The Royal Yugoslav Navy in WW2

yugoslav navy A New Fleet for a new Nation
Born from the heel of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Like the Polish state, the Yugoslavian Kingdom emerged within a difficult Peace process after the great war, toppling regimes and redrawing all borders throughout Europe. Since some legitimacy was needed, the new state was centered around the most prominent ancient Kingdom of the Balkans, where the spark was initiated in the summer of 1914, Serbia. And the navy of this new nation called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, asked to absorb the ships left from the Austro-Hungarian navy, still largely intact in 1918.

As former provinces of the old Empire, the Balkans nations seldom had a proper navy but mostly monitors and riverine crafts, even before the new Kingdom was funded in 1922. The new political entity earned in just a day an entire fleet granted to them well before the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1921 changed all this. This went so fast as an Italian frogman never had an update on the situation and famously sank the Viribus Unitis at anchor, just renamed (on paper) Jugoslavija. This could have been - needless to say- a formidable addition to the new composite state. Another large coastal unit was the 6700 tons Kumbor, former SMS Kronprinz Erzherzog Rudolf (1889). She was armed with three 12-in guns. However due to her age she was acquired in 1921 but scrapped the next year.

The sinking of the Jugoslavija (ex-Viribus Unitis) by an Italian frogman at Pola, the admiral ship of the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Soon after, the entire Austro-Hungarian fleet was dismembered by a new treaty and attributed to the allies. Only a few remaining ships were allocated to the Yugoslavian government.

Reattributions to the new Yugoslav Navy

The Italians indeed had been extremely uneasy about these attributions and a seeing at their doorsteps a growing naval power, they repeatedly and adamantly asked this fleet was reallocated as war prizes instead. They eventually gained support and only a small fraction of the original fleet ended in the hands of the Yugoslavs. In all, this represented twelve modern TBs, four old minesweepers, four river monitors,  and some auxiliaries. However, the government later managed to purchase some ships in the new German state at low prices, an obsolete cruiser and six modern minesweepers.

Italian Premuda 1942 (Ex-Dubrovnik)

Impossible Naval Plans (1922-41)

In the first decade after the great war, the new Kingdom experienced economic troubles. They inherited from the already bad Austro-Hungarian situation, with debts on the international market and a fledgling industry, but above all, a constant unrest due to recent populations moves and contested internal and external borders. These three nations of the new Kingdom did not assimilate particularly well due to old cultural differences. Although there was some progress in industrial development until 1929, the world crisis plunged the country in a situation almost pre-1922. Local yards were unable to produce anything valuable for the fleet, and it would wait until the late 1930s to see some improvements take place:
The end of the recession was marked by political unrest. King Alexander was assassinated in Marseilles in 1934 while the new government allowed German capital to penetrate the Yugoslavian market. The new political line shifted from France, UK and Czechoslovakia to Germany and Italy. On the naval side, this was accompanied by an order for a dozen Lürssen class MTBs (8 delivered) and two Type II class U-Boats (never delivered) whereas negotiations took place for two new destroyers to be built also in Germany. Before that, one destroyer was ordered at Yarrow in 1930, one in France in 1935 (two more built locally), and two submarines in France as two in the UK. Some of these ships were international "collage", like the Beograd class, combining a French design, Czech armament, British powerplant and Dutch firing controls !

Modelled of the 1918 British flotilla leaders, this ship was to be the first of four, leading each a flotilla of six destroyers. 1929 crisis and Budget cuts ended with an half-flotilla of three destroyers led by the Dubrovnik, hardly blue water navy stuff.

The Yugoslavian Navy in 1941

In size and strength, the Yugoslavian navy recalls the Polish Navy, but with an edge on pure tonnage. However where Polish ships are mostly recent, Yugoslav ones are not. The cruiser Dalmacija (Niobe) is a pre-WW1 relic, and the torpedo boats and minesweepers are all from the last war. There are similarities in destroyer though since the Dubrovnik is certainly on par with the Polish Grom. The British-built ship was the best and most heavily armed destroyer at launch. It could act as a destroyer leader and became a prize of choice for Italy after the country was occupied.

