SMS Dresden

Light Cruiser Emden

SMS Dresden, ordered as "Ersatz Comet" in Blohm & Voss shipyard (Hamburg), was laid down in 1906, launched on 5 October 1907, commissioned on 14 November 1908. On 28 November during her sea trials she collided with the small Swedish coaster Cäcilie off Kiel. Her starboard propeller shaft however was moved 1.2 in off-axis, requiring six months of repairs. Sea trials only resumed 1909, leading to a turbine accident, having her in repairs again until September.

Dresden had botched trials, declared over on 7 September by an impatient admiral, and she made her shakedown cruiser while visit the United States, representing Germany at the Hudson–Fulton Celebration (New York) in company of the cruisers Hertha and Victoria Louise as well as Bremen, sailing on 11 September, arriving at the gathering point at Newport, and arriving in New York on 24 September. She stayed there until 9 October and was back in Germany on 22 October.


Dresden and other German ships at the Hudson–Fulton Celebration NYC, 1909


Next, SMS Dresden was assigned to the reconnaissance force, High Seas Fleet and started her peacetime routine of squadron exercises alternated with training cruises and yearly fleet exercises. On 16 February 1910, really unlucky by this point, she collided with SMS Königsberg. The one caused again significant damage and furter repairs in Kiel for eight days. After visiting Hamburg on 13–17 May she was assigned to the Training Squadron on 14-20 April 1912 with Friedrich Carl and Mainz. She earned the 1911–12 Schießpreis (Shooting Prize) for light cruisers. Until September 1913 she was under orders of Fregattenkapitän Fritz Lüdecke, also her wartime captain.

dresden 1912 On 6 April 1913 she sailed with SMS Strassburg to the Adriatic Sea and the Mittelmeer-Division (Mediterranean Division), flanking SMS Goeben (Konteradmiral Konrad Trummler). By late August, Dresden was ordered back to Kiel and sent to the Kaiserliche Werft for an overhaul until December. Her January planned Mediterranean service was cancelled by the Admiralstab and she was sent to the North American station instead, due to the Mexican Revolution. She replaced Bremen, due for replacement by SMS Karlsruhe. Dresden arrived off Vera Cruz on 21 January 1914, still under Erich Köhler, watching over German interests there, and she was later recalled and replaced by SMS Hertha, on a training cruise for naval cadets, and soon Bremen, watching over the evacuation of European nationals on the German HAPAG liners.

Dresden and HMS Hermione rescued also 900 American citizens trapped in the Vera Cruz hotel, transferred to US warships, by far the largest contingent there. The German consul in Mexico City asked for a landing party from Dresden, created with a Junior Petty Officer and ten sailors armed with two MG 08 machine guns. On 15 April 1914, the cruiser headed for Tampico, Mexico's Gulf coast. In the meantime, the SS Ypiranga arrived in sight of Mexico with small arms for the Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta. But the United States put in place an arms embargo in between, and they intercepted Ypiranga on 21 April. As she was German, Dresden arrived to confiscate officially the merchantman, and officially carry out German refugees out of Mexico, but delivering the weapons and ammunition nevertheless.

On 20 July 1914 the Huerta regime was toppled and SMS Dresden carried Huerta and Aureliano Blanquet (Vice Pdt.) and their families to Kingston in Jamaica, where they were granted asylum. Köhler learned there the situation degrading in Europe and set sail as she needed a refit. She met SMS Karlsruhe in Haiti and on the 31st, under captain Lüdecke, she was prepared for Handelskrieg (commerce raiding war) in the Atlantic instead.

Wartime service


Firing on the steamer SS Mauretania, August 1914

Dresden sailed south under radio silence and was conformed the state of war on 4–5 August, so she started her operations in the South Atlantic, and Brazilian coast. Close to the mouth of the Amazon River, she intercepted her first British merchantman on 6 August, SS Drumcliffe. Next she refuelled with the German collier SS Corrientes and sailed to the Rocas Atoll, escorting the HAPAG steamers Prussia, Baden, and Persia. She set sail for Trinidad, and intrcepted on her way the SS Hyades, then captured the British collier SS Holmwood (24 August). In Trinidade, she met the gunboat Eber and several steamers, replenishing.

On 26 August off Río de la Plata she caught two more British steamers. However due to her worn out condition at this point, her captain decided to stop operations and on 5 September, went to Hoste Island for urgent engine maintenance. Informed by the HAPAG steamer Santa Isabel's captain from Punta Arenas, on 18 September Dresden's captain decided to transit via the cape horn, and in the Pacific, she stopped in the Juan Fernández Islands, contacting Leipzig. On 12 October she was affected to Vizeadmiral Maximilian von Spee's East Asia Squadron, coaling at Easter Island.

On 18 October she joined her sister ship Emden and the East Asia Squadron in a rampage along the South American coast, down to Más a Fuera island (26 October), escorting the auxiliary cruiser SS Prinz Eitel Friedrich and the SS Yorck and SS Göttingen to Chile. While Off Valparaiso they received intel about a British cruiser at Coronel, later identified as HMS Glasgow, forced to leave port due to neutrality rules. However he did not knew he was with the 4th Cruiser Squadron (RAdm Cradock) with Monmouth, Good Hope and MAC Otranto. This encounter led to the battle of Coronel.

