WW1 German Battleships

Germany (1890-1919)

ww1 german battleships in a nutshell

In 1890, there was little concern for the German Navy, let alone for German battleships. There were only a few coastal vessels and old ironclads. However the situation changed dramatically in little more than 15 years, more than just raising eyebrows in the admiralty, let alone in the general public in UK.
In 1909 a "battleship scare" took the British Empire by storm, hammered by the press and even unsettling the house of commons. Germany became an industrial powerhouse with massive naval ambitions thanks to Wilhelm II's strong will. The situation is now exactly the same in the pacific, between the new challenger, the Chinese PLAN and the USN.

In a short time, after series of homogenous pre-dreadnoughts, the Germans proved able to launch very soon their own dreadnought classes. Their launching rhythm was such that the classic Royal Navy Policy to be able to match the two best navies of the world at the same time, was put in jeopardy, quite suddenly and brutally. Therefore one PM coined his famous "we want eight and we won't wait" destined to the Commons, a formula which became popular and benefited in turn the admiralty, trying the stay one step ahead of the Germans.

They succeeded, by cranking up three successive classes of 14-in armed dreadnoughts whereas the Germans were still launching ships with 12-in guns. And in the end, won the game in a sense by making the first super-dreadnoughts, the Queen Elisabeth class.

The Hochseeflotte's dreadnoughts battle line before the war

From Ironclads to Battleships 1870-1886

The origins of German WW1 battleships like in order fleets went back to the invention of the sea-going Ironclad in 1859. The Prussian Navy before Bismarck's effort for unification and Franco-Prussian war counted screw corvettes and gunboats, but none was armoured.

Rhein class (1872)
By 1872 two armoured Monitors were built, the Rhein class, intended for the Rhein and to complete fortifications.
Wespe Class (1876)
In 1874, the German Empire ordered a serie of 11 armoured steamers. These 1139 tons ships were shalow draught gunboats, coastal vessels similar the British "Rendel Gunboats".
They could be grounded on sandbanks to be used as fixed batteries. Armament was limited to a single 12-in (30.5 cm) gun in an open barbette, although surrounded by a 8-in thick breastwork, same on the belt. Poor seaboats, they were seldom used and rather kept in reserve, rearmed at some point but discarded in 1909 to 1911. Viper is known to have been used as a barge until the 1960s.
Brummer class (1884)
Another takeoff of the concept, lighter at 914 tonnes, they were able to reach 15 knots thanks to their compound 2000 shp steam engine, and carried a single 21 cm guns and 87, 37 mm QF guns plus TTs. Brummer and Bremse launched in 1884 had a 6.5 in (160 mm) bulkhead. good seaboat, at the end of their career, the first became a gunnery school ship then fishery protection vessel, weapons and machinery school ship, BU in 1922 and her sister was used as an oil barge, BU in 1910 and reused in civilian service for many more years.

Sailing ironclads: 1865-1875

China, 1898
S.M. Deutschland in Port Arthur, circa 1900

From the Arminius to the Kaiser, the Prussian Navy and later the German Empire acquired or built a serie of 11 ironclads.
Prinz Adalbert (1865), Arminius (1865), Friedrich Karl (1865), Kronprinz (1866), König Wilhelm (1867), Hansa (1872), the first German central Battery Ironclad, Grosser Kurfürst class (1873), another of the kind, followed by SMS Kaiser class (1874). They used Krupp guns and armour of excellent quality which became a standard in 1900 (Krupp cemented armour in particular, "KC", copied by the British notably for their Queen Elisabeth class). All these ships were no longer listed active in 1914, however SMS Kaiser became Uranus in 1904, served as a harbour ship, and was still used for this in 1920. They were of course not counted among ww1 German battleships

Late German steam Ironclad 1877-1884

SMS Baden
SMS Baden, lithography

Basically two classes of central citadel, called "armoured corvettes" and steam-only ironclads: The four of the Sachsen class and the single Oldenburg. The Sachsen class (1877) were really the first modern steam-only barbette battleships. They were called central citadel ironclads, and their firepower resided in six 260 mm guns. This was not particularly impressive for ships displacing 7627 tonnes, even in 1877 when the first was launched. The same caliber was used on three previous classes however and was a reliable and efficient gun. Rate of fire was preferred over heavier rounds and longer range. The SMS Sachsen, Bayern, Würtemberg and Baden completed in 1878-1883, were discarded in 1910, to the exception of Würtemberg, BU in 1920 and Baden was still listed as a target ship in 1939. Both were in any case relegated to secondary duties and no longer listed in ww1 German battleships.

sms sachsen design

Oldenburg (1884): This small ship was a "cheap" equivalent to the Sachsen due to budget constraints, but at 5650 tonnes not considered a successful ship. She carried however a more varied armament, eight 21 cm and four 15 cm guns but only reached 13 knots, like the Sachsen, but with a lower range due to her limited size. The Germans called her the "flatiron" and she became a harbour defense ship in 1900, and from 1912, a target ship, BU in 1919.

sms Oldenburg

About admiral Reinhard Scheer (1863-1928)

admiral reinhard scheer

A point about Scheer and the Hochseeflotte (1916-1918)
Carl Friedrich Heinrich Reinhard Scheer was born in lower Saxony, from a middle-class background, contrasting with higher social status of most officers and cadets in the Kaiserliches Marine. He started his early naval career as a cadet in 1879 on the mixed frigate SMS Niobe. He served on several ships in the Pacific and later East Africa Squadron; In 1888 he became torpedo officer aboard the corvette SMS Sophie. In 1897 he was remarked and promoted by Alfred von Tirpitz to the torpedo section of the Reichsmarineamt (RMA). He quickly rose to active commands, Korvettenkapitän of the light cruiser SMS Gazelle, and later Kapitän zur See of the battleship SMS Elsass in 1907, then promoted in 1909 as chief of staff to the commanding officer of the High Seas Fleet, Admiral Holtzendorff. After being back to the RMA in the 1910s, he became squadron commander, II Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet in January 1913.