Fleet strength:

A swift end

When "Marita" operation came to an end, Yugoslavia saw the entire territory annexed to the Reich, with various allocations being drawn. From April 6 to 16, the weak Yugoslav army, already cut off from mutinous Croats, was destroyed, and what remained of her tried to take refuge in the mountainous areas of Serbia. But Von Weichs' pincer maneuver encircled it and the army capitulated on the 18th. The fleet, in fact, feared a massive air attack and survivors took refuge in allied ports, including Malta.

Destroyer Dubrovnik on during a naval review in Kotor (Cattaro)

The wartime Croatian Navy

Croatia, for its part, welcomed the Germans almost as liberators and soon became auxiliaries of the axis in Yugoslavia, the terrible Chetniks rivaling with the SS in terms of terror and fierce repression. Not all croats were collaborationalist though. As the war progressed, many Croats joined the partisans (see later). A puppet government was soon set up, dominated by Croats, on the enlarged territory of a hypothetical "Greater Croatia". Everywhere else Yugoslavia was militarily occupied. Serbian, Bosnian and Slovenian partisans resisted it fiercely, at some point pinning down entire divisions in mountainous areas. The Croatian "Navy" was re-equipped with some minesweepers based in Varna in the Black Sea: The Italians refused to see a Croatian flotilla on the Adriatic. After the Italian armistice, the latter were re-equipped with other units of the former Royal Navy, but a change of attitude and a mutiny on the torpedo T7 led to the flight of crews to the partisans. In 1944, Tito had managed to federate many pro-communist Croats against the German occupation. Destroyer Beograd in color

The Yugoslavian Liberation Navy

When it came to Tito's naval forces, they were particularly modest, with two old armed fishing vessels at the start, followed by 70 others. It also counted about fifty patrol boats of various origins, of 20 tons at best, the lists including also 200 transport ships and a dozen other light ships. Tito's Partisans were mainly assisted by Churchill in naval means. In mid-1944, 8 PC-type patrollers and the corvette Nada, former Mallow of the "Flower" type.

Yugoslav Corvette Nada KING PETER'S BROTHER NAMES YUGO-SLAV CORVETTE. 11 JANUARY 1944, GLADSTONE DOCK, LIVERPOOL. THE YUGO-SLAV CORVETTE NADA (EX-HMS MALLOW) WAS NAMED BY PRINCE TOMISLAV, BROTHER OF KING PETER OF YUGO-SLAVIA. (A 21299) Prince Tomislav, in the uniform of Senior Cadet, at the naming ceremony performed under the shadow of the forward gun. The C in C Western Approaches, Admiral Sir Max K Horton, KCB, DSO, is seen beside him. IWM.

Assisted by the USSR, the Yugoslav partisans then succeeded in liberating the territory from occupation. What remained of the fleet (ships passed from hand to hand, sometimes ex-Austro-Hungarian then successively Yugoslavs, Italians, Croats, Yugoslavs again as partisans, Germans.). The new Republican Yugoslav navy will slowly recover after the war. Of course this is only an introduction on the subject. For more about it see the read more/src section below.

Yugoslav Cruiser Dalmacija (1899)

Born SMS Niobe, laid down in 1898, launched on 18 July 1899 and commissioned 25 June 1900, the German Imperial cruiser of the Gazelle class was a 2,963 tonnes (2,916 long tons) light cruiser 105 m (344 ft 6 in) long overall by 12.20 m (40 ft) and 5.03 m (16 ft 6 in) draught with 8,000 ihp (6,000 kW) installed power, driving two shafts fed by Triple-expansion steam engines for a top speed of 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h; 24.7 mph). The ship also had a range of about 3,570 nmi (6,610 km; 4,110 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) and carried a crew of about 260. At the origin, she was armed with ten 10.5 cm SK L/40 guns (until 1919) and two 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes (until 1916), protected by 20 to 25 mm (0.79 to 0.98 in).

