Satsuma class Battleships (1906)

Japan (1906) Satsuma, Aki

The original half-dreadnoughts

The 薩摩型戦艦 Satsuma-gata senkan class was ordered in late 1904, under the War Naval Supplementary Program established during the Russo-Japanese War. It could have been a simple follow-up of previous battleships, but in reality the Satsuma were a clear departure from the Katori-class pre-dreadnoughts. They were the first Japan-built battleships, and perhaps the best examples of a "semi-dreadnought".

What is a half-dreadnought ? The last generation of "pre-dreadnought" were launched when the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought was not even laid down. Many naval staff around the world already had an idea od an "all big gun" concept. This was no secret indeed as the "trend" was already in the air and in discussion throughout naval academies, between engineers and naval think tanks. It could be traced back to V. Cuniberti famous publication in Jane's 1903. His drawing was of a 12-in armed "super-armoured cruiser", combining speed and heavy armament. It was just scaled up to give the new generation of battleships. But the 1904-1907 period saw in battleship-producing countries the ultimate generation of battleships, all adopting a powerful secondary battery, just below the main one in caliber.

The idea was this secondary artillery being almost as good in range, but faster and in larger quantities than the main guns could provide a substantial punch during the slow reload of the main battery, using HE shells while the main guns used AP ones, however not always diverging in caliber enough to have the water plumes not mismatched by the fire control observers.

cuniberti design
Cuniberti's peculiar artillery arrangement design was the one chosen by the Japanese engineers, not the simpler configuration retained on HMS Dreadnought.

In addition these secondary guns were in turrets, just like the main guns while the former secondary battery, now tertiary, comprised barbette guns, between 120 and 178 mm, 150 or 6-in rapidly becoming the standard. The latter role was to engage closer, smaller and faster targets, destroyers and light cruisers. So in the end, an entire generation of late pre-dreadnought sometimes called "hybrid" battleships appeared: The Nelson (UK), Danton (France), Mississippi (US), and Regina Elena (Italy), and of course, the Satsuma. Perhaps the last two were the closest to the concept of 'half-dreadnoughts', which is both a simplistic and misguiding term. They had a powerful secondary turret battery, but also speed to match, but yet were not true 'dreadnoughts'.

Development of the Satsuma design

The original all-big-gun battleships

The Satsuma class evolved since they were ordered in late 1904 but narrowly missed the title of true dreadnoughts: Indeed, Japan at that time was very close to the Royal Navy in doctrine, training, as well as shipbuilding and equipments. This was conpounded by a naval alliance treaty in 1902, just two years prior. It was very clear that the IJN staff knew some of the "secrets" projects in development in the Royal Navy and in particular the pet project of Admiral Fisher, the HMS Dreadnought. Therefore it seemed seductive of this first purely Japanese battleship to be at the same time the First Japanese dreadnought. And indeed the Satsuma originally intended to mount a dozen 12-inch (305 mm) gun in four twin and four single-gun turrets, one turret forward and aft, two on the beam, and two in between each broadside, narrower.

drawing satsuma

But there were two obstacle to these plans: A shortage of Japanese-built 12-inch guns, and the additional expenses associated. This caused the designer to get back to only four 12-inch while the secondary battery was raised to twelve 10-inch (254 mm) guns, all in twin-mount turrets. The original armament as laid down even before HMS Dreadnought, would have made them the first "all big-gun" battleships worldwide and the whole new capital ship breed would not have been called "dreadnought" at all.

The world's best pre-dreadnoughts ?

Instead, with a reference to the British Lord Nelson class in mind, the design was revised by integrating the three amidships intermediate turrets. These were 10 in (254 mm) guns, for a heavy broadside. This powerful intermediate armament made them considered as 'semi-dreadnoughts', transitional in-between two types. In comparison, the Italian Regina Elena class were armed with less 12-in guns and small caliber (8-in) guns instead, but the Satsuma conceded two knots to them while they were better protected. This placed them closer in fact to the Nelson (same battery) and the Danton, armed with 240 mm guns, but the Aki (1907) was faster than the two. All in all they were perhaps the best pre-dreadnought worldwide when completed.

IJN Aki diagram - Brasseys 1923 IJN Aki diagram - Brasseys 1923

Design

It should be noted that both battleships diverged (Satsuma and Aki). The latter was launched in Kure nearly a year later in March 1906 (May 1905 for Satsuma at Yokosuka), and delayed, waiting for the slipway occupied by the Tsukuba was freed. This gave the opportunity to modify the ship, accommodating steam turbines and many other changes, to the point Aki is sometimes considered a single ship, not a sister-ship. The crew comprised 800 to 940 officers and enlisted men in wartime. Satsuma was 482 feet (146.9 m) long by 83.5 feet (25.5 m), and 27.5 feet (8.4 m) of draught.