High sea fleet Commander
Vice Admiral Scheer became Commander in chief of the High Seas Fleet on 18 January 1916, replacing Pohl, gravely ill. He took the head of all Hochseeflotte units, from the varous German battleships wings to Hipper's Battlecruisers, which became his subordonate. He wrote a Guidebook for North Sea tactical operations, outlining his strategic perceptions. His core concept was that the British Grand Fleet had to be pressured by U-boats and Zeppelin raids, combined with increased fleet sorties, and force to abandon the blockade, constrained to attack the German fleet. The Kaiser approved this on 23 February 1916. Scheer from then on, could take his ideas into practice.

After forbidding unrestricted submarine warfare in April 1916, Scheer gathered U-boats to support the fleet, stationing them off major British naval bases, waiting for a sortie. They would intercept British forces when trigerred by a bait, coastal shelling by the fast I Scouting Group battlecruisers (Hipper). Scheer would plan several operations of that kind. The Battle of Juland however proved his greater test so far.

Battle of Jutland: A failed test, or half victory ?
He had 16 dreadnoughts and six pre-dreadnoughts plus six scout cruisers and 31 torpedo boats at his disposal. This force departed the Jade (Wilhelsmhaven), at the foot of Denmark on the north sea, early on the morning of 31 May. It stayed in close communication with Hipper's battlecruisers and light force in advanced. Room 40 having intercepted and decrypted this, the Grand Fleet departed in force the night before in order to cut off the Hochseeflotte and destroyer it for good.

The fight started south of Scheer's battle fleet and eventually Vice Admiral David Beatty's battlecruisers met the Hochseeglotte and turned back north to lure them towards the Grand Fleet (Jellicoe) being engaged in the meantime by Evan-Thomas Queen Elizabeth-class 5th Battle Squadron. In the evening, around 18:30, the Grand Fleet at last arrive for a sowdown, deployed to cross Scheer's "T" from the northeast. Scheer understood the maneuver and made a turn to the south-west. At 18:55, he made another turn to attack the British fleet, with his famous 'night cruising order.' He took the initiative to avoid a night fighting and avoid to be cut off, but this manoeuver put Scheer's fleet in a precarious position.

Nevertheless, Jellicoe turned his fleet south to try to cross Scheer's "T." again, followed, by a charge by Hipper's mauled battlecruisers, which paid dearly. As darkness fell, Sheer ordered the fleet to adopt night cruising formation up to 23:40, followed by night fighting, then evading british destroyers and reach Horns Reef (pommern was lost in the meantime). His fleet reached the Jade at 13:00-14:45 on 1 June but maintained his forces ready in case Jellicoe would reach them.

After the Battle, Scheer wrote for the Kaiser an assessment, strongly urged for leaving the unrestricted submarine warfare campaign, only valid option to defeat Great Britain. He desperately tried to convince the naval command as well, and ultimately won. It resumed in February 1917, and of course the sinking of the Lusitania, in retrospect, perhaps cost Germany the war as the US entered the side of the entente. Scheer planned other used of the surface fleet, notably waiting for new mass-produce submarines he could use aside the Atlantic campaign for his own "traps".

SMS Seydlitz at Jutland
SMS Seydlitz at Jutland

August 1916 sortie
In 18–19 August 1916, he made another such baiting sortie, trying to destroy the remainder of Admiral Beatty's battlecruiser squadron, bit not knowing about Room 40, he was rebuffed by th arrival of the Grand fleet once again, thanks to his new reconnaissance force. In late 1917, he sent light elements raid British convoys to Norway, triggering another sortie of the Grand fleet, where he could attempt to attempt to isolate and destroy some battleships, sending on 23 April 1918 the entire High Seas Fleet, but Hipper's battlecruisers missed the convoy, doomed by a failure of German intelligence.

As Chief of staff: Advocating for submarine warfare
In June 1918, R. Scheer took place of Admiral Holtzendorff's chief of the naval staff post, which resiged due to bad health in July. His position was confirmed on 11 August 1918 while Franz von Hipper took command of the High Seas Fleet. Both men knew and worked well together, like Luddendorff and Hindenburg. Scheer met the general staff and agreed the U-boat campaign was to be reinforced, and to built more. The Hochseeflotte's shipbuilding plans were postponed and resources diverted to reach an additional 30 U-boats per month, by the third quarter of 1919, calling for 376 to 450 new U-boats total.

october 1918: The last operation
however due to the crews being restless after month of inactivity and growing discontent (with early bolshevik elements), Scheer intended to make the ultimate sortie, looking for a great clash whatever cost, in order to obtain a better bargaining position for Germany in peace negociations. It comprised two simultaneous attacks by light cruisers and destroyers, in Flanders and in the Thames estuary with the five battlecruisers here and dreadnoughts off Flanders. The plan soon was announced to the fleet, to the sailors outrage. Strikes erupted in most ships, and plans were modified to concentrate off the Dutch coast, but while the fleet was consolidating in Wilhelmshaven, war-weary sailors deserted some ships en masse.

Von der Tann and Derfflinger were the first impacted. On 24 October 1918, order was given to gather at Wilhelmshaven amongst new mutinies onboard all battleships, like the III Squadron. It went up to sabotage on Thüringen and Helgoland. Facing open rebellion, the whole operation was abandoned and squadrons dispersed. After Germany surrendered her fleet, the once proud and powerful Hochseeflotte was humiliated by being escorted to Scapa Flow for her internment. Scheer however was only distantly following the events, when the fleet scuttled. His wife and maid has been murdered and his daughter injured by an intruder into his house. He left the Navy a broken man, retreated into solitude, wrote his autobiography before being invited by his former adversary, Jellicoe, in 1928, but died at 65 in Marktredwitz, being given national funerals.

The development of ww1 German pre-dreadnoughts battleships in Germany

-Brandenburg (10,500 t, 16.5 knots, 6x 28cm)
-Kaiser (i) (11,000 t, 17.5 knots, 4x 24cm)
-Wittelsbach (11,700 t, 18 knots, 4x 24cm)
-Braunschweig (13,200 t, 18 knots, 4x 28cm)
-Deutschland (13,200 t, 18.5 knots, 4x 28cm)

SMS Oldenburg was already completed when another need of the admiralty was to be filled; Harbour defence, in a more efficient and dedicated way than older former ironclads. This was the serie of "Norse gods" planned in 1886 and ordered in 1888. In all, eight were built, launched 1889-1895. They displaced 3700 tonnes but were slow with little range, according to their role. Their main use was to test several innovations. Moreover, this was the first class made under the new ruler of German, decidedly pro-Navy Kaiser Wilhelm II.