Dalmacija in Kotor, 1941, as captured by Italian troops. She was to operate with the Italians, Croatians and Germans under her old name Niobe.

Niobe was one of the rare cruisers authorized by the Treaty of Versailles rank, seen as "inoffensive" due to her age and size. So she served in the Reichsmarine and was significantly modernized: The ram bow was replaced by a clipper bow, new SK L/45 guns were installed on the same U-boat mountings plus tow 50 cm (20 in) torpedo tubes, in deck-mounted launchers. However by 24 June 1925, she was stricken from the lists. Available for purchase she was eventually sold to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

As Austro-Hungarian ships in Yugoslav service were gone after Italian pressure and a treaty, the young Kingdom only had twelve modern torpedo boats to defend the coast. The purchase of Niobe, modernised by Germany, as therefore a golden opportunity. She was renamed Dalmacija (Dalmatia), rearmed in 1926 entering service. For Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, these were six Škoda 8.5 cm/55 QF guns, and six 2 cm (0.79 in) AA guns. Another naval historian claims these were six 8.3 cm (3.3 in) L/35 AA guns, four 47 mm guns, six MGs. Nevertheless, Dalmacija was not really employed for first line action but rather served as a gunnery training ship. In the summer of 1929, she joined newly acquired submarine, and six TBs in a state visit to Malta, Corfu and Bizerte and crews made a very good impression.

In April 1941 Dalmacija did not see action, static in Kotor as an harbor defense vessel. She basically provided locally her heavy anti-aircraft armament. After the Yugoslav surrender, she was captured by Italy on 25 April. She was renamed Cattaro and went into service with the Regia Marina. However on 31 July 1942 she narrowly escaped British submarine HMS Traveller, south of Premantura, firing all torpedoes but missing. Her later fate is foggy. She was either transferred to the Navy of the Independent State of Croatia and renamed Znaim or returned to German service in September 1943 and then was transferred. in all cases a mixed German-Croatian crew operated the ship now reamed again Niobe for the Kriegsmarine.

For Conway's, she was at first Italian, then Croatian and then German again. By 1943-44 her armament had been yet again revised (for the third time) with six 8.4 cm (3.3 in) AA guns adopted alongside four 4.7 cm (1.9 in) and four 20 mm AA guns, plus twenty-six 20 mm Breda AA guns. She was to be recommissioned KMS Niobe on 8 November 1943 but was attacked the night of 21–22 September by the British MTB 226 and MTB 228 SW of Zara. She survived and went into service as AA escort in the Adriatic. The convoy she escorted carried the 71st Infantry Division to garrison the islands of Cres, Krk, and Lussino. However by 19 December she ran aground at Silba Island. The MTB 276 and MTB 298 attacked the stranded ship and torpedoed her. The crews escaped and the wreck was later cannibalized by the Yugoslav Partisans and she remained there until 1947. She was raised and broken up for scrap two years later.

Destroyer Dubrovnik (1931)

Probably one of the most powerful and largest destroyer of her time, Dubrovnik has been planned as one of three destroyers leaders before the 1929 crisis. After it when consequences were felt, she remained the only one. But this made quite an interesting ship anyway.

Destroyer & Flotilla Leader Dubrovnik at full speed. When delivered she was a superb destroyer, one of the most capable in the whole Mediterranean.
Ordered to Yarrow Shipbuilders in Glasgow she resembled contemporary designs, but with guns 40% larger and therefore with the hull and powerplant to match. Her main armament indeed comprised four individual masked Skoda Škoda 140 mm (5.5 in) guns. This was completed but an equally impressive secondary battery of two Škoda 83.5 mm (3.29 in) and six Škoda 40 mm (1.6 in) AA guns, plus two Škoda 15 mm (0.59 in) machine guns and two banks of six 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes. She was also fitted with rails and equipment to carry and laid 40 naval mines.