Displacement was 19,372 long tons (19,683 t) while Aki was 20,100 long tons (20,423 t) at normal load. Aki was also longer at 492 feet (150.0 m). It should be noted than although "Japanese" in construction, both ships still heavily depended on foreign purchases: 61% of the new battleship was made in imported steel, the guns were British as well as the sighting and targeting equipments, rangefinders and control devices. On Aki, the turbines were American curtis models.

satsuma 1907

Powerplant

Satsuma was given a classic pair of vertical triple-expansion steam engines. They were fed by the steam generated by 20 Miyabara water-tube boilers. These were mixed boilers firing a mixture of coal and fuel oil. The entire output was rated at 17,300 indicated horsepower (12,900 kW). On specifications, top speed was estimated to 18.25 knots (33.80 km/h; 21.00 mph). On sea trials however, Satsuma went beyond and reached 18.95 knots (35.10 km/h; 21.81 mph) at 18,507 ihp (13,801 kW). Satsuma carried 2,860 long tons (2,910 t) of coal, 377 long tons (383 t) of oil, enough to cruise about 9,100 nautical miles (16,900 km; 10,500 mi) at 10 knots and could be recoignised from her sister by her two funnels.

Aki on the other hand, was built later and this allowed to scrap the original VTE design and try for the first time Curtiss steam turbine sets instead. They were placed inside after she was launched in 1907. These turbines were fed by the steam from 15 Miyabara boilers, rated at 24,000 shaft horsepower (18,000 kW). Designed speed was 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), but Aki reached 20.25 knots (37.50 km/h; 23.30 mph) in sea trials (27,740 shp). She also carried more coal, 3,000 long tons (3,000 t) but less oil, 172 long tons, for the same range.

battleship satsuma

Armament

Although both ships had the same main and secondary battery, they diverged for their tertiary artillery. The four 45-caliber (12 in) 41st Year Type guns in twin turrets were placed fore and aft of the superstructure, like the original design. They used a 850-pound (386 kg) armor-piercing (AP) shell, existing the muzzle at 2,800 ft/s (850 m/s). Range was 24,000 yards (22,000 m). The intermediate armament comprised six twin-gun turrets, each carrying the 45-caliber Type 41 10 in guns. Theur muzzle velocity was less, at 2,707 ft/s (825 m/s), firing 500-pound (227 kg) shells. However their effective range was 26,900-yard (24,597 m) at 30° elevation, even better than the main guns, allowing concentrated fire without distinguishing much between the calibers.

Aki side
Battleship Aki, profile view.

The tertiary armament however differed considerably between the two half-sisters: Aki had eight 45-caliber 6 in (152 mm) 41st Year Type guns in side casemates in the hull. Each fired a 100-pound (45 kg) AP shell at 2,706 ft/s (825 m/s) at a range of 14.8 km (9.2 mi) at 18 degree elevation. Satsuma however was given instead twelve smaller guns, 40-caliber 4.7-inch 41st Year Type quick-firing (QF) models also in side casemates. Each fired a 45-pound (20 kg) shell at 2,150 ft/s (660 m/s). This was the archetypical light Elswick Ordnance caliber.

Divergences went on with four 12-pounder/40 12-cwt QF guns (Satsuma) or eight on the Aki, four 12-pounder/28 QF guns which fired the standard 12.5-pound (5.67 kg) shell at 2,300 ft/s (700 m/s) down to 1,500 fps (450 m/s) and fitted with five submerged 18 in (457 mm) torpedo tubes (broadside and stern).

Protection

Certainly not sacrificed but less impressive than on Russian battleships, Satsuma and Aki's protection scheme were almost similar. On Satsuma, a waterline main belt was made of Krupp cemented armor reaching 9 in (229 mm) amidships, tapering down to 4 inches (102 mm). Casemates were 6-inch (152 mm) thick and main turret barbettes were 7–9.5 in (180–240 mm). The main gun turrets frontal arc was protected by only 8-in (203 mm), raised on Aki to 9 in (241 mm). Deck armor remained the same at 2–3 in (51–76 mm) while the conning tower had 6-in walls (152 mm).

The Satsuma in action

Satsuma by irootoko JR

The completion of the HMS Dreadnought in 1906 of course made the latest IJN battleships obsolete before completion. In fact it was the last of that kind as the next naval plan '8-8' included first-class (dreadnought) battleships and eight battlecruisers in 1910. Therefore the Satsuma were not intended for a long service by any measure. Aki was refitted at Kure and Satsuma just joined 1st Battleship Squadron when war broke out in August 1914. Satsuma was Tatsuo Matsumura's flagship (Second South Seas Squadron) started with the attack of German possessions in the Caroline and the Palau Islands, then 1st Battleship Squadron in 1915, refitting at Sasebo. Aki also joined the 1st Squadron after refit for most of the war, then she joined the 2nd Battleship Squadron in 1918. The Washington Naval Treaty signed in February 1922 imposed tonnage limits on Japan, which decided against all of her obsolete pre-dreadnought and unique semi-dreadnoughts (Aki and Satsuma) as well. Consequentely they were to be disposed in 1924, disarmed, stricken and converted into target ships.

