Nassau class battleships (1908)

SMS Nassau, Rheinland, Posen, Westfalen

Germany's first dreadnoughts

The four Nassau (Nassau, Westfalen, Rheinland, Posen) were the first monocaliber battleships of the German Navy. They were not however ordered or designed in response to the HMS Dreadnought as often assumed but predated her in the Admiralstab. Another confirmation the monocaliber type was "in the air" since at least 1903 and Cuniberti's famous Jane's publication. The Nassau class were the first of about twenty German dreadnoughts which quickstarted a famous prewar rivalry and naval arms race between Wilhelm II and Georges V, Fisher and Tirpitz.

SMS Westfalen, colorized by Irootoko JR

The Kaiser's "cruiser killer"

Warrior class diagram

Indeed, design work on what would eventually become the Nassau class started in 1903. Long-term design phase was scheduled to start in 1906. Kaiser Wilhelm II was instrumental in this, arguing his navy was to possess large armored cruisers instead of traditional, slow capital ships. In December 1903, Wilhelm II suggested himself a 13,300 metric tons displacement design, armed with four 28 cm (11 in) guns, and eight 21 cm (8.3 in), a type of late armoured cruiser type in the fashion or late pre-dreadnoughts, with a powerful secondary armament. This was not far from Cuniberti's own armoured cruiser, with the difference the latter had only 8-in guns all around. The cruiser advocated by the Kaiser was more in line with the British Warrior class laid down in 1903, which had a pair of 23,4 cm (9.2 in) completed by four 19,1 cm (7.5 in).

Emperor's personal sketch submitted in December 1903

Top speed however was not the greatest concern, cruiser-wise, defined to be 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph) (The Warrior class made 23 knots). The reasoning was that a longer-range caliber could ideally slow down the chased vessel, allowing to close for the finish. Wilhelm requested the Construction Office to submit him proposals and the latter complied, by January 1904. They presented three designs: "5A", "5B", and "6".

The first two designed had in common eight 21 cm guns in four single-gun turrets plus four in casemates ("5A") or in twin-gun turrets ("5B"). This too, was pretty close to Cuniberti's design. The "6" design had ten guns in four casemates and six in a central battery, a more conservative approach. The naval command, participating in discussion settled on "5B" as possessing the best firing arcs. The "6" was sidelined until further evaluation, but it was eventually concluded it offered significant improvement over the Deutschland-class battleships (laid down 1903), which had single turrets already (and barbettes) with 17 cm guns.

Review of a mixed design (1904)

Eventually, as it seems the Kaiser's design was to be placed in "reserve", the latter intervened again, in February 1904. He wanted a 14,000 t (13,779 long tons) armoured cruiser, but with a secondary battery with ten 21 or even or 24 cm (9.4 in) guns. There again, the Construction Department and Kaiserliche Werft, Kiel submitted their own proposals (lost and thus, details unknown). "6B-D" was basically a variant of "6", while "10A" and "10B" had the combination of 28 and 24 cm guns.

Kaiser Wilhelm interrupter the research work based on this design design, requesting a higher speed at a cost of a main battery made entirely of 24 cm guns. This resulted in further studies and delays resulted ending in April 1904. However the results were judged unacceptable, requiring more design work in the Reichsmarineamt (Imperial Naval Office), trying to obtain realistic figures. Officers, which for some participated to the debates, suggested that the secondary battery was to be limited to 21 cm (not 24 cm) guns, to spare weight and have more of them, and also on consifderations about fire corrections with very similar water plumes.

The sum of all these observations resulted in "Project I", with an uniform battery of twelve 21 cm guns, and "Project II", with sixteen, and "Project III", with eight 24 cm guns but all with a 28 cm main battery. Deliberations went on until late April and "Project I" came as a winner since on cost concerns and avoiding to modify the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. The approved design led to refined variants, "IA" and "IB", with casemates and single turrets respectively.

The Kaiser reviewed these and eventually approved "IA" in May 1904, but the secondary guns arrangement remained a point of contention for the following months. It's only in December 1904 that the "7D" variant, with eight secondary guns in twin turrets was eventually adopted. From there, work went on an improved underwater protection system, which the Emperor approved on 7 January 1905. However everything was halted as German spies reported the contruction of the lord Nelson class, pre-dreadnoughts with a secondary battery of ten 9.2 in (230 mm) guns, plus estimates on the next class believed to be even much heavily armed. "7D" was sidelined as no longer sufficient to answer the pre-dreadnoughts. It was necessary to start over again.
Note: So far i cannot find the original blueprints projects leading to the Nassau class. These are reconstitutions of various projects by Dirk Nottelman published in "Warship International" as part of "From Ironclads to Dreadnoughts: The Development of the German Navy 1864-1918 serie. Part VI-A: "The Great Step Forward", Vol. 52, No. 2 (June 2015), pp. 137-174 (38 pages) available in JSTOR.

The "Ersatz Sachsen"

The design team started wotking again on a six 21 cm twin-turrets variant and the first German "all-big-gun" battleships with this time an uprated battery of eight 28 cm guns: It was chosen a mixed approach again with twin axis turrets (two, fore and aft) and the rest in single wing turrets, lighter and narrower. The Kaiser approved the latter design, on 18 March 1905. The work was refined, notably by increasing the beam for better stability, making a ship closer to a pre-dreadnought battleship, and no longer a cruiser by any standard.

It was decided also to rearrange the secondary battery with eight 17 cm (6.7 in) guns in casemates, plus improved main battery turrets. The Kaiser in between received the specs and design of the Italian Regina Elena-class battleships capable of 22 knots and wanted a similar vessel and a return to the previously approved 1903 design.

Before the understandably incoming massive delays in redesign, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz intervened. He pointed out that merging the battleship (monocaliber 28 cm) and armored cruiser (high speed) categories were contradicting the German Naval Law of 1900 clearly separating types, and previously approved. He also argued that the Construction Office was already too busy with other projects, and he manoeuvered to have the Kaiser's project in the next Naval Law to pushed things forwards.

Based on the new design, he originally requested six of them, plus six armored cruisers (remarkably close to the Japanese naval program by the way). Capital ship designs however had a spiralling cost upward and political opposition increased in the Reichstag, which eventually forced Tirpitz to tone down his request to the six armored cruisers, including one in peacetime reserve -sparing a crew), and 48 xheaper torpedo boats. Tirpitz, to his dismay, would have no battleship approved in 1906.

Ersatz Sachsen, alternative lattice masts proposal

Voted on 19 May 1906, the new program registered as the First Amendment to the Naval Law. Funds were allocated however later for two 18,000-ton battleships and a 15,000-ton armored cruiser plus funds to widen the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal and enlarge dock facilities, planning for the future. All this largely explained why the Germans seemed late on the game of dreadnoughts: The Emperor's own direction changes, external competition, and final opposition by the parliament. The first German dreadnoughts could have been programmed in 1904 already. Meanwhile Fisher pressed on with the keel laying in October 1905 and express launch 10 February 1906 of his HMS Dreadnought, creating an international sensation in all admiralties overnight.