Dubrovnik at full speed in 1936
other characteristics
She displaced in Standard 1,880 long tons (1,910 t) and 2,400 long tons (2,439 t) fully loaded, and measured 113.2 m (371 ft 5 in)by 10.67 m (35 ft 0 in) by 3.58–4.1 m (11 ft 9 in–13 ft 5 in). She was powered by two shafts Parsons steam turbines (48,000 shp (36,000 kW))but had also one Curtis steam turbine for cruising (900 shp (670 kW)), all fed by three Yarrow water-tube boilers. Top speed as designed was 37 knots (69 km/h; 43 mph) and she cruised at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) for an overall range of 7,000 nmi (13,000 km; 8,100 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph), quite sufficient for the Adriatic. Overall she resembled contemporary Tribal class and others with a characteristic box-like bridge, long forecastle and sharp raked stem.

Another aerial view - Dubrovnik at full speed in 1936
Early Career
Dubrovnik was completed in May 1932. She left UK to reach the Mediterranean and from there, arrived at the Bay of Kotor. In harbour she received her complement of heavy A guns. She made in 1933 a state visit via the Turkish Straits to Constanța on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria with the Yugoslav Royal family, and later visited Marseille, however she returned with the body of the king on board, killed by a Bulgarian assassin. She will later visit Corfu, Bizerte, Istanbul, Mudros and Piraeus. In April 1941 she was held at Kotor, under Šaškijević's command of the 1st Torpedo Division, as leader of the three Beograd-class destroyers.

King Alexander I visiting the fleet at Split. Notice the side mortar ASW launcher.
As Premuda in Italian service (1942-43)
She was captured by Italian forces on 17 April 1941, and soon repaired (a scuttling attempt has been made) and integrated in the Regia Marina as Premuda and modernised. Her aft deckhouse and emergency bridge were replaced by an AA platform, mainmast and funnels shortened, main guns replaced by 135 mm L/45 guns and a supplementary 120 mm illumination howitzer while her four 40 mm guns were replaced by Breda Model 35 20 mm (0.79 in) L/65 machine guns, also in single mounts. She was operational in February 1942 and attacked an allied convoy to Malta (Operation Harpoon), in support of the 7th Cruiser Squadron. She later supplied the beleaguered Italo-German forces in Tunis in several missions 6–7 January 1943, and later joined Genoa for a major refit, with her machines worn out. The admiralty thought to convert her as a Navigatori-class ship but work was never completed when italy surrendered.

As Ta-32 in German service (1944-45)
Seized in September 1943, renamed later Ta-32 (32nd Torpedoboot Ausland), the Kriegsmarine at first thought to convert her as a radar picket for night fighters. She would have received three 105 mm (4.1 in) L/45 anti-aircraft guns, a Freya early-warning radar, a Würzburg gun-laying radar and a FuMO 21 surface fire-control system. However short on destroyers, she was sent as a regular DD with a DeTe radar and the German 105 mm guns. She lost a TT banks and received eight 37 mm (1.5 in) FLAK-38 guns and about 32-36 20 mm (0.79 in) FLAK batteries in twin mounts and Flakvierling (quad).

TA-32, in Kriegsmarine service 1945

She was in service only from 18 August 1944 and preyed on the Italian coast and Ligurian Sea with the 10th Torpedo Boat Flotilla. Togeher with two other captured destroyers she duelled with USS Gleaves. She laid mines in several occasions together with TA24 and TA29, like around Corsica when she was caught with the flotilla by British destroyers HMS Lookout and HMS Meteor (Battle of the Ligurian Sea on 18 March 1945). She escaped with her rudder damaged but was left in Genoa, never repaired and scuttled by the Germans on 24 April 1945.

Destroyers class Beograd (1936)

The Kraljevska Jugoslavenska Ratna Mornarica, or KJRM started to develop a flotilla leader eventually ordering to UK a modernized Royal Navy V and W-class flotilla leader, known as the Dubrovnik. Specifications included high speeds and long endurance to be deployed to the central Mediterranean, with the allied fleets. However the after the 1929 crisis, no other order of the originally planned four ships was passed.