On 1 November, at around 16:00, SMS Leipzig spotted first smoke from the British squadron, and the two squadrons closed the distance until fire broke out at 18:34, at 10,400 m. Dresden fired on Otranto making her fled at the third salvo and claimed to have started a fire. Next, she shifted on Glasgow, already duelling with Leipzig. She made five hits and at 19:30, was ordered to launch a torpedo attack. She increased speed in the heavy weather and deterioating sight, briefly spotting Glasgow withdrawing. Dresden met Leipzig and near fired on her in the semi-darkness. By 22:00, with other light cruiser she was deployed in a searching column but never took sight of the British again. She was not hit a single time.

Dresden in Valparaiso
Dresden in Valparaiso, Chile, 13 Nov. 1914

On 3 November Scharnhorst, Gneisenau and Nürnberg sere ordered back to resupply in Valparaiso under neutrality laws (three belligerent warships only) while Dresden and Leipzig remained with the colliers in Más a Fuera. Spee was back on 6 November, sending in turn Dresden and Leipzig to Valparaiso, arriving on 12 November and back on the 18th. On the 21th, the squadron sailed to St. Quentin Bay (Gulf of Penas) to coal while the British Amiralty ordered Vice Admiral Doveton Sturdee south with the battlecruisers Invincible and Inflexible, en route from 11 November. They arrived in the Falklands on 7 December, soon joined by the Cornwall, Kent, and Carnarvon, Glasgow and Bristol. The trap was set.

Spee left on 26 November and caught on 2 December the Canadian sailing vessel Drummuir carrying 2,750 t of excellent Cardiff coal. The squadron recoaled at Picton Island, and Spee made a council on 6 December, planning for an attack on the Falklands, to eliminate the large British wireless station there and all coal stocks, despite Lüdecke and Leipzig, Nürnberg captains opposition, preferring to raid La Plata area. Seniority won and ordered were given.

On 6 December afternoon, the squadron departed Picton Island and on 7 December arrived off Tierra del Fuego, and then sighted the Falklands at 02:00. At 05:00, Gneisenau and Nürnberg were detahced to send landing parties and were en route when they spotted at 08:30 smoke raising from Port Stanley's harbor. Spee realized his error and gave orders to fleet eastwards, rejoining his squadron at 10:45, leaving the German auxiliaries to hide in the islands off Cape Horn. They were soon taken in hot chase by the British. At 12:50, the battlecruisers catched SMS Leipzig and Spee ordered the three light cruisers to escape south, while he would engage the British with the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Sturdee then ordered his armored and light cruisers to chase off the German light cruisers. While Spee died in his gallant fight, Dresden's worn out turbine could not out-run her opposition and Lüdecke wanted her to hide in the islands off South America.

SMS Dresden, Bundesarchiv
SMS Dresden's prow, date unknown, Bundesarchiv

On 9 December, she rounded the Cape Horn and entered the Pacific, first dropping anchor at Sholl Bay with just 160 t of coal in store. Oberleutnant zur See Wilhelm Canaris convinced the Chilean naval representative a extra 24h delay to stock extra coal at Punta Arenas, starting on 12 December. She embarked 750 t from a German steamer and the admiral staff hoped she could make a run through the Atlantic and head for home. But still, her turbines would not allow this and Lüdecke wanted to continue his raiding spree in the Pacific, via Easter Island, then heading for the Solomon Islands, Dutch East Indies and operating in the Indian Ocean.

After taking on board 1,600 t of coal on 19 January, she headed for another hideout, making maintenance whith whatever available. On 27 February underway, she captured the British barque Conway Castle, south of Más a Tierra, was resupplied by the German liner Sierra Cordoba, and made another coaling at Juan Fernández Islands. On 8 March, while underway in dense fog, lookouts spotted HMS Kent, engines off, just 15 nautical miles away. Both raised steam, but Dresden recoignising she was a greater adversary managed to escape after a five-hour chase. This depleted her coal stocks and further deteriorating the state of her engines until Lüdecke estimated his ship was no longer operational, and he wanted her to be interned instead. He set sail to Más a Fuera, Cumberland Bay, later confirmed by the German Admiralty, and contacting Chilean officials.

On 14 March however, Kent and Glasgow arrived off Cumberland Bay, but Dresden was stuck. Lüdecke signaled she was no longer a combatant but the British disregarded this and HMS Glasgow soon opened fire, even in violation of Chile's neutrality, soon joined by Kent. German gunners just had to time to be on battle station and fired three shots until British gunfire knowked them out. Lüdecke signalled "Am sending negotiator", dispatching Canaris in a pinnace while Glasgow went on shelling Dresden. Lüdecke soon raised the white flag at last. Canaris met Captain John Luce, receiving terms of unconditional surrender, the latter perotesting they were already interned by Chile and saked for scuttling instead. This was done at 10:45 with charge detonated in the bow's ammunition magazines, crew evacuated. Dresden sank after 30 minutes and as it did, the second scuttling charge exploded in the engine rooms.

Dresden's white flag
Dresden's white flag, before scuttling

The crew mostly managed to escape, 8 sailors had been killed and 29 wounded in the shelling. The British MAC HMS Orama took the most wounded to Valparaiso. The officeres eventually picked up Chilean warships, then a German passenger ship to be interned in Quiriquina Island. Canaris however would escape on 5 August 1915, making it back to Germany two months later and on 31 March 1917, others escaped and captured the Chilean barque Tinto, reaching in turn the fatherland after 120 days. The wreck was inspected in 2002.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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