The next step was an important one: The first modern pre-dreadnoughts of the German Imperial Navy. The Brandenburg class would comprise five vessels and displaced 10,500 tonnes, the largest German warships ever built at that stage. Upgrades consisted in larger guns, 40 cm more in caliber exactly (240 to 280 mm) with three twin turrets. They were launched in 1891-92, whereas the British contemporary Royal Sovereign class, which displaced 15,600 tonnes fully loaded (5,000 tonnes more), featured four 13.5 in guns (340 mm) and the class comprised eight ships, not five. Quite a few steps to equality for the ambitious new ruler of the young Empire...

Kaiser Friedrich III
Lithography of Kaiser Friedrich III

Fortunately, engineers were hard at work and budgets were there to allow a new class to emerge, laid down from 1895: The "Kaiser" class. Heavier at 11,600 tonnes standard, these battleships were a bit faster, had less guns, and of a smaller caliber (24 cm), but a true, massive secondary artillery of eighteen 15 cm compared to six 10.5 cm guns on the previous Brandenburg class. This was still a far cry to British pre-dreadnought, but a path of methodical step-ups.

The next Wittelsbach class were just a step-up with still 24 cm main guns but the same secondary artillery and some improvements in armour. The following Braunschweig class however, were a real step-up in the right direction for the first time with the German trademark Krupp 28 cm guns. Speed remained about the same but they had a more impressive secondary artillery, fourteen 17 cm (6.7 in) SK L/40 guns in casemates. As usual, production was intense, with five ships each time. The next and last pre-dreadnought class was the Deutschland class. They still strongly resembled the previous class, had the same 28 cm main guns, but were more powerful, allowing them to reach 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h; 21.3 mph). Their secondary artillery was not even in turrets, but in casemates. The Germans actually never developed the intermediary, very fast "semi-dreadnoughts" with their secondary armament in turrets.

The race: German WW1 Dreadnought Battleships

Intelligence failure

HMS Dreadnought - close
HMS Dreadnought - colorized by iroo Toko JR
HMS Dreadnought, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

German naval spying in Great Britain by German agents started before WW1, concentrating on naval intelligence, the main focus or the general staff, since army intelligence was already well documented and has less edgy technological aspects. Spying activity was never near as dangerous or intensive as the British generally thought. German navy intelligence organization was small, almost under-funded, and unknown due to her nature.

German spies were largely looking at the technical information about RN's specific devices, possibly armour schemes collected directly in construction Yards but missed the British Ex‐expeditionary Forces entirely. In fact they produced few tangible results and were completely dumb-founded by the arrival of the HMS dreadnought.

Writings were on the wall, notably due to Cuniberti's writings in the widely known Jane's of 1903, but indeed Fisher's correspondence was secret and his creation in January 1905 of a "Committee on Designs" too. These developments of monocaliber designs were kept secrecy both from the press, house of commons and Lords, and the bulk of the navy staff as well, at least until an agreement was found on a design that can be further developed (in that case the directorate of constructions was involved, and many engineers).

The last class of pre-dreadnought, the Deutschland class, were not intermediary vessels like were the British Nelson or Italian Regina Elena: They did not possessed a heavy secondary artillery. The Deustchland class were planned in 1901 and laid down from 1903, with five vessels, so construction was in full swing when the Dreadnought was launched. It would take one more year, in 1907, for laying down the keels of the first German dreadnoughts, the Nassau class. The design, to gain time, was just a scaling-up of the last German armoured cruiser, SMS Blücher and the next Helgoland, was a further scale-up with 305 mm guns.

Both ships shared exactly the same configuration of a single forward and aft turret, and four broadside turrets, two either side, on a continuous deck. The configuration was flexible and authorized six guns in chase and retreat, and eight in broadside. From there, German engineers will follow developments in UK, but with a general tendency to be always one stap too late, in artillery caliber in particular. The lineage of ww1 German dreadnought battleships was:
-Nassau (18,873 t, 20 knots, 12x 28cm guns)
-Helgoland (20,800 t, 20.5 knots, 12x 30.5cm guns)
-Kaiser (ii) (24,700 t, 21 knots, 10x 30.5cm guns)
-König (25,800 t, 21 knots, 10x 30.5cm guns)
-Bayern (wartime) (28,500 t, 21 knots, 8x 38cm guns)
-Sachsen (wartime, never completed) (29,500 t, 21 knots, 8x 38cm guns)
-L20 Alpha (project) (43,800 t, 26 knots, 8x 42cm guns)

Battleships Projects

In this matter, there were several interesting side projects that were never built but at least prompted proposals.

The Aachen 1911 diesel Battleships

The appearance of the Diesel engine in Germany generated enough interestto led to a Blatt design study prepared by Aachen in 1911. This design was believed to take advantage of the lack of boiler space to devote it for extra armour tonnage and better armament. It was rediscovered and published by Professor F. W. Hoepke, in Warship International, N°1, 1986.
The result was 24,500t of displacement, 180m long, 27m wide, 8.2m deeply loaded aft, armed with twelve (six twin) 30,5cm, twelve casemated 21 cm and sixteen 8,8cm AA, ten 45cm torpedo tubes. An impressive design given the very strong secondary armament especially, or unreasonable number of torpedo tubes. In addition, the AAchen design was to be given a 300mm belt, 300mm turret faces, 45mm main deck, 75mm turtleback armored deck and 45mm longitudinal bulkhead with a total of 10,440t, 40.5% of displacement which was quite enormous. Speed was rated for an optimistic 22 knots thanks to eight Junkers Diesel engines with 36,000 bhp total, enabling a range of 9,000nm. More on Junker's battleship.

1911 Netherlands Proposal Battleships

With the Netherlands voting the funding of battleships for the Netherlands Navy, German made several proposals, which gives an insight into the state of battleship design at that stage.