Destroyer Beograd (right) moored with Dubrovnik. Both ships were camouflaged according to the surrounding patterns of Kotor cliffs, in black or dark green over light grey. They were photographed by the Italian troops that catpured the port on 17 April 1941.
Genesis of the Beograd class
Down to a smaller budget, Yugoslavia contacted the French Navy for smaller destroyers fit for a unique half-flotilla of three ships, to be led by the unique Dubrovnik. Therefore in 1934, the KJRM ordered the Beograd class in France, to be based on an existing French design of a standard 1500 ton destroyer. The lead ship, Beograd, was built by Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire at Nantes. The contract however also stipulated the remainder two were to be built locally (Zagreb and Ljubljana) at Jadranska brodogradilišta Yard in Split but under French supervision. Two more ships has been planned, but contruction was not voted.

A model of the destroyer Zagreb, kept by the Jadranska brodogradilišta yard, now at the Split museum.
General design
These ships were relatively similar to the French "1500 tonnes", being heavier at 1,210 tonnes (1,190 long tons) standard and 1,655 tonnes (1,629 long tons) fully loaded while being relatively shorter at 98 m (321 ft 6 in), for a 9.45 m (31 ft 0 in) beam and 3.18 m (10 ft 5 in) draught.

The Beograd class was powered by Curtis steam turbines (the Yugoslavian-built ships had Parsons steam turbines) two shafts and three Yarrow water-tube boilers. This powrplant was rated for 40,000–44,000 shp (30,000–33,000 kW) giving a top speed of 38–39 knots (70–72 km/h; 44–45 mph), reduced to 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph) in service. 120 tonnes of fuel oil were carried to achieve a 1,000 nautical miles (1,900 km; 1,200 mi) range.

The armament was singular also with four Škoda 120 mm (4.7 in) L/46 in superfiring single masked mounts, four Bofors 40 mm AA in two twin mounts on either side of the aft shelter deck. Two triple 550 mm (22 in) torpedo tubes banks were also installed on the centerline. French design, British powerplant, Czech armament, ans Dutch fire-control systems provided by Hazemayer completed the picture. Rails were also fitted on the deck to carry 30 mines.
Career of the Beograd class
In May 1939, Beograd carried Yugoslavia's gold reserve to the United Kingdom. Since production dragged on, only two ships were operational when the war broke out, the third locally built ship was commissioned several month after the war started. Soon, on 24 January 1940, Ljubljana hit a reef off Šibenik and sank, fortunately with only one victim in the tragedy. By 6 April 1941, Beograd and Zagreb were located in Kotor in company of their leader, Dubrovnik, making the 1st Torpedo Division, which stayed inactive, providing their AA fire against axis air attacks.

On 9 April, Beograd was planned to launch a raid on the Italian enclave of Zara, but it was cancelled after an Italian plane attacked the fleet and damaged the Beograd, her engine badly shaken by near-misses. She went back to port for repairs. Meanwhile the Ljubljana has been refloated and towed to Šibenik where she was repaired at that time. However on 17 April, Italian forces captured the port and three destroyers, Beograd and Ljubljana plus the Dubrovnik whereas Zagreb was scuttled, two officers remaining on board being killed by the explosion they activated. They were posthumously decorated by Tito by the Order of the People's Hero.

Liubjana 1944
IRN Lubiana 1944

In Italian service, repaired and equipped in standard, the two survivors became the Sebenico and Lubiana. The first entered service in August 1941 and the second, in November 1942. They took an active part in many convoy escort missions in the Aegean and to North Africa, 100 for Sebenico. On 1 April 1943, Lubiana was either sunk by British aircraft or by hitting a reef on the Tunisian coast. Sebenico was captured by the Germans in Venice after the Italian capitulation of September 1943, was repaired, refurbished to Kriegsmarine standard in 1944 and became TA43. She served in the northern Adriatic, performing escorts, laying mines and was either sank or scuttled in April or May 1945 at Trieste.