Project F (1905), rejected by Tirpitz

Meanwhile, the design staff continued to refine the new capital ship. It's only by September 1905 (before the Dreadnought had her keel laid down in HM Dockyard, Portsmouth), that several, supposedly final variants were proposed. Among these, was proposal "F", which replaced the single-gun by twin-gun turrets, and 17 cm by twelve 15 cm (5.9 in) gun, offering a greater rate of fire. The underwater protection was reworked and greatly improved as well, with a ship even more beamy, now the canal enlargement was approved.


Design "G" was ultimately approved on 4 October with rearranged magazines and boiler rooms on "G2" and a radical variant G3 with all gun turrets on the broadside, soon proved unworkable. "G2" was evetually chosen, but still for continued refinement, as "G7", then "G7b", at last approved by the Kaiser, on 3 March 1906, one month after the Dreadnought. The original three funnels was truncated to two, the bow was redesigned as straight, and the very last design "G7d" was approved by the Kaiser on 14 April. Construction was authorized on 31 May and in between, the race to create the blueprints went on. Soon, Tirpitz had the satisfaction (Dreadnought effect!) to have a sister-ship programmed the same fiscal year, and another two in FY1907.


Nassau general design

The Nassau class still had a short hull compared to the Dreadnought, only 146.1 m (479 ft 4 in) long, but they were quite beamy at 26.9 m (88 ft 3 in), with a draught of 8.9 m (29 ft 2 in), while their width ratio was 5.45, making them "stubby" or "potty" for the time. Al last, they were supposed a bit more agile and stable. It's mostly explained by the choice of twin wing turrets rather than single. The admiralty was not diconcerted by the general allure of the ship as they repeated the design (with 12-in guns) for the next Helgoland class. The Nassau class displaced 18,873 metric tons (18,575 long tons) standard and 20,535 t (20,211 long tons) at full load, a bit "light" for dreadnoughts.

Hull and general design

Nassau top view

Construction was classic, with steel sections and frames, then rivered outer plating. For ASW protection below the waterline, they had nineteen watertight compartments (Nassau had sixteen), a double bottom for 88% of the keel. The turrets took a large space onboard,so they were two small lozenge-like superstructures fore and aft shaped to maximize the arc of fire of the wings turret, then an intermediate flying deck between the fore and main funnels. There two pole masts fore and aft, the second located at the aft island, with projectors on platforms (eight in all). The superstrcture was quite reduced, with just an enclosed command bridge in front of the conning tower, a formula that was repeated on the next classes. Later in the war, an additional narrow flying bridge was constructed above with repeaters and extending from the platform in front of the main funnel.

Nassau class double gaff pole masts design

The ships carried a number of boats located in the gangway in between funnels and wings turrets, served by two gooseneck cranes abeam the aft funnel: A picket boat (which could be armed with a gun for landing parties), three admiral's barges, two launches, two cutters, and two dinghies. The peacetime crew reached 40 officers and 968 enlisted men, but the ship could be equipped as squadron flagships and took onboard an extra 13 officers and 66 enlisted men. As flagships, they carried two extra officers and 23 sailors.

Nassau's turrets sections


The Nassau class were all equipped with VTE engine, vertical tubes, tripe expansion systems instead of turbines as for HMS Dreadnought. There were reasons behind this choice: Both Tirpitz and the Navy's construction department resisted the adoption of Parsons turbines "for heavy warships" in 1905. A cost-based decision at first, as Parsons had the monopoly on steam turbines. Appoached by the German admiralty, the company asked one million marks in royalty fee, for every turbine exported. Also, German companies were not ready to produced their own turbines until 1910, at least on a large format. This will have a consequence for the following series, as the Helgoland repeated VTE, and the next Kaiser mixed Turbines and VTE, as the König. But it was not before 1912 Germany had Turbine-driven capital ships.

The Nassau vertical, 3-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines were protected, each in their own engine room and each shaft-driving a 3-bladed screw propeller 5 meters (16 ft) in diameter. Twelve coal-fired, Schulz-Thornycroft water-tube boilers provided steam, themselves separated in their own three boiler rooms (four boilers each). These boilers were ducted into a pair of funnels instead of the three initially planned. In all, this powerplant delivered a maximal output of 22,000 metric horsepower (22,000 ihp) for a 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph) top speed.

The Nassau class carried 950 t (930 long tons) of coal in peacetime, normal conditions. In wartime, they can carry up to 2,700 t (2,700 long tons), so thrice that amount, filling usually void underwater bunkers. At 10 knots cruising speed (19 km/h; 12 mph) they could reach 9,400 nautical miles (17,400 km; 10,800 mi), which fell at 12 knots to 8,300 nmi (15,400 km; 9,600 mi), at 16 knots to half that, 4,700 nmi (8,700 km; 5,400 mi) and at battle stations, 19 knots, 2,800 nmi (5,200 km; 3,200 mi). In 1915 during their overhaul, all ships received boilers modifications, with oil sprayers installed to boost their combustion rates. For this, they obtained an extra storage for 160 t of fuel oil.


On trials, these somewhat pessimistic, or restrained figures were all exceeded, by a wide margin. The Nassau class in fact delivered an output of 26,244 to 28,117 metric horsepower (25,885 to 27,732 ihp) depending on the ships, reulting in top speeds of 20 to 20.2 knots (37.0 to 37.4 km/h; 23.0 to 23.2 mph), which was completely unexpected from their stubby appearance. By comparison, HMS Dreadnought, despite her steam turbines, could only reach 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph)! - This made the four German battleships, not only the fastest VTE-powered vessels in service, but also fastest German capital ships to date, although the Italians still had 22-23 knots dreadnoughts. The Kaiser has its high speed equivalent. Electrical power was provided by eight turbo-generators (1,280 kW - 1,720 hp) rated at 225 V.

Steering power came from two rudders side-by-side. The Nassau class were fast but contrary to what was expected, did not handle particularly well even in calm seas. Their motion appeared quite "stiff" and they rolled excessively in heavy weather, mostly due to the side wight of their wing turrets, which also caused a large metacentric height. They were designed to be very stable gun platforms and it appeared their roll period coincided with the average North Sea swell. To mitigate the roll, bilge keels were later installed. Nevertheless, the ships proved maneuverable enough, with a small turning radius and minor speed loss in heavy seas but 70% at hard rudder, after the roll keels were added especially, which "braked" the motion.

Armour scheme

Nassau class armour scheme.