German Battlecruisers

This chapter will be reduced, already a detailed post about them:

Design specifics

Germany was the second most avid user and builder of battlecruisers during the great war. No country but perhaps Japan went so far in this area, starting with the kaiser's knowledge of the construction of HMS Invincible in UK by 1906. He immediately wanted to convert an armoured cruiser by then just laid down, SMS Blucher. A best it was a compromise, armed only with 21 cm guns, but a monocaliber ship, closely modelled after Cuniberti ideas. Following in 1908 was launched the Von de Tann in 1909, armed with 38 cm main artillery and therefore considered the world's first non-British battlecruiser.

She was followed by the improved Moltke class (with Goeben) in 1910-11, the SMS Seydlitz in 1912, and the Derfflinger class (1913), which third ship, and the Hindenburg (1915), last German battlecruisers to see action. The following Mackensen class (1917) and Ersatz Yorck were to follow, but shortages of materials and manpower bring their construction to a halt. The same tendency was observed as dreadnoughts: The British RN led the dance, and the Germans followed with a 2 years gap. However in general they were better armored than their British counterparts, and/or respected their safety regulations, but indeed, with a slower rate of fire, which explains the discrepancy of losses at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916.

German battlecruisers in action

Grman battlecruisers used to shell British coastal cities in 1914. They did several raids, each time with the same objective: Provoke the Royal Navy, and act as a bait to drag them to pre-positioned submarines and minefields, with the Hochseeflotte at Wilhelshaven ready to pounce on the diminished grand fleet. At least that was the plan in Scheer's mind. Hipper was the bait, like Beatty for the Royal Navy.

At Jutland, German battlecruisers showed their relative superiority, despite often smaller guns. They were more accurate, (the configuration of lighting also played a role), more resilient, and their shells did not failed to detonate as often as for the British. SMS Von der Tann came to shine as in first 15 minutes of the duel she sank the battleship HMS Indefatigable. She was hit four times by Queen Elisabeth dreadnoughts, heavy 15-in caliber shells, which disabling her two aft turrets, generated electrical failures dooming her main artillery, leaving her for fifteen minutes with only its secondary battery.

SMS Molkte, colorized by irootoko jr
SMS Molkte, colorized by irootoko jr.

SMS Moltke, a veteran of the Dogger bank in August 1914, was torpedoed E3 submersible but survived. She was hit 6 time by HMS Tiger at Jutland, but damage was controlled. In 1918, stranded at sea by a serious turbine accident she was torpedoed by E42, but again, she survived showing her extraordinary resilience.
SMS Goeben was the flagship of the Mediterranean squadron in 1914 and became overnight the admiral ship of the Turkish Ottoman Navy as Yavuz Sultan Selim. She would encounter Russian capital shps of the black sea all along the war, and showed also her resilience, being hit many times, especially in 1918 at the battle of the Aegean.
SMS Seydlitz also shined at the Battle of Dogger Bank against HMS Lion, Beatty's admiral ship, taking three hits. Repaired, she hit a mine in 1916 and again was repaired. At Jutland, she took two torpedoes from the destroyers HMS Petard and Turbulent and 22 hits, including sixteen heavy shells (15-in). Amazingly she survived all this, limping back to the German coast to be beached, filled with 5330 tons of seawater.

SMS Derfflinger She fought at the Dogger Bank, taking three hits, but at Jutland she pounded HMS Queen Mary (11 hits) while taking herself 21 hits (notably 15-in shells by HLS Revenge), loosing her two rear turrets and filling with 3300 tons of seawater. She remained stable due to her ballast, with a 2° bank and managed to return in Kiel.
SMS Derrflinger colorized by Irootoko Jr
SMS Derrflinger colorized by Irootoko Jr.

SMS Lützow was operational only two months before Jutland. She sank HMS Invincible, taking only two hits, and almost sank HMS Defence as well. When the battle line concentrated on her, she took 24 heavy caliber rounds and was stranded, finished off by the destroyer G38 as she was "unsinkable". This victory by the RN was not as bright as she was scuttled, not sank by gunfire. In other conditions, towed to the coast, she could have survived, again another superb showcase of amazing resilience of German battlecruisers. However armour-wise, it seems the difference was not that considerable.

Last wartime German battlecruiser, SMS Hindenburg started trials in May 1917 and therefore only knew a rather dull period for the Hochseeflotte. She was nevr really tested, making a few raids in the Baltic but remained mostly inactive until the surrender. In 1930 an official Royal commission of Engineers made a comprehensive study of her before she was broken up. Her protection, ammunition management and communication, fire control system were carefully studied.


German Battleship construction & projects of WW1

Hamburg, 1920, Unfinished hulks
Hamburg, 1920, unfinished hulks: Mackensen-class battlecruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" (larger of the two) and Bayern-class battleship "Württemberg" (smaller of the two). War Department. Army Air Forces. 6/20/1941-9/26/1947 (NARA).

During wartime, lack of materials and labour shortages slowed down construction, but three new class of ships were laid down. The Bayern and Baden, last German battleships were completed in July 1916 and March 1917. The next two sister-ships, called Sachsen and Württemberg were built respectively at Germaniawerft, Kiel and AG Vulkan in Hamburg. They were launched on 21 November 1916 and 20 June 1917 respectively, but never completed, cancelled to provide extra manpower and resources to the army. They were about 10-12 month away from completion.
It is unclear as much they differed from the Bayern class. R. Gardiner (Conways) seems to separate them entirely (see later).

This was not the last class of ww1 German battleships however. German planners already envisioned the next step of British battleships, and it seemed obvious that the 15-in caliber was just transitional. Fisher's light battlecruisers planned for the Baltic landing operation were indeed fitted with 18-in guns (457 mm). This led the German admiralty to desire, just like Fisher with the Queen Elisabeth, a mix between a battlecruiser (with the speed attached to it) and a battleship and its level of protection.