Submarines class Hrabi (1927)

Yugoslav submarine Nebosja

Two models of British design, ordered at the same time but apparently launched earlier according to Conway's, in 1927 at Vickers-Armstrong yard on the Tyne. Hrabi and Nebosja ("Brave" and "fearless") has been in fact assembled WW1-era British L-class submarine from parts of boats cancelled in 1918 of the Group III boats HMS L-67 and HMS L-68, never completed. The yard could therefore get rid of the stored lot and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, acquired two submarines at a very affordable price to bolster their coastal fleet.
The two submarines were essentially L-class repeats, 72.05 m (236 ft 5 in), by 7.32 m (24 ft 0 in), with a draught of 3.96 m (13 ft 0 in). They displaced 75 long tons (991 t) up to 1,164 long tons (1,183 t) underwater with 60 m (200 feets) diving depth.

Yugoslav submarine Hrabi

Propulsion was assured by two shaft Vickers diesel 2,400 bhp (1,800 kW) and two electric motors rated for 1,600 shp (1,200 kW). They could reach 15.7 knots (29.1 km/h; 18.1 mph) surfaced and still 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) underwater. Both boats were armed with six bow-mounted 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes, with twelve torpedoes in reserve. On surface they counted two 102 mm (4 in) guns forward and aft of the conning tower in "bath-tubs" plus one AA machine gun. Radius of action was 3,800 nautical miles (7,000 km; 4,400 mi) at 10 knots.
Both submarines left the Tyne in late January 1928 and travelled to Kotor with the submarine tender Hvar, arriving in April 1928. Hrabri, Nebojša, Hvar, six torpedo boats and Dalmacija made a state cruiser to Malta, Corfu and Bizerte in 1929. Anothr cruise in 1930 took place at Alexandria and Beirut. In 1932, the boats made limited exercizes and gunnery training, due to budgets constraints, and patrolling along the 600 km (370 mi) of the new country coastline.

Hrabri was captured in Kotor by the Italians but commissioned and scrapped in 1941. Nebojša had an accident in 1930, and rather to be captured like her sister-ship in April 1941, she managed to evade the Italians and escape to Malta. Here, she was used by the Royal Navy as an anti-submarine warfare training vessel and after the war she went back to Yugoslavia, was overhauled locally and renamed Tara, used as training submarine until 1954.

Submarines class Osvetnik (1929)

Of French design, these submarines originally were planned to be inserted in a combined coastal defence consisting of a division of destroyers, four submarines, torpedo-boats, and torpedo/bombers. The first design ordered was originally built for the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Yugoslav Navy from 1928, based on a Simonot double-hull design, laid down Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire, Nantes, in 1928.
This pair of submarines were derived from the French Circé design. Of the 600-tonner class, Osvetnik and Smeli ("Avenger" , "Daring") were 66.5 m (218 ft 2 in), by 5.4 m (17 ft 9 in), by 3.8 m (12 ft 6 in) in draught displacing 630 long tons (640 t), up to 809 long tons (822 t) submerged. They could dive up to 80 m (260 ft), were propelled however by German machinery: Two MAN diesels and two Nancy electric motors when submerged. On surface, the diesels were rated at 1,480 bhp (1,100 kW) and the electric units developed 1,000 shp (750 kW). Top speed on surface was 14.5 knots (26.9 km/h)  9.2 knots (17.0 km/h) underwater. Raduis was 3,500 nautical miles (6,500 km) at 9 knots (17 km/h) on surface, down to75 nautical miles (139 km) when submerged at 5 knots. As for the armament, six 550 mm (22 in) torpedo tubes fixed (four bow, two stern), and one deck 100 mm (3.9 in) gun, plus a Skoda 40 mm (1.6 in) AA guns were mounted.
They were launched on December 1928 and January 1929, arrived in the Bay of Kotor on 9 December 1929. They were engaged in only few exercises due to budget constraints. Osvetnik visited many Mediterranean ports during the interwar and after the war broke out she was captured at Kotor in April 1941 by the Italians. They modernized her, ported to the Regia Marina standard and renamed Francesco Rismondo, but used for training and experimentation. After September 1943, she was captured by the Germans only to be scuttled later.