As there were no particular requirements there, engineers started on the known (but unproven) base of the Deutschland class Battleships, but with improved underwater protection as learnt from the Russo-Japanese war. They used Krupp cemented steel armor all around. The basic layout divided comprised three sections: The bow, stern, and central citadel, between the two main barbettes. The citadel comprised a main belt armor at waterline level, connected closed by transverse armored bulkheads. It was supported by a bottom curved armor deck at mid-deck level over the vitals: Machinery spaces and ammunition magazines.

The citadel varied in thickness, lowered to the waterline level forward but aft, it remained at mid-deck level. If the main portion of the belt armor was 29 cm (11.5 in) thick over 1.2 m (4 ft), then 30 cm (11.8 in) it tapered to 17 cm (6.7 in) on the bottom edge over 1.60 m (5.25 ft), below the waterline. The top edge was also thinner, at 17, then 16 cm (6.3 in), reaching the upper deck. The belt outside the citadel was just 14 cm (5.5 in) thick, the tapered dow to 10 cm (4 in) at its extremity. Aft it fell to 13 cm (5 in) and then to 9 cm (3.5 in), closed before reaching the stern proper, enclosed by a 9 cm transverse bulkhead.

The torpedo bulkhead, about five meters behind the belt, was just 3 cm (1.2 in) thick. The underwater compartmentation was split in two, with a serie of void compartments followed by another serie of coal-filled ones. It should be noted that the downward sloped 5,8 cm section behind the main belt was also filled with coal. Behind the torpedo bulkhead, protecting the machinery room proper, was a last internal compartment layer with a 1 cm separation, also full with coal. Engineers found it difficult to mount the torpedo bulkhead during construction, due to the four wing turret's disruption and their thick barbettes, so close to the hull's sides.

The casemate battery, was above the central portion of the belt, 16 cm thick as seen above, containing casemated guns and backed by a bulkhead 2 cm (0.8 in) thick. If the main armor deck was 3.8 cm (1.5 in) with same thickness slopes downward, they connected to the bottom edge of the belt, a common design. The slope was 5.8 cm (2.3 in) thick. When all coal bunkers were full, they added some protection by absorbing and distributing the blast energy. The bow and stern sections had 5.6 cm (2.2 in) decks, which went up to 8.1 cm (3.2 in) over the steering compartment. The forecastle deck was protected by 2.5-3.0 cm (1 to 1.2 in) thickness, protecting the secondary battery above the torpedo bulkhead.

Nassau precise armor scheme

The forward conning tower had 30 cm walls, and was topped by a 8 cm (3.1 in) roof, with a smaller gunnery control tower above curved with a 40 cm (15.7 in) thick face. The aft conning tower was of course lighter, with 20 cm (7.9 in) sides and a 5 cm (2 in) roof. Main battery turrets were protected by sloped 28 cm faces, then 22 cm (8.7 in) sides, but 26 cm (10.25 in) rear plates, more for balance than protection. The sloped artificially increased their thicknes in direct fire, estimated above 32 cm. The roof were partly sloped at 9 cm, then flat at 6.1 cm (2.4 in). The secondary casemated gun had 8 cm thick gun shields and separated fro the others by a 2 cm transverse screen stopping fragments. As most dreadnoughts of the time, the Nassau aso received heavy anti-torpedo nets strapped along their side to be deplyed at anchor. They were seen as a liability at sea, causing stablity problems, and were removed after 1916.

Nassau's conning tower


Nassau artillery configuration
Nassau artillery configuration

Turret arrangement as the Japanese Kawachi class, 4 wing turrets, 2 axis fore and aft, 8 guns broadside. Broadly similar performance to the British 12 in guns. This was a common configuration at the time, as nobody yet tried the superfiring concept, which allowed to add more on the centerline. The vertical triple expansion engines also consumed a lot of internal space, forbidding magazines, which mostly precluded in that case, superfiring centerline turrets. As such, the six twin-gun turrets were placed in an hexagonal configuration.

In a sense it was almost a pre-dreadnought configuration, with two main turrets in the axis fore and aft, and several side turrets (three per side in the case of Nelson, two twin and one single). The Nassau as a result had six guns to bear in chase or retreat, and eight in broadside, on paper, same as HMS Dreadnought and its successors, but with an extra turret in the case of the Nassau-class. It was also believed this arrangement shielded some guns from enemy fire. In fact it made such sense for German engineers, that the scheme was also adopted without change for the next Heligoland class, which were started in 1908. At the time, British battleships still mixed echelon turrets and superfiring ones (St Vincent, Colossus, Neptune). The revolutionary Orion class superdreadnoughts only came a year later.

Main Artillery: 6x2 28 cm SK L/45

Nassau C07 turrets
Nassau's C07 turret design Wings turrets were Drh LC/1906 mounts (as well as centerline for the first two), but Drh LC/1907 for the other pair, with a longer trunk. Both the Drh LC/1906 turrets and 28 cm SK/L45 guns were tailored-designed for the Nassau class. The main battery propellant magazines were located above shell rooms for wings turrets, but not for centerline turrets in Nassau and Westfalen. The shells themseves weighted 302 kgs (666 lb), and they were propelled by a combo of a 24 kg (52.9 lb) fore propellant charge, in silk bags, and a 75 kg (165.3 lb) main charge, in a brass case to reduce risk and make for easier manipulations. Despite of this the process was streamlined enough to procure a rloading rate of 20° the fastest of any capital ship at the time. Nassau turrets distribution
Nassau's turret distribution

Secondary Artillery: 12x 15 cm SK L/45

In six per side individual casemates along the upper battery deck, part of the hull above the main belt, in indidividual recesses and approximative arc of fire of about 160-180°. They fired exclusively armor-piercing shells. The elevation/traverse and reloading process as well as targeting were all performed manually.

Tertiary Artillery: 8x 8,8 cm SKL

Close-range defense against torpedo boats, designed in 1903 and introduced in 1905. Classic caliber which would eventually last until 1945 in many iterations and for many roles. On the Nassau class, they were placed in casemates: in hull casemates under recesses and semi-sponsons fore and aft (eight), and the remainder in superstructure islands for and aft (eight). The scheme was partially reproduced for the next Helgoland class but eliminated afterwards for superstructure shielded guns, and dual purpose mounts. Aviation was still an unknown factor in 1906. Elevation/training, targeting and loading were all manual. The 22-lb projectiles (9.97 kgs) had solidary brass casings. In 1915 two hull casemate guns were eliminated and opening plated over, two 8.8 cm Flak guns installed on the superstructures instead and in 1916-17 they were all eliminated (which also freed crew members). These AA guns fired a lighter shell at 2,510 ft/s (765 m/s) and 45° up to 12,900 yards (11,800 m).