But they pushed the envelope far enough to not making any compromise as shown by the Queen Elisabeth class: They were ready to try a much, much larger displacement, from 30,000 to 43,000 tonnes, to house a massive powerplant. Their development spanned a year and a half, in 1916-to the fall of 1917. However, contrary to the Mackensen class, they were never laid down and cancelled. These were to be the last ww1 German battleships, but their plans were not forgotten. Both plans for the Sachsen and this prospective class were reused on the 1939 Bismarck class.

Sachsen class (1917)

These ships were slightly lengthened Bayerns, Sachsen being built under the 1914-15 programme and Württemberg under War Estimates, and would have been similar in appearance except for higher funnels in Sachsen. The designed armament unchanged except that the 38cm mountings were Drh C/1914 with 20° elevation, and TT would certainly have been reduced to 3. Armour was also as in Bayern with a few exceptions. Sachsen had a structure protecting the top of the diesel engine for about halfway between armour and main decks. This was 8in-5.5in with 3.2in roof, and both ships are shown with all barbettes 1.6in behind the 14in belt, and with the armour deck 2in over some areas amidships.

In Sachsen the centre shaft was to be diesel-powered and the two outer steam with 3 oil- and 6 coal-fired boilers and 2 sets of turbines in 4 engine rooms, while in Württemberg there were 3 oil- and 9 coal-fired boilers with 3 sets of turbines in 6 engine rooms. Range was to be 2000nm at 12kts on diesel alone.

Displacement: 28,345/28,247 tonnes standard, 31,987/31,700 tonnes
Dimensions: 182.4 x 20 x 9.4m (598 fr 5in oa, 98ft 9in, 27ft 8in)
Propulsion: 2 shafts Parsons turbines, 12 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 48,000 hp. 22 knots.
Belt 120-350 mm (4.7 in - 14 in)
Bulkheads 140 - 300 mm (5.5 in - 12 in)
Battery 170 mm (6.7 in), Barbettes 40-350 mm (1.6 - 14 in)
Turrets 100-350 mm (4 in - 14 in), CT 170 - 350 mm (6.7 in - 14 in)
Armament: 8 x 38 cm, 16 x 15 cm, 8 x 8,8cm FLAK, 5 x 60 cm TTs sub

L20 Alpha class (1919)

L20 alpha class battleships
Rendition of the L20 alpha concept, as recovered from the archive sketches.

This design, dated 2 October 1917, was selected from a number of fast battleship and battlecruiser designs for construction on 11 September 1918, though by this time there was no chance of them ever being built. Outlines show a single truncated funnel with tripod foremast and a forecastle extending to the after superfiring barbette.
The turrets were arranged with superfiring pairs fore and aft, the latter being widely separated by engine rooms. The 15cm were in an upper deck battery. There was a single bow TT and one on either beam abaft the boiler rooms and thus within the torpedo bulkhead, though these would probably have been moved to an above water position behind the forward side armour.

The 14in belt armour extended from a little forward of the fore barbette to a little abaft the after one, and from 77in above lwl to 14in below. It tapered to 6.7in at the lower edge 67in below the waterline, and was 10in between the main and upper decks.

Forward the armour was 10in with 6in lower edge not extending to the stem, and aft 12in with Sin lower edge. Barbettes are shown as 14in reduced to 10Oin behind the battery, 10in-6in behind the 10in side and 6in-4in behind the 14in. Turrets had 14in faces, 10in sides, 12in rears and 10in-6in roofs.

The armour deck was 2.4in-2in amidships, 2in forward and 4.7in-2in aft, with a 1.6in-0.8in forecastle deck over the battery, apparently 0.8in on most of the upper deck and on the main deck aft. The torpedo bulkhead was 2.4in-2in continued as a 1.2in splinter bulkhead to the upper deck.

There were to be 6 oil-fired 156 coal-fired boilers but it is not clear whether there were 2 or 4 sets of turbines. They would obviously have been very powerful ships but the decks were thin as was the belt lower edge, and armour of 10in or less would have been vulnerable to later 15in shells.

Displacement: 28,345/28,247 tonnes standard, 31,987/31,700 tonnes
Dimensions: 238 x 33.5 x 9-9.9 m (781 ft x 110 ft x 32ft 6in)
Propulsion: 4 shafts turbines, 12 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 100,000 hp. 26 knots, coal/oil: 2950/1970 tons
Belt 130-350 mm (5 in - 14 in)
Bulkheads 60 - 250 mm (2.4 in - 10 in)
Battery 170 mm (6.7 in), Barbettes 100-350 mm (4 in - 14 in)
Turrets 150-350 mm (5 in - 14 in), CT 150 - 350 mm (6 in - 14 in)
Armament: 8 x 42 cm (16.5 in), 12 x 15 cm (6 in), 8 x 8,8 cm FLAK (3.4 in), 3 x 60/70 cm (28 in) TTs sub

Read More/Src

R. Gardiner, Conway's all the world's fighting ship 1860-1905, 1906-1921
Seligmann, Matthew (January 2010) - "Intelligence information and the 1909 naval scare: the secret foundations of a public panic"
Spies of the Kaiser: German Covert Operations in Great Britain
Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War - By Robert K. Massie

German Battleships 1890-1917

The first date is about coastal battleships of the "Norse" serie, and late date for ships uncompleted like the Sachsen class and projects cancelled at the end of the war, such as the L20 alpha class (project of October 1917, ordered 11 September 1918). We don't have any knowledge of further paper projects in 1918. On the ancient side, the oldest post-German unification (1870), so non-Prussian battleships were discarded and were used in menial roles in WW1 (see above).

Siegfried (1889)

Symptoms of the philosophy of the German navy before the arrival on the throne of Wilhelm the second and his grand ambitions, these first eight battleships were coastal units, having no other vocation than the defense of the major German ports of the Baltic.

Their dimensions allowed only a modest armament, and they were comparable to the coastal battleships and monitors developed by the Scandinavian navies at the time. Their configuration was singular, with three single turret x which both were forward in either side, making a triangular configuration. These ships were all named after old Norse mythologic figures.

Odin and Aegir, the last two units, differed from the others by armament (10 x 88 mm, 4 x 450 mm torpedo tubes), the armor, the two funnels, the military masts. The series included besides these two ships, Siegfried, Beowulf, Frithjof, Heimdall, Hildebrand, Hagen, laid down in 1888-1893 and accepted in 1890-96.