Smeli, date unknown

Smeli also participated in several cruises in the Mediterranean and a few interwar exercises. She was also captured by the Italians in April 1941, refitted and modernized and commissioned as Antonio Bajamonti, but also not actively used in combat missions. She was scuttled by the Italians in September 1943.

Class T Torpedo-Boats (1915)

Six ww1-era Austro-Hungarian torpedo boats were the few ships allocated by default in 1918 to the new Kingdom, confirmed in 1920 and not contested by the treaty of St Germain in 1921. At the origin, there were twelve, from three groups, T1, T5 and T9, former 74T class. The T9 were from the Kaiman group. Whereas the latter were all discarded in the late 1920s, the others stayed in service for all the interwar, to the exception of T4 which ran aground and was so badly damaged to be repaired, that she was discarded.  T2 was also discarded in 1939 but T1 and T3 were active during WW2. At least until Aril 1941 when both were captured by the Italians. T1 returned to Yugoslavia (probably under Croatian control), after the Italian capitulation. After modernized postwar, she was renamed Golesnica and served until the early 1960s, not bad for a 1914 ship. T3 was captured by the Germans at Rijeka in September 1943 and pressed into service with the Kriegsmarine  as T48 but sink in 20.201945 by British aviation at Trieste.

Artists impression of the Kaiman class
Artists impression of the Kaiman class - before any modernization or reconstruction

The T5 group saw heavy action in WW2 as well. After captured in April 1941, they were pressed into the Regia Marine and used for patrols in the Adriatic under their old names. Eventually T6 was scuttled off Rimini 11.9.1943 to prevent her capture, T8 was sunk by a German aircraft also in September 1943, T5 was returned to the Royal Yugoslav Navy in December the same year and apparently was not reused by the Germans. She served after the war as Cer until the 1960s. T7 was captured and presented to the Croatian Navy but her service last years are not well known. She was sunk by three British MTBs on 25.6.1944.

Gunboat Beli Orao (1939)

This ship was ordered from Adriatico yard at Trieste in 1938. She was designed to act as a Royal yacht in peacetime and to be converted quickly as gunboat in wartime, and escort vessel. Beli Ora displaced 567 tons, for 65 x 8 x 2.84 m, and was propelled by two shaft mated to Sulzer diesels rated for 1900 hp total, enough for 18 knots. Armament comprised two 40 mm Skoda AA guns and two machine guns. She was captured at Kotor by the Italians in April 1941 and renamed Alba in Regia Marina service. She was returned by the Germans to the Yugoslavian navy in 7 December 1943 and renamed Zagabria, and aftert the war Biokovo and later Jadranka, her last name as a state Yacht when she was finally discarded in 1978.

Malinska class Mining tenders (1931)

Also known in Italian service as Albona-class, these minelayer and mine tenders has been built by the Austro-Hungarian navy at the Kraljevika yard as MT130 class. Started but never completed before the war ended, work resumed for the new regime in 1920. In total five units were used by the Yugoslavian navy: Malinska, Marjan, Maljine, Mljet, and Mosor. Three more were completed for the Italian navy (Albona). In April 1941 all five were captured by the Italians and incorporated into the Regia Marina as Arbe, Ugliano, Solta, Meleda and Pasman. Ugliano and Pasman wganged hands and were lost in 1944, all three others survived the war. These ships displaced 128 tonnes (126 long tons) standard, for 31.10 m (102 ft 0 in) overall for 6.70 m (22 ft 0 in) in beam and a 1.40–1.70 m (4 ft 7 in–5 ft 7 in) draught. They were propelled by a single Yarrow boilermated to triple expansion steam engines rated for 280 ihp (210 kW), providing a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph) and armed with one 66 mm (2.6 in) L/30 gun.