Torpedo Tubes: 8x 8,8 cm SKL

A classic at that time, as it was planned to discharged torpedo broadsides during a classic battleline engagement, early on, the Nassau class were provided with with six 45 cm (17.7 in) submerged torpedo tubes. One in the bow (with a characteristic semi-external tube emerging from the underwater icebreaker bow which could be trained thirty degrees to either side. There was another one in the stern, fixed, and two per broadside, outwards of the torpedo bulkhead, which could aimed thirty degrees forward, sixty degrees aft. Posen 1918
Author's illustration of the Posen in 1918

⚙ Nassau class specifications

Displacement 18,750 t - 21,000 t FL
Dimensions146.1 x 26.9 x 8.76 m (479 x 88 x 28 ft)
Propulsion 3 shafts 3 cyl VTE, 12 Schulz-Thornycroft boilers, 22,000 hp
Speed19-20.2 knots (37.4 km/h; 23.2 mph) (23.2 knots best trials)
Range 8,300 nmi (15,400 km; 9,600 mi) @12 knots
Armament12 x 280mm (6x2), 12 x 150mm, 16 x 88mm, 6 TT 450mm Sub
Armor Belt 300, Battery 160, Internal bulkheads 210, Turrets 280, Blockhaus 300, Barbettes 280mm

SMS Nassau

SMS Nassau class

SMS Nassau was ordered as Ersatz Bayern (replacing SMS Bayern), laid down on 22 July 1907 in Kaiserliche Werft, Wilhelmshaven, number 30 under absolute secrecy with detachments of soldiers tasked with guarding the shipyard itself and all sub-contractors such as Krupp. Launched on 7 March 1908, christened by Princess Hilda of Nassau in presence of Kaiser Wilhelm II and Prince Henry of the Netherlands for the House of Orange-Nassau. Fitting-out work was delayed when a dockyard worker accidentally removed a blanking plate from a large pipe, which flooded the ship, without yet her watertight bulkheads installed.

In fact SMS Nassau even sank 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in) to the bottom of the dock, but water was pumped dry and she was cleaned out for weeks and months, son only completed by the end of September 1909, then commissioned on 1st October 1909, making her sea trials, many months after HMS Dreadnought, but showing she was faster. On 16 October 1909 with SMS Westfalen she took part in the opening ceremony of the Wilhelmshaven Naval Dockyard's 3rd entrance. After annual maneuvers in February 1910 (still on trials, until 3 May), she joined the I Battle Squadron.

Four four years, her routing comprised series of squadron maneuvers, training cruises, and the annual fleet manoeuvers. The summer training cruise of 1912 (Agadir Crisis) saw her confined in the Baltic. On 14 July 1914, she was to start her Norway summer cruiser, soon cancelled by Wilhelm II after two weeks, back in late July in port, preparing for war, which broke off between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on the 28th. In a week, full conflict had Germany at war with Russia and France.

Nassau as part of her unit was in all Hochseeflotte deployments in the North Sea, at first to cover Rear Admiral Franz von Hipper, at the head of the battlecruisers wing raiding Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby on 15–16 December 1914, and covered by 12 dreadnoughts and eight pre-dreadnoughts, on 15 December, just 10 nmi of a six British battleships squadron. Darkness between screening destroyer convince Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, under the Kaiser's orders to not risk the fleet, broke off.

Battle Riga Gulf (August 1915)

In cover of the capture of Riga by the German Army, and in search of the Russian pre-dreadnought battleship Slava, a German naval force was sent, preceded by minesweepers and TBs into the gulf entrance. Nassau and her three sister ships were mustered as well as the four Helgoland-class and the battlecrusiers Von der Tann, Moltke, and Seydlitz under Vice Admiral Franz von Hipper's command. The battleships stayed at a distant cover on 8 August and the operations started again on 16 August 1915.

SMS Nassau and Posen this time went further, covered by four light cruisers, 31 torpedo boats. The German minesweeper T 46 and V 99 were lost in minefields, but Nassau and Posen engaged the Russian Slava, managing three hits which forced her to retreat. On 19 August, minefields being cleared, the flotilla entered the gulf but was repelled by reports of British submarines in the area, Nassau and Posen remaining however in the Gulf until 21 August, destroying with other vessels the Russian gunboats Sivuch and Korietz. Later Riga was capture and the gulf entirely secured. Further advances would take place in 1917, but focus soon returned to the north sea.

Battle of Jutland (May 1916)

SMS Nassau underway, Jane's postwar illustration

SMS Nassau was largely inactive for the rest of 1915 and early 1916, but made sweeps in distant cover in other operations. At last, she took part in the Battle of Jutland with the II Division, I Battle Squadron. The latter formed the center of battle line, preceded by Rear Admiral Behncke's III Battle Squadron, followed by Rear Admiral Mauve's II Battle Squadron's pre-dreadnoughts. SMS Nassau was third in line, behind Rheinland, in front of Westfalen while SMS Posen was at the head as squadron's flagship. The night time reorganization for a cruising formation was inadvertently reversed: SMS Nassau now became the second ship in line, and ws soon found in action.

At 17:48-17:52 indeed, the eleven German dreadnoughts were engaged by the Grand Fleet, duelling with the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron first, Nassau targeting HMS Southampton and believed to score at least one one hit from 20,100 yd (18,400 m), on the cruiser's port side but causing little damage. Next Nassau targeted HMS Dublin but the exchange was over at 18:10, and later at 19:33, Nassau spotted HMS Warspite, both briefly exchanging before making a 180-degree turn away, and thus beyond range.

Nassau, while proceeding home, crossed again during the night (at 22:00) British light forces (SMS Caroline, Comus, Royalist) and with Westfalen, made a 68° turn to evade possible torpedoes from them. Both targeted HMS Caroline and Royalist from 8,000 yd (7,300 m), but the latter turned away and soon back, making another torpedo run, Caroline firing two at SMS Nassau, the first close to her bows, the second under her belly.

HMS Caroline
HMS Caroline
Midnight, 1 June, saw a large manoeuver behind the British Grand Fleet in its way when the Hochseefotte crossed the path again of British destroyers. SMS Nassau was torpedo assaulted by HMS Spitfire, which missed, and the latter was at such close distance her captain attempting a ramming, that could undoubtely cut her in half. The destroyer was caught and tried to evade but too late, and collided with Nassau in an oblique angle, while the battleship fired her main battery at point-blank range, max depression. But if the shells went above, the blast however was itself sufficient to destroy Spitfire's bridge, incinerating all the staff onboard.

HMS Spitfire
HMS Spitfire, showing her battle damage after Jutland.

Crippled, Spitfire disengaged but with a 6 m (20 ft) Nassau's side plating chunk strapped on her hull. Nassau had a 15 cm casemated gun disable and a 3.5 m (11.5 ft) gash above the waterline, which caused some flooding, slowin her down to 15 knots until she reached home. British destroyers present landed on her two 4 inshells, damaging her searchlights.