All these ships, were rebuilt in 1900-1904. Two 88 mm AA guns were added, they were lengthened to 86.5 m, re-equipped with new boilers giving them two funnels, the tonnage jumped to 4,158 tons. In 1914, these eight ageing ships made the VI th Wing of Rear-Admiral Eckermann, Hochseeflotte.

In 1915 they were retrograded as local coastguards until 1916 when they were disarmed (their guns were transferred to the front). They were sold in 1919. Although four were broken in 1919-1921 (the Hildebrand ran aground on a Dutch sandbar during her transfer), SMS Beowulf briefly served as an ice-breaker, while Frithjof, Odin and Aegir were converted into cargo ships and survived until 1929-35 in this improbable guise until new ships replaced them in this desperate role.

Displacement: 4158 t
Dimensions: 88.5 x 14.9 x 5.8m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 VTE engines, 6 boilers, 6000 hp. and 14.5 knots max.
Shielding: Crew Turrets 203, belt 230, blockhouse 230, barbettes 203 mm;
Crew: 280
Armament: 3 guns 240, 10 of 88, 4 TLT 450 mm (SM, 1 av, 1 ar, 2 sides)

Kaiser class (1896-99)

Kaiser Friedrich der grosse
This class of 5 battleships (the "emperors") included the Friedrich III, Wilhelm II, Wilhelm der Grosse, Karl der Grosse and Barbarossa. Very different from SMS Brandenburg in all respects, they would form the basis of the other three classes of pre-dreadnoughts following. The first was approved in 1894 and put on hold in 1895, 1896 for the Wilhelm II, 1896, 98 for the others.

They were launched in 1896-1900 and completed in 1898-1902. Their main artillery was two turrets (still 280 mm against 305 in the Royal Navy), but had an impressive secondary artillery with no less than 18 pieces of 150 mm divided into 6 simple turrets and the rest in barbettes. They were quite tall and suffered from a lack of stability, and were thus rebuilt in 1907-1910. We lowered their superstructures, their funnels, lightened their military masts, we removed 4 pieces of 150 mm in barbettes to replace them by 4 pieces of 88 mm, which were all also placed on the superstructure, just as we deposited the TLT of stern.

The Wilhelm II was until 1906 the flagship of the Hochseeflotte at Kiel, but in 1914, these ships were in second line. In 1916, without having really fought, they were disarmed for use as utility pontoons. Too slow and with insufficient artillery, they were no longer compatible with the German line fleet at that time, especially after Jutland.

Displacement: 11,600 t
Dimensions: 125.3 x 20.4 x 8.25 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts TE machines, 12 boilers, 14,000 hp. and 17 knots max.
Armour protection: Ammunition well 254, belt 305, bridges 65, barbettes 305 mm;
Crew: 651
Armament: 4 x 280 (2x2), 18 of 150, 12 of 88 mm, 6 TLT 450 mm.

Wittelsbach class (1900-01)

Wittelsbach class

This class of 5 battleships (first series of "regions") included the Wittelsbach, Wettin, Zähringen, Schwaben, and Mecklemburg. They had been ordered in the law of 1898 instituted by Von Tirpitz then Minister of the Navy. They were quite close to the previous Kaiser, but some of their secondary turret artillery had been replaced in barbettes. Kaiser's design lessons in terms of superstructure height and stability were also digested. The hull was more than a continuous bridge. As for the Kaiser, the front turret was resting on a battery bridge, overlooking the front deck.

Another change was the belt that was reinforced. The speed was slightly more than half a knot. They were also heavier and much wider. Until 1916 they were kept in reserve at the seine of the 4th squadron of line, which made no exit. Judged too vulnerable, they were not engaged. In 1916 they were reassigned to subsidiary roles: The Mecklenburg became a floating prison, the others served as a training ship.

In 1919, the Wittlesbach (and the Braunschweig-class Lothringen) were converted into minesweeper speedboats, carrying 10 F-type units on their restored bridge. The experiment ended in 1921. It was struck down and BU. The others shared this spell except the Zähringen which was converted in 1926 into a radio-controlled target. He served in this role until December 1944: Anchored in Gdynia, he was bombed by the RAF and completed by the Germans.


Displacement: 12,600 t
Dimensions: 126.8 x 22.8 x 8 m
Propulsion: 3 shaft TE machines, 12 boilers, 15,000 hp. and 17.5 knots max.
Armour protection: Ammunition well 254, belt 305, bridges 65, barbettes 305 mm
Crew: 683.
Armament: 4 x 280 (2x2), 18 of 150, 12 of 88 mm, 6 TLT 450 mm.

Braunschweig class (1902-04)


This class of 5 battleships (second set of "regions") included the Braunschweig, Elsass, Hessen, Preussen, and Lothringen. They were started in 1901-1902 in Schichau, Germaniawerft and Vulcan. They derived closely from the previous Wittlesbachs, but their secondary artillery, partly in barbettes and partly in simple turrets, was changed to 170 mm caliber, which was unique at the time, and included some of the weakness of the 280 mm in range and to penetrating power lower than British 12 inches.

They had a new boiler system, with power and speed increasing, and three compartments and funnels. They reached 25.6 meters wide, and in fact remained fairly stable. Their front turret was returned to normal position. By far the heaviest German pre-dreadnoughts, they remained relatively inactive at the beginning of the war. They formed the 4th squadron based in the Baltic and intended for the possible Russian fleet raids.

Due to the lack of crews, they were partially in reserve soon in the war, and officially ranked as coastguard. In 1916, their secondary battery was removed and they kept only a few 88 mm guns. In 1919, Preussen and Lothringen were converted into type-F torpedo boats carriers. The experiment was interrupted in 1938, and the Preussen was BU, as were the other units of the class in 1931. Hessen, on the other hand, became a radio-controlled target ship, survived the Second World War and was awarded as war prize to the USSR in 1946, renamed Tsel and BU quickly.