Battleship IJN Aki in color

IJN Satsuma's career

Named after the traditional Satsuma Province, the Japanese "semi-dreadnought" was built at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, started in May 1905, launched on 15 November 1906, completed on 25 March 1910. This was a massive ships and when launched, before the Dreadnought, she was the largest warship afloat, with the largest displacement. Soon into service, on 5 August 1911, IJN Satsuma suffered an explosion in a 12-inch gun. The latter misfired during gunnery practice and the gunnery officer in charge decided after some time passed, he ordered the breech to be opened. This unfortunate move had the effect to provoke a rush of air and and ignited the propellant. The blast killed 16 crewmen and several officers inside the turret and barbette. After repairs, Satsuma resumed service.

She was caught in a typhoon on 22 September 1912, but lightly damaged and repaired quickly. Next, she was just assigned to the 1st Battleship Squadron in August 1914. She hoisted the flag of Rear Admiral Tatsuo Matsumura in the Second South Seas Squadron. The latter was tasked to seize German possessions of the Caroline and the Palau Islands in October. IJN Satsuma returned to the 1st Battleship Squadron in 1915. She was refitted at Sasebo Naval Arsenal the next year in 1916, and then joined the 1st Squadron for the remainder of the war. During this refit or later, she was fitted with two 12-pounders guns (76 mm). They were placed on high-angle mounts and acted as anti-aircraft guns.

IJN Satsuma as target ship in 1924

Satsuma was disarmed at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1922, to comply with the The Washington Naval Treaty. She was stricken from the Navy List on 20 September 1923. It was decided to convert her into a target ship. In operation she was sunk by the battleships Mutsu and Nagato, sinking off the southern tip of the Bōsō Peninsula (mouth of Tokyo Bay) on 7 September 1924.

IJN Aki in sea trials

IJN Aki's career

Aki was laid down at Kure Naval Arsenal on 15 March 1906, launched on 15 April 1907. However, as explained above, construction was suspended for five months and decision was made on 26 November to install steam turbines the armored cruiser Ibuki (also almost a "semi-battlecruiser"). Aki's turbines however fell behind schedule. This suspension allowed less valuable ship to be completed before. Changes to the turbines after testing them ended on Aki's turbines as well. Completion was effective on 11 March 1911. Shge entered service with captain was Tatsuo Matsumura.

In August 1914, IJN Aki was refitting at Kure Naval Arsenal. She joined the 1st Battleship Squadron and remained with this unit in the home islands virtually until the end of the war. Her career was made of fleet exercises without notable even or incident. December 1915 - December 1916 saw her with a new captain, Kiyokazu Abo. At last, she was transferred to the 2nd Battleship Squadron in 1918. The war ended as she never fired a short in anger, contrary to Satsuma which operated against German possessions. She was disarmed at Yokosuka in 1922 in conformity to the Washington Naval Treaty. She was stricken in 1923 and like Satsuma, converted into a target ship.

IJN Aki was eventually sunk by battlecruisers Kongō and the battleship Hyūga on 2 September 1924, in Tokyo Bay. Like Satusma also, her guns were removed and transferred to the Imperial Japanese Army. The mounts, breechblocks and barrels were controlled and revised, ending in several coastal fortifications along strategic points. The rest were placed in reserve. Without use, they wete scrapped in 1943. Two of her smaller 10-in guns however were installed in the coastal batteries on Jōgashima island. They covered the entrance of Tokyo bay.

Monument of Naruo Hachiman main gun

Satsuma specifications 1914

Displacement: 15 400t Fully Loaded
Dimensions: 137.2 x 23 x 8 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 20 Miyabara boilers, 20,500 hp, 20.5 knots
Armour: Belt 203 mm, see notes
Crew: 844
Armament: 4 x 305, 12 x 254, 12 x 120 (Satsuma), 4 x 45 mm, 2 x 40 mm AA, 3 TT 457mm sub.

Sources/read more

http://www.avalanchepress.com/Semi-Dreadnoughts.php
https://www.hazegray.org/navhist/battleships/ijn_dr.htm
http://navypedia.org/ships/japan/jap_bb_satsuma.htm
naval-encyclopedia.com/ww1/pages/japan/marine_jap1914c.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satsuma-class_battleship
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/japan/satsuma-bb.htm
https://sites.google.com/site/davidijn/home
Book: Battleships: An Illustrated History of Their Impact
Satsuma Class Battleships Books LLC Amazon
Rober Gardiner's Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921 & 1865-1905

IJN Satsuma
Illustration of the IJN Aki (three funnels) by the author

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


Faceboook Feed


Twitter Feed


patreon

Support us on Patreon !


Youtube naval encyclopedia Channel

Go to the Playlist
Tank Encyclopedia, the first online tank museum
Plane Encyclopedia - the first online warbirds museum
posters Shop
Poster of the century
Historical Poster - Centennial of the Royal Navy "The Real Thing" - Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now !

Battleship Yamato in VR

Virtual Reality Section