After 01:00, Nassau and Thüringen crossed the path of the armored cruiser HMS Black Prince, and Thüringen opened fire first, making 27 heavy-caliber hits, 24 secondary in quick succession. Nassau and Ostfriesland soon also opened fire and later SMS Friedrich der Grosse, which disabled the cruiser, soon ablaze and immobilized, then, she exploded and sank. But as she did, Nassau as steaming on her wreck, and manoeuvered to avoid it, steering hard towards III Battle Squadron, at reversed steam to avoid collision with SMS Kaiserin.

Nassau came back in line, but between the pre-dreadnoughts SMS Hessen and Hannover. She was attacked agains at 03:00 by British destroyers and tne minutes later her lookouts spotted three to four of them, port. Sjhe immediately opened fire at circa 5,500 yd-4,400 yd, but soon made a hard turn to avoid possible torpedoes. This was the last tense moment of the battle. Back in German waters, Nassau, Posen and Westfalen took up defensive positions in the Jade roadstead, waitiong a possible arrival of the pursuing British Grand Fleet. Unbeknown to them, Jellicoe folded up in between.

Nassau received two hits, only by secondary shells, with little damage. Apart her hull damage and casualties or 11 men killed, 16 wounded she was still fully operational. She spent 106 main battery shells, 75 secondary and even some 8,8 cm at the destroyers. After repairs, she was back in her unit on 10 July 1916.

Later operations

With the 1st and second squadron

She took part, as distant cover, to the 18–22 August fleet advance, behind the I Scouting Group battlecruisers shelling Sunderland. The battlecruisers were assisted by Markgraf, Grosser Kurfürst, and Bayern. On 19 August, SMS Westfalen was torpedoed by the HMS E23, just 55 nautical miles north of Terschelling and she had to return to port while the Grand Fleet departed. By 14:35, Admiral Scheer retreated.

Nassau's second sortie on 19–20 October 1916 was uneventful. She ran aground on 21 December, in the mouth of the Elbe however, and if she was able to free herself, repairs were needed on Hamburg (Reihersteig Dockyard), until 1 February 1917. She took part in the cover for the raid on Norway on 23–25 April 1917, soon canceled when Moltke lost her propeller. Nassau, Ostfriesland, and Thüringen became a special unit for Operation Schlußstein, the planned assault and captured of Saint Petersburg.

On 8 August, Nassau embarked some 250 soldiers in Wilhelmshaven for this mission, but as the the three ships reached the Baltic on 10 August, the operation was postponed and later canceled., their unit being dissolved on 21 August, and they headed back to Wilhelmshaven. Nassau was schefuled to take part in the final fleet action planned in late October 1918, under overall command of Großadmiral R. Scheer. On the morning of 29 October 1918, order was given to sail from Wilhelmshaven, but on this night, sailors on Thüringen mutinied, soon spreading on other battleships, including Nassau, leading to the cancellation of the whole operation.

After November 1918, most of the High Seas Fleet was interned in Scapa Flow but Nassau and her three sisters were not listed for internment, remaining in German ports, in part, like the pre-dreadnoughts, to their age. Hermann Bauer became SMS Nassau's last commander. On 21 June 1919 the scuttling took place at Scapa and back in Germany, it was decided to hand over the four Nassau class to the various Allied powers, as replacements for ships sunk. Nassau was awarded to Japan, on 7 April 1920, but the latter declined and ordered her to be scrapped instead by a British ccompany in Dordrecht, by June 1920.

SMS Westfalen

SMS Westfalen underway

SMS Westfalen was ordered as "Ersatz Sachsen"replacing the old 1880s Sachsen-class ironclad of the same name. The Reichstag in fact secretly approved and provided funds by late March 1906, construction was delayed however unlike Nassau, waiting for arms and armor to procured, under very strict security. Laid down on 12 August 1907 (AG Weser shipyard, Bremen), she was launched on 1 July 1908 without much fanfare, was fitted-out and transferred to Kiel on mid-September 1909 to gather her final crew, as she transited with dockyard workers, helped by pontoons as the Weser River was very low at this time of year, and it took two attempts before cleared the river.

On 16 October 1909, before commission, she took part in the third set of locks, Kaiser Wilhelm Canal opening ceremony like her sister ship and she was commissioned a month later, making fleet training exercises in February 1910. It's only by 3 May she completed her full trials. Assigned to the I Battle Squadron and in 1912, squadron flagship in place of SMS Hannover, she performed the same training routine as Nassau.

Early Operations

Westfalen's wartime service was very much the same as Nassau, as they operated in the same unit; She participated the raid of Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby (15–16 December 1914) as rear cover, and then took part in the Battle of the Gulf of Riga in August 1915, also to provide cover for the forces engaging the Russian flotilla. She did not really saw action on the second attempt on 16 August 1915, as only Nassau and Posen were detach to attack Slava. Reports of Allied submarines in the area had everyone packing on the 17.

Back in the north sea via the Kiel canal at the end of August, SMS Westfalen took part in a sweep into the North Sea on 11–12 September, but seeing no action. Yet again, she was in another on 23–24 October and again on 21–22 April 1916. Westfalen was part of the battleship support for Hipper's battlecruisers attacking Yarmouth and Lowestoft also on 24–25 April and the whole operation was soon called off. The real test came out in the last day of May 1916:

SMS Westfalen at Jutland

Under overall command of Admiral Reinhard Scheer, and under Captain Redlich's command, she departed the Jade at 03:30 on 31 May as distant cover with the II Division, I Battle Squadron (Rear Admiral W. Engelhardt), last ship in line, astern of her three sisters. Also the II Division was the last unit of dreadnoughts in the fleet, followed by pre-dreadnoughts of II Battle Squadron. There were few chances they would be engaged, however the confusion of the evening and night action had it all reversed. The veteran dreadnought suddenly were found at the hearth of the storm.

At 17:48-17:52, eleven German dreadnoughts opened fire on the British 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron, in poor visibility and unclear results. At 18:05, SMS Westfalen spotted again and fired on a light cruiser, assumed later to be HMS Southampton. Shells were fired from 18,000 metres (19,690 yd), but she scored no hits. Like the rest of the battle line she was ordered at maximum speed in pursuit (20 knots) and at 19:30, Scheer signaled "Go west", as spotting the Grand Fleet deployed to face them a second time. With the battle line reversed her Squadron was now in the lead, Westfalen now assuming a lead position.

Around 21:20, SMS Westfalen therefore was the first spotted and engaged by the British battlecruisers of the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron, soon straddled and showered with seawater and splinters. lookout soon spotted two torpedo tracks that turned out to be imaginary, but she was forced to slow down, allowing the battlecruisers of I Scouting Group to pass ahead. At around 22:00, SMS Westfalen and Rheinland spotted an unknown force in the falling darkness, flashing a challenge via searchlight, ignored, and immediately turning away to starboard, to avoid possible incoming torpedoes, the rest of the I Battle Squadron following behind. Westfalen fired seven main shells in afew miniuted of visibility, and was still in the lead, Scheer still weary about torpedoes.