Displacement: 14,200 t
Dimensions: 127.7 x 25.6 x 8.1 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts TE, 16 boilers, 17,000 hp. and 18.5 knots max.
Armour protection: Ammunition well 254, belt 305, bridges 65, barbettes 305 mm
Crew: 743.
Armament: 4 x 280 (2x2), 14 x 170, 12 x 88 mm, 4 ML, 6 x 450 mm TTs sub.

Deutschland class (1904-06)


The five pre-dreadnought of the Deutschland class were the last of this type built in Germany. They were ordered in 1903-1905, even though the HMS Dreadnought was under construction (whic was unknown at the time). They were completed and accepted for service in 1906-08, when the first Dreadnoughts appeared. In fact, they were virtually useless in 1910.

But Tirpitz evaded these criticisms by arguing that the future German battleships would require a redevelopment of the Kiel Canal, long and particularly expensive work. They relied heavily on the design of the previous Braunschweig, but they were a little smaller, with rearranged funnels, higher power but unchanged speed, and secondary artillery entirely back in barbettes.

In the same way, their tertiary artillery went from eighteen to twenty 88 mm guns. Deck armor was slightly lighter, but turrets, barbettes and shields saw their protection increased. Still "fresh" in 1914, they were kept in the front line of the 2nd Wing of the Hochseeflotte. In May 1916, during the Battle of Jutland, they had the opportunity to fight.

SMS Pommern barely had time to fire a few volleys before being literally destroyed by the explosion of a torpedo in an ammunition bay, launched by British destroyers of the 12th squadron. She sank with all hands, one of the rare pre-dreadnought to see action and be lost in combat during this war. Until 1917 they remained inactive, removed from the Hochseeflotte, their crews needed elsewhere, and outside Deutschland scrapped in 1920, they formed the heart of the naval force of the interwar Weimar's Reichsmarine. They were converted as training ships and partially rebuilt. Schleswig-Holstein in fact opened WW2 by firing the first shots of the war in Poland at the Westerplatte.


Displacement: 14,000 t; 127.6 x 22.2 x 8.2 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts VTE engines, 16 boilers, 19,000 hp. 18.5 knots max.
Armour protection: Well ammunition 230, belt 305, bridges 50, barbettes 305 mm
Crew: 743.
Armament: 4 x 280 (2x2), 14 x 170, 20 x 88 mm, 4 MGs, 6 x 450 mm TTs.

Nassau class (1908)

Nassau class

The four Nassau (Nassau, Westfalen, Rheinland, Posen) were the first German monocaliber battleships. They arrived long after the completion of HMS Dreadnought, and had a configuration of 6 turrets, including 4 central, still equipped with 28 cm guns. This gave them 12 guns of this caliber, to compare with the ten of the Dreadnought, but eight in broadside.

For secondary armament (absent on the Dreadnought and his successors on the British side) thse dreadnoughts had a battery of 150 mm guns, more "standard" than the 17 cm, and faster, all in barbettes. There was also the light battery of 88 mm guns, ten being in barbettes and the others on the battery roof, plus 6 submarine torpedo tubes.

WoW's renditions of the SMS Nassau class

Large, these ships were very stable, with a roll so limited that fire was accurate and faster. Good walkers, by forcing their boilers to 26-28,000 hp, they reached more than 20 knots. Their completion and fitting-out was long and the last two were not accepted until September 1910. Their active service was uneventful. In August 1916, the Westfalen was torpedoed by E23. She made water from the stern, filling with 800 tons of seawater, but returned safely.

SMS Rheinland for her part, hit a reef off Lagskär (Norway) in April 1918, taking 6000 tons of seawater. Immobilized, engineers teams had to remove part of her armor and all her guns on the spot to recover her, pumping water into the hull. She was towed back to to Kiel but never repaired. Unlike the other modern battleships of the Hochseeflotte, none of these 1st gen. german battleships were driven to Scapa Flow: They were BU on site in 1920-24.

Displacement: 18,750 t - 21,000 t PC; 146 x 27 x 9 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts VTE machines, 3 cyl., 12 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 22,000 hp. 19.5 knots max.
Armour protection: Belt 300, Battery 160, Internal Formwork 210, Turrets 280, Blockhaus 300, 280 mm barbettes
Crew: 1140.
Armament: 12 x 280 (6x2), 12 of 150, 16 of 88 mm, 6 TLT 450 mm.

Nassau class ships colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Helgoland (1909)

These four battleships (Helgoland, Ostfriesland, Thüringen, Oldenburg) marked a quick advance in design for German battleships. Apart from the artillery provision, they remained influenced by the Nassau class, their main innovation being to move to the "standard" caliber used by other nations, the 12-in caliber or 30,5 cm in German ordnance. However, when these ships were completed in 1911 (1912 for the Oldenburg), UK already swapped to 14-in or 343 mm.

SMS Helgoland, prow, colorized by Irootoko Jr.
SMS Helgoland, prow, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Much larger than the Nassau, their three close funnels which distinguished them from Nassau, their secondary armament was reinforced with 2 guns, to the detriment of their tertiary artillery, and the caliber of torpedo tubes was increased to 500 mm. They were also faster, and reached 21.3 knots on sea trials (Oldenburg).

Their armor was also singularly reinforced, true to the German principle that protection was the paramount factor. These German battleships formed a squadron, the 1st, commanded by Vice Admiral Von Lanz, with the four units of the Nassau class. They participated in the Battle of Skaggerak (Jutland for the Anglo-Saxon world).

On June 1, 1916, Osfriesland struck a mine, and listed badly. Her commander believed in the attack of a submarine, so ordered large maneuvers in "Z" to escape any further torpedoing. She returned at 10 knots safely to port and was repaired.

In November 1918, the Hochseeflotte was ordered to Scapa Flow under solid escort, but like the Nassau, they considered by the British commission as "second-rate" dreadnoughts, and were allowed to remain home, broken up in 1921-24. SMS Ostfriesland was converted into a target ship and sunk in exercises.


Displacement: 22,440 t - 25,200 t FL
Dimensions: 167.2 x 28.5 x 9 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts VTE engines, 4 cyl., 15 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 28,000 hp. 20.3 knots
Armour protection: Belt 300, Battery 160, Internal Formwork 210, Turrets 300, Blockhaus 300, Barbs 300 mm
Crew: 1300.
Armament: 12 x 305 (6x2), 14 of 150, 14 of 88 mm, 6 TLT 500 mm.