Galeb class Minesweepers (1916)

These six ships were ex-German M class minesweepers, purchased as "Tugs" in 1921 and renamed upon arrival Galeb, Jastreb, Zirona, Kobac, Gavran, Orao, and Sokol. These were 330 tons ships, captured by the Italians in April 1941 and renamed Selve, Jirona, Unie, Oriole, Vergada and Eso. Selve was lost off benghazi, as Zirona, Unie at Bizerte, Oriole at Port Aigustra, Eso at Djerba.

Zmaj minelayer (1930)

The Yugoslavian ship Zmaj was originally laid down in 1928 by Deutsche Werft in Hamburg, Germany, and unarmed due to the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty. Launched on 22 June 1929 she was sold to Yugoslavia. She had a severe engine fire on 9 September 1929 off Flushing, Netherlands however, returning to Hamburg for repairs before being accepted by the Royal Yugoslav Navy on 20 August 1930 and commissioned the next year for fitting-out in Kotor. In 1937 she was reclassified as a minelayer.

Zmaj displaced 1,870 metric tons (1,840 long tons) and was 83 m (272 ft 4 in) long by 13 m (42 ft 8 in) and 4 m (13 ft 1 in) in draft. She was propelled by 2 shafts, 2 MAN Diesel enginesrated 3,260 shp (2,430 kW), allowing a top speed of 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph), with a 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) range. Her complement was 145 and she was armed in Kotor with two single mount 83.5 mm (3.29 in)/55 Škoda AA guns and two twin 40 mm (1.6 in)/67 Škoda AA guns. She also carried a de Havilland DH.60 Moth seaplane and had a handling crane. She was captured by Germany on 17 April 1941, was renamed Schiff 50 on 6 November 1942 and re-classified as an aircraft rescue ship on 7 August 1941. She also served as a troop transport from 27 December 1941 and a minelayer from August 1942 after refit from April to August. She was sunk 22 September 1944.

Yugoslavian MTBs (1930)

Cetnik class:
These two 1920 British CMB design of the 55 feet type  were purchased in 1927 and used as TC1 and TC2, 15 ton boats capable of 37 knots, armed with two 356 mm torpedo tubes adnd two MGs. Both captured by the Italians, renamed MAS1D and 2D, the first sank in April 1942 and second strickedn in 1943, found after the war at Trieste.

Orjen class:
Built in Germany by Lürssen and based on S2 class in 1936, these boats were equipped with Mercedes-Benz engine for top speed and had a cruise of 7kts thanks to a 100hp Maybach engine propelling a central shaft. Numbered 1-8 and later renamed Orjen, Dumitor, Suvobor, Kalmakclalan, Velebit, Dinaira, Rudnik, Triglav.
On 16 april 1941 Durmitor and Kajmakcalan escaped to Crete, and later Alexandria commissioned by new Yugoslavian Navy as TC5 and TC6, discarded 1962-1963.
All the others were captured and reused by the Regia Marina as MAS3D to 8D, renamed MS41-46 in 1942; Two were scuttled in September 1943, the other served with the germans and were scuttled in 1944.

Riverine Monitors

Yugoslav Riverine gunboat Sava, ex SMS Bodrog (1914)

The Royal Yugoslav Navy's predecessor, the KJRM inherited four river monitors from the Austro-Hungarian Navy's different classes. In April 1941, with the Italian takeover one was sunk, and the others were scuttled although one of these was raised and scrapped later, and two were also raised to be reused by the Independent State of Croatia, lost in action/ The last one survived until 1962.


-Submarine tender Sitnica: German-built, acquired 1921, 370 tons, fate unknwon
-Submarine tender Hvar: British-built, acquired 1927, 2,600 tons, scrapped 1953.
-Salvage ships Moćni (Ex-Austro-Hungarian) 265 tons, acquired 1921, scrapped 1929.
-Salvage ships Spasilac, 740 tons, acquired 1929, fate unknown.
-Tanker Lovćen, 561 tons, acquired 1932, discarded 1945.
-Tanker Perun (Ex-Belgian, acquired 1939) 4,500 tons, sunk March 1943.

Read More/Src

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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