At about 00:30, the line spotted British destroyers and cruisers, followed by an intense exchange at close range. Westfalen engaged HMS Tipperary, with her 15 cm and 8.8 cm guns at just 1,800 m (2,000 yd). Her bridge and forward deck gun were soon blasted out, and she fired 92 secondary, 45 tertiary rounds at Tipperary, then turned to 90 degrees to starboard, to evade her possible torpedoes. Nassau soon joined in the attack on Tipperary, which was finished off and sank, not before launching her two remainder starboard torpedoes.

Westfalen's bridge was also hit by a 4-inch shell, killing two men in the staff, wounding eight, including Captain Redlich. At 00:50, Westfalen spotted HMS Broke, a British destroyer leader, briefly engaged her with her 15 cm battery. In 45 seconds she fired about 40 shells (plus 30 8.8 cm shells) and turned away again to avoid possible torpedoes. Broke was later engaged by other battleshps and the cruiser Rostock and soon was in "an absolute shambles" but withdrawned successfully to tell the tale. At about 01:00, Westfalen's searchlights fell on HMS Fortune soon targeted point-blank and set ablaze with also Westfalen and Rheinland. She also spotted HMS Turbulent and wrecked her too, as she soon sank in turn.

The night fighting kept all onboard Westfalen in high alert, but eventually the High Seas Fleet managed to punch through the curtain of British destroyer, ultimately reaching Horns Reef before dawn, at around 4:00 AM, on 1 June. She was still in the lead, with little damage, and many shells spent, guns barrels still hot. She reached Wilhelmshaven in the early hours, taking up defensive positions in the outer roadstead for a possible arrival of Jellicoes's Grand Fleet. When counts were made, it was reported she fired 51 28 cm shells, 176 15 cm rounds, and 106 8.8 cm shells. Repair was performed quickly in Wilhelmshaven, over by 17 June.

Sunderland Raid (18–19 August 1916) and aftermath

Westfalen was part of the fleet advance of 18–22 August, in cover of the I Scouting Group battlecruisers shelling the city of Sunderland, in the hope drawing out Beatty's battlecruisers. Westfalen was at the rear of the line, lioke at jutland. At 06:00 on 19 August, she was spotted and torpedoed by the British submarine HMS E23, 55 nautical miles (102 km; 63 mi) north of Terschelling. 800 metric tons of seawater entered her gash, but the torpedo bulkhead held form and nothing happened to her powerplant, still dry and fully operational. However it was decided to send her back to port, with an escort of three torpedo-boats, at 14 knots all the way. German plans were known and so, the Grand Fleet was en route to block their way back home and at 14:35, Admiral Scheer, warned of this, retreated.

Westfalen's repairs were over on 26 September and she trained in the Baltic Sea, being back in the north sea on 4 October. She took part in a sortie to the the Dogger Bank on 19–20 October, without action. She remained inactive for the majority of 1917 and was not called for Operation Albion in the Baltic, staying in Apenrade to prevent a British incursion there.

Invasion of Åland and fate

On 22 February 1918, Westfalen and Rheinland departed to Finland, in support of the German army deployed as the Finns were in-fighting for their independence and between the "Whites" and the "Reds". On 23 February, they carried the 14th Jäger Battalion on 24 February, heading for Åland island, to become the German forward operating base in reach of the port of Hanko and a stepping point to seize the capital, Helsinki. The task force arrived on 5 March, metting the neutral fleet deployed there: The Swedish coastal defense ships Sverige, Thor, and Oscar II. Negotiations followed and the Germans were granted to land German troops on Åland as planned, on 7 March, and as it was done, Westfalen was ordered back to Danzig.

She remained there until 31 March, and returned to Finland with SMS Posen, off Russarö, the outer defense of Hanko on 3 April, bombardrded. Soon the army took the port and both Battleships proceeded to Helsingfors, and on 9 April, Reval, where Westfalen took command of the invasion force. On the 11th, she passed off Helsingfors, landed troops and supported their advance until the Red Guards were defeated. She remained there until 30 April, until a Finn White government was installed.

Soon, SMS Westfalen was back to the North Sea, assigned to the I Battle Squadron. On 11 August with Posen, Kaiser, and Kaiserin she was ordered to patrol off Terschelling, but she suffered en route serious damage to her boilers (near explosion) that limuted her for 16 kn until she reached her support position and back to port. It was judged not sound to repair or change her boilers se she remained stationary, decommissioned, employed as an artillery training ship for the remainder of the war.

In November 1918, she was not interned to Scapa Flow and so remained where she was, and after the scuttling, the Allies demanded replacements for the ships sunk in Scapa, so Westfalen was struck on 5 November 1919, handed over as "D" on 5 August 1920, but promptly sold to ship-breakers in Birkenhead, BU on 1924.

SMS Rheinland

Rheinland 1910
SMS Rheinland

SMS Rheinland was ordered as "Ersatz Württemberg" to replace this third Sachsen-class ironclad, laid down on 1 June 1907 at AG Vulcan shipyard, Stettin. Construction proceeded under absolute secrecy until she was launched on 26 September 1908, christened by Queen Elisabeth of Romania, Clemens Freiherr von Schorlemer-Lieser. Fitting-out ended in February 1910 and she was commissioned under Kapitän zur See (KzS) Albert Hopman, in command until August. Limited sea trials until 4 March 1910 off Swinemünde ended on Kiel for full commission on 30 April 1910, followed by additional sea trials in the Baltic Sea.

From 30 August 1910, Rheinland was taken to Wilhelmshave as her first crew was transferred to the new battlecruiser SMS Von der Tann. Her new captain (temporarily) was Korvettenkapitän Wilhelm Bunnemann in limited commission, in September 1910. (KzS) Albert Hopman returned to the ship later that month, until September 1911. He was replaced by KzS Richard Engel, until August 1915.

After autumn fleet maneuvers new crewmembers from the pre-dreadnought Zähringen arrived, and she was assigned to the Ist Battle Squadron. In October 1910 she took part in the annual winter cruise, then fleet exercises in November, alternated with summer cruises to Norway, eaxch time in August 1911, 1913, and 1914.

SMS Rheinland participated in distant cover of the Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby raid, but also at the Battle of the Gulf of Riga in August 1915, under overall command of Vice Admiral Franz von Hipper. The operation was successful on 16 August 1915 but only Nassau and Posen saw action. She was later back in the north sea, made a sweep on 11–12 September, then 23–24 October. KzS Heinrich Rohardt took command until December 1916. From 12 February 1916, she underwent an extensive drydock overhaul until 19 April. She participated next in another north sea sweep on 21–22 April and later, as cover again of the I Scouting Group battlecruisers, for the planned Yarmouth and Lowestoft raid of 24–25 April, called off when Seydlitz was damaged.