Kaiser class (1911-12)

Kaiser class dreadnoughts

The five battleships (and not 4 as before, Kaiser, Friedrich der Grosse, Kaiserin, Konig Albert, Prinzregent Luitpold) which constituted this class marked a new milestone in the design of the German Battleships. They kept the same 12-in caliber (at that time lower than the one developed by Great Britain, the USA or even France), but the distribution in 5 axial turrets (instead of 6) was more rational, with two pieces in echelon at center, with a wide deflection that allowed them in principle to fire both side of the same side. This was on paper however, inferior to other fleets, three years late at least.

The second major advance was the adoption for the first time of turbines (already used in dreadnoughts in the Royal Navy since 1906). The range of the main guns was improved thanks to new mod.1909 mounts. After the Battle of Jutland, all but two of the 88 mm Flak batteries were removed from some ships (Their initial armament already included 4 AA guns on the aft deckhouse).

Armor protection was reinforced at the belt and CT. They differed in terms of machinery, having three Parsons turbines (built under license), AEG Vulcan or Schichau, but two turbines and a cruising diesel never finally installed on the SMS Luitpold. The latter had 14 boilers instead of 16 and reached 22 knots against 21 for the others. In sea trials the Kaisers managed to develop more than 55,000 hp and 23.4 knots.

In service in December 1912-December 1913, they made Vice Admiral Funke's III squadron. They were not actually engaged before the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, fired a few volleys but received no hits. They did not have any opportunity to fight thereafter until sent to Scapa Flow after the armistice where they were scuttled on June 21, 1919.


Displacement: 24,330 t - 27,400 t PC
Dimensions: 172.4 x 29 x 9.1 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts Parsons turbines, 16 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 31,000 hp. 21 knots
Armour protection: Belt 350, Battery 170, Internal Bulkheads 210, Turrets 300, CT 350, Barbettes 300 mm
Crew: 1300.
Armament: 12 x 305 (6x2), 14 x 150, 12 x 88 mm/4 AA, 5 x 500 mm TTs.

König class (1913-14)

Konig class

The 4 German battleships of the König class (King) (König, Grosser Kurfurst, Markgraf, Kronprinz) were an evolution of the previous design but their main innovation laid in the arrangement of their five turrets, one axial and the others superimposed aft and fore, which was done in other navies. This was similar in particular to the contemporary Orion standard (with King georges V and Iron Duke), and Bretagne class in France.

However, once again, the main artillery was criticized, still 12-in, even though the Queen Elisabeth class which much more devastating 15-in guns, was at the same time undergoing completion !
Once again, the excellence of protection and fire control was expected to make a difference. The gun mounts were of the new 1911 model which allowed a slightly higher increase of range, compensating for the lower caliber. Secondary artillery remained unchanged but the tertiary artillery lost two guns for four in barbettes, two on the deck of the forward deckhouse, and FLAK was privileged.

These guns were also removed in 1918. Machines were unchanged since the Kaiser, the Grosser Kurfürst having AEG-Vulcan turbines, Markgraf Bergmann turbines, and other Parsons turbines. These ships were accepted in service between September 1914 (Grosser Kurfürst) and February 1915 (Kronprinz). Kurfürst was the sixth unit of III Wing Rear Admiral Funke. The others replaced the units of four Wing Vice-Admiral Schmidt.

Kurfürst and Kronprinz were torpedoed by the submarine J-1 on November 5, 1916, but escaped. The same Kurfürst hit a mine in the Gulf of Riga on October 12, 1917 and the Markgraf on October 29, but she survived. All participated in the Battle of Jutland, König being the most damaged. After the war, these ships were interned at Scapa Flow and scuttled in June 1919. They were BU only in 1936 (Kurfürst), and 1962 for the other three. Divers in the meantime found some attraction there.

König class

Displacement: 25,390 t - 29,200 t Flak
Dimensions: 175.4 x 29.5 x 9.3 m
Propulsion: 3 shafts Parsons turbines, 15 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 31,000 hp. 21 knots.
Armour protection: Belt 350, Battery 170, Internal Bulkheads 210, Turrets 300, Blockhaus 350, Barbettes 300 mm
Crew: 1300.
Armament: 12 x 305 (6x2), 14 x 150, 10 x 88 mm/4 FLAK, 5 x 500 mm TT sub.

Bayern class (1916)


The Bayern class represented the peak of German WW1 battleships of the Dreadnought type. SMS Bayern and Baden, with their very modern designs, perfectly embodied the catching up the the Kaiserliches Marine of the Royal Navy. Responding to British Queen Elizabeth, they have equivalent artillery while being shorter of 15 meters but wider of 3 meters, the same displacement, and a slightly lower speed. Their fire control system, similar to that of the Hindenburg-class battle cruisers, was much more advanced.

Laid down at the beginning of 1914 under the Tirpitz plan, Bayern and Baden were launched in 1915 and entered into service at the end of 1916 and early 1917, too late to participate in major naval operations, including the Battle of Jutland. SMS Baden hit on a mine in the Gulf of Riga, regaining Kiel with great difficulty for repairs, and did not left the yard until 1921 to serve as a target. Bayern was interned at Scapa Flow, and was scuttled like the rest of the fleet on June 21, 1919. The following Sachsen and Württemberg were very close but were never completed. They were to be followed by the L20 Alpha class (unnamed) in 1917, equipped with massive 42 cm guns. They would remain wet paper dreams.

Bayern class

Displacement: 28,070t, 31,700t PC
Dimensions: 180 x 30 x 8.50 m
Propulsion: 4 Parsons turbines, 14 Schultz-Thornycroft boilers, 48,000 hp. 21 knots
Armour protection: Barbettes 350 mm, Battery 170 mm, belt 350 mm
Crew: 1270
Armament: 8 x 380 mm (4x2), 16 x 150 mm in barbettes, 8 x AA 88 mm Flak, 5 x 600 mm TT sub

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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