The first real test of SMS Rheinland came with the Battle of Jutland: As part of the III Battle Squadron she departed the Jade at 03:30 on 31 May, and was reassigned to the II Division, I Battle Squadron (Admiral W. Engelhardt), second ship in the division astern of Posen, ahead of Nassau and Westfalen, in the last unit of dreadnoughts in the fleet followed by pre-dreadnoughts. She engaged the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron and engaged in bad weather HMS Southampton, scoring no hit.

After a complete reverse manoeuvers, SMS Rheinland became third behind Westfalen and Nassau. At 21:22, her spotters Rheinland spotted two fancy torpedo tracks, slowing down to make the battlecruisers pass ahead. Around 22:00, Rheinland and Westfalen spotted light forces, challenged by searchlight, followed by a torpedo evading measure, and later the group identified a large dark gray warship motionless in the water, with four tall and thin smoke stacks which happened to be HMS Black Prince.

A night clash erupted with British destroyers and cruisers at 3:00, with close range firing from Rheinland on HMS Black Prince at 2,200-2,600 m (2,400 to 2,800 yd), followed by a torpedo avoiding manoeuver. At 00:36, Rheinland was hit by two 6-inch (15 cm) shells from HMS Black Prince, one cutting cables to the four forward searchlights also piercing the forward funnel. The second exploded on the forward armored transverse bulkhead, doing little damage as it was not penetrated. 45 minutes of intense exchanges interrupted by the arrival of HMS Ardent, saw Black Prince eventually pounded to oblivion by SMS Ostfriesland.

The Hochseeflotte reached Horns Reef by 04:00 on 1 June and SMS Rheinland was in Wilhelmshaven a few hours later to be refueled and re-armed for a possible Grand Fleet arrival with her three sisters stood out in the roadstead. Reported stated she had fired 35 28 cm (11 in) shells, and 26 15 cm (5.9 in), had 10 men killed, 20 wounded but Repair work was completed by 10 June.

The rest of the war was calmer, apart a fleet advance on 18–22 August behind the I Scouting Group battlecruisers attacking Sunderland, but followed by a quick a retreat to German ports. She later was detached to cover a sweep by torpedo boats on 25–26 September. She also took part in the fleet advance on 18–20 October. In early 1917 she was placed as permanent sentry, in the German Bight. In the summer, her crew showed signs of rebellion mostly bevcause of the poor quality of the food, and she was left behind during Operation Albion. She stayed in the western Baltic, guarding the Skagerrak against a possible British sweep in the aid of the Russians.

On 22 February 1918 like SMS Westfalen, Rheinland (Now under command of Korvettenkapitän Theodor von Gorrissen, until September 1918), were tasked to a support mission in Finland with the German army. It was seen above already for her sister-ship for the details. The operations proceeded from 6 March, under a Senior Naval Commander, until 10 April. She proceeded to Helsinki, encountered heavy fog en route to refuel in Dantzig, and ran aground on Lagskär Island at 07:30, killing two men, and causing great damage.

The rocks pierced the hull, which was flooed, loosing three boiler rooms. A small fleets of tuges and tother ships tried to have her refloated without success on 18–20 April and the crew was removed temporarily, reassigned to the pre-dreadnought SMS Schlesien. On 8 May 1818, a floating crane came from Danzig to lift out the main guns and turret armor, bow and citadel armor, ill about 6,400 metric tons , almost 1/3 of her normal displacement. She was strapped with floating pontoons to add buoyancy and eventually refloated by 9 July 1918. Towed to Mariehamn for limited repairs, on 24 July she departed for Kiel with two tug boats but it was decided upon arrival repairs were not worth it. She was decommissioned on 4 October, becaoming a barracks ship in Kiel. Her last captains were KzS Ernst Toussaint for a month and then Fregattenkapitän Friedrich Berger from September 1918 until her decommissioning on 4 October, as depot/barrack ship.

Struck from the German naval list on 5 November 1919 she was handed over to the allied commission, which sold her on 28 June 1920 to ship-breakers in Dordrecht. Towed there, she was BU from 29 July until late 1920. Her bell could be seen at the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr in Dresden.

SMS Posen

SMS Posen underway, USN archives (Lib. of Congress).

SMS Posen started life as "Ersatz Baden" replacement for her namesake in the Sachsen-class ironclads, laid down on 11 June 1907 at Germaniawerft shipyard, Kiel. Like the others, built under absolute secrecy she was launched on 12 December 1908 with Wilhelm August Hans von Waldow-Reitzenstein in the attendence, making her trials in April 1910 before being fitting-out in May, and be commissioned on the 31rh, making her final Sea trials until 27 August.

After completing her trials in August 1910, she headed from Kiel for Wilhelmshaven, and from 7 September was crewed by the old pre-dreadnought Wittelsbach decommissioned on 20 September. Later she integrated the II Division, I Battle Squadron, as a flagship. She entered the prewar years of routine training, fleet exercizes and summer cruises in Norway, starting with a training cruise into the Baltic. Her 1914 cruise was however interrupted by the incident in Sarajevo. She was back in Wilhelmshaven on 29 July.

On 4 August, the UK was at war with Germany and the Hochseeflotte was mobilized to take on the Royal Navy in the north sea. SMS Posen made a serie of covering sorties for the I Scouting Group, at first raising the coast and shalling cities in the hop to draw out Beatty's battlecruisers and destroy them. After the first raid on 15–16 December, Posen took part in the the expedition and Battle of the Gulf of Riga, starting in August 1915. As part of the "special unit" her only opposition was to be the pre-dreadnought battleship Slava.

In addition to the four Nassau, the four Helgoland-class were also mobilized, plus the battlecruisers Von der Tann, Moltke, and Seydlitz and some pre-dreadnoughts as cover against a sortie of the Russian flotilla. The second minesweeping attempt was successful on 16 August, Posen and Nassau being detached to lead the charge though the defenses of the gulf, Posen being Admiral Schmidt's flagship in this operation. They were screened with four light cruisers and no less than 31 torpedo boats.

The first day, the minesweeper T46 and the destroyer V99 were sunk but Posen and Nassau sank or badly damaged the Russian gunboats Sivuch and Korietz. On the 17th, Posen and Nassau also engaged Slava at long range, scoring three hits, forcing her back to port. From 19 August, all Russian minefields were cleared for the flotilla to proceed into the gulf, until reports of Allied submarines had everydone packing up.

By late August, Posen was back in the North Sea, making a sweep on 11–12 September, without result, another on 23–24 October. On 4 March 1916, with her sisters and Von der Tann they sailed to Amrumbank, protecting the returning cruiser Möwe from a raiding mission. She made another sortie on 21–22 April and was in support for Hipper's battlecruisers raiding Yarmouth and Lowestoft on 24–25 April, called off due to Seydlitz's damage;

Posen's real test in this war came at Jutland: On 31 May, as part of the II Division, I Battle Squadron, flagship, Rear Admiral W. Engelhardt, Posen was leading the division. II Division was last in the battle order though. After engaging the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron, in poor weather, she started to straddle British destroyers, notably HMS Nomad and Nestor, in particular the later with her secondary battery. She exploded and sank, notablyt due to the combined fire of eight dreadnougts. At 20:15, the whole lined veered away as encountering the Grand Fleet for a second time and Posen ended fourth in line, not a favourable command position for a flagship...

At 21:20, Posen and the others engaged the British battlecruisers of the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron. Posen was the only one to effectively spot and fire on HMS Princess Royal and Indomitable, from 21:28, at 10,000 m (11,000 yd), scoring one hot on Princess Royal and straddling Indomitable, until 21:35. From then, darkness engulfed the combatants, and having no radar, the situation became stressful. The order was not to steam away and back to port. The Britush meanwhile launched their light forces in the hope of catching up, shadowing the fleet, attacking it with vigorious torpedo strikes and slowing it down for the Grand fleet at dawn.

At about 00:30, there was a violent firefight at close range. Posen fired on several unidentified British warships, narrowly friendly-fired on SMS Elbing, passing through the German line, just in front of Posen, so close in fact she was rammed by the later. If Posen's strenghtend bow was undamaged, Elbing had her engine rooms flooded and two hours later while in repairs, she spotted approaching British destroyers, her captain order to scuttle his ship. About 01:00, a fierce firefight with British destroyers started, Posen engaging HMS Fortune, Porpoise, and Garland at around 800 and 1,600 m (870 and 1,750 yd), using projectors and its 8,8 cm guns. HMS Porpoise was almost destroyed, Fortune quickly too, but torpedoes were fired, that Posen evaded, breaking its fire. At 01:25, Westfalen illuminated Ardent, crippled at 1,000 to 1,200 m.

The High Seas Fleet eventually made it through to Horns Reef on 1 June, taking up defensive positions in the outer roadstead. it was time for a report: Posen expended 53 28 cm shells, 64 15 cm rounds, and 32 8.8 cm shells, with no casuatly on board, which was northing short of a miracle considering the action, and compared to her sisters.

From June 1917, Posen had a new captain, Wilhelm von Krosigk, until November 1918. No notable sortie was done after Jutland. In February 1918, however, Posen and her unit was mobilized for a sortie in Finland, support of the German army, and in support of the "White Finns" trying to keep away the Soviet Red Guards and "red finns" from their newly constituted country. On 23 February, Westfalen and Rheinland were assigned to the Sonderverband Ostsee while Posen stayed in Dantzig.

SMS Posen underway

She departed on 31 March Posen with Westfalen for Russarö, outer defense ring of Hanko on 3 April and the port was seized. Next they steamed to Helsingfors on 11 April landing soldiers. Posen's crew suffered however had four men killed and twelve wounded in the cover attack. From 18 to 20 April, SMS Posen assisted tried to free Rheinland, grounded, wthout success. She later struck a sunken wreck in Helsingfors harbor. On 30 April, she was detached from the Sonderverband Ostsee back to to Germany for repairs, being back in Kiel on 3 May and its drydock. Repairs ended on 5 May. Nothing much happened in June-July.

On 11 August 1918, with her sister SMS Westfalen, and Kaiser, Kaiserin, she sortied from Wilhelmshaven in support of a torpedo boats raid off Terschelling. On 2 October, she steamed in the outer roadsteads of the Jade this time in cover of returning U-boats from the Flanders Flotilla. She was part of the fleet planned to ake the famous "last stand" attack on 30 October, which never took place due to widespread mutiny withing the Kaiserliches Marine. Posen and the other ships of I Battle Squadron were sent back to the roadstead on 3 November, and from there, to Wilhelmshaven on 6 November 1918.

On 11 November 1918, Posen was seized as replacement for ships lost in Scapa and, while stricken, she was handed over to Great Britain, transferred on 13 May 1920 and in November, driven ashore at Hawkcraig, Fife, Scotland, then sold Posen for BU in the Netherlands, Dordrecht, in 1922.

Links & resources

SMS Rheinland, postcard

SMS Rheinland, postcard

SMS Nassau, stern view, colorized by Irootoko JR
SMS Nassau, stern view, colorized by Irootoko JR


Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921.
Breyer, Siegfried (1973). Battleships and Battle Cruisers 1905–1970: Historical Development of the Capital Ship. Doubleday.
Campbell, N. J. M. (1977). Preston, Antony (ed.). "German Dreadnoughts and Their Protection". Conway
Dodson, Aidan (2016). The Kaiser's Battlefleet: German Capital Ships 1871–1918. Seaforth Publishing
Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations
Grießmer, Axel (1999). Die Linienschiffe der Kaiserlichen Marine: 1906–1918; Konstruktionen zwischen Rüstungskonkurrenz und Flottengesetz
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels.
Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. Annapolis
Herwig, Holger (1998) [1980]. "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918. Humanity Books
Ireland, Bernard (1996). Jane's Battleships of the 20th Century. New York: Harper Collins Publishing
Lyon, Hugh; Moore, John E. (1987) [1978]. The Encyclopedia of the World's Warships.
Massie, Robert K. (2003). Castles of Steel. New York: Ballantine Books.
Nottlemann, Dirk (2015). "From Ironclads to Dreadnoughts: The Development of the German Navy 1864–1918
Philbin, Tobias R. III (1982). Admiral Hipper: The Inconvenient Hero. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Staff, Gary (2010). German Battleships: 1914–1918. Vol. 1: Deutschland, Nassau and Helgoland Classes. Osprey
Tarrant, V. E. (2001) [1995]. Jutland: The German Perspective. Cassell Military
Dodson, Aidan; Cant, Serena (2020). Spoils of War: The Fate of Enemy Fleets after the Two World Wars. Seaforth
Koop, Gerhard & Schmolke, Klaus-Peter (1999). Von der Nassau – zur König-Klasse. Bernard & Graefe Verlag
Linienschiffe: Von der Nassau- zur König-Klasse, Gerhard Koop, Klaus-Peter Schmolke
Die Linienschiffe der Nassau- bis König-Klasse Eine Bild- und Plandokumentation, Gerhard Koop, Klaus-Peter Schmolke


From Ironclads to Dreadnoughts: The German Navy 864-1918 by Dirk Nottelmann
Cutaway of the SMS Rheinland
Nassau class on wikipedia

Model Kits

Nassau, general query on scalemates
The 1/250 paper model HMV
Not much: SMS Nassau, ModellbauRay 1:700, or the paper model 3046 by HMV, 2017 1:250, or the rare De Agostini Warships DAKS34 Nassau-class Diecast Model at 1:1250 Scale.

3D rendition gallery

The German Battleship SMS Posen, Super Drawings in 3D Nr. 16053, Marsden Samuel, Gary Staff
Kaiserliches Marine
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Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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