flag WW1 Imperial Russian Naval Aviation

Introduction: Birth of the Imperial Russian Air Service

On May 30 1912, Vice-Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy Alexander Karl Nikolai von Lieven submitted written report No. 127, planing the creation of aviation detachments operating with the three fleets (Baltic, Black sea and Pacific). The document was approved, but with reservations by the Naval Minister, Vice Admiral Ivan Grigorovich. It became an effective order as signed by the Naval Ministry. The report was compounded by MGSh No. 1706/272 letter, dated 06/02/1912 and adressed to the head of the General Staff School, intimating the creation of new infrastructures for naval aviation units in 1913.

On 1st January 1913, the Императорскій военно-воздушный флотъ, or "Emperor's Military Air Fleet" first seaplane and two wheeled airplanes were assigned to the Baltic, and five seaplanes to the Black Sea. In early 1914, the Minister of the Navy ordered the creation of an aviation department as part of the Naval General Staff with three officers in charge. At that stage, manufacturers were mobilized and specifications emitted as well. The needs comprised both seaplnes (soon built by Grigorovitch) and various fighters and reconnaissance models, land-based. Therefore land-based and naval aviation completed each others, the same manufacturers supplying the Navy. However soon, seaplanes became the quasi-monopoly of Grigorovitch, a name famous at the time but which vanished in the interwar.

The power of the Russian aviation as a whole could come as a surprise as the country was considered "backwards" to western standards, but still, boasted the world's largest air fleet, followed by France (263 aeroplanes against 148 respectively). A formidable effort had been made indeed to modernize the country, helped by loans and massive foreign investments.

Russian naval aviation in the great war


As World War I broke out, Russian Naval Aviation units were mobilized, in particular the one from the Baltic Sea and Black Sea, as the conflict started in the Balkans, when backing the Serbians. But at the time, they were still at the stage of organizational formation. On August 1, 1914, the Naval Ministry could count on three dozen aircraft, 20 certified pilots to start operations. 10 more officers were trained directly in the fleets and just 10 seaplanes were operational in the Baltic from Libau, 8 seaplanes in the Black Sea, based in Sevastopol and Kilen Bay. Detachments were planned for the Pacific Ocean only from the summer of 1915, but it was never implemented.

By early March 1915, this had grown to 77 aircraft: 47 in the Baltic, 30 in the Black Sea (all seaplanes). The staff comprised 78 officers and 859 lower ranks pilots, mechanics and administrative personal. Two vessels and six seaplanes were operated in the black sea, one armed steamship converted into a seaplane carrier, operating five M-5 seaplanes and the cruiser Almaz rebuilt to operate also seaplanes. The naval aviation section was part of Black Sea Fleet and managed by the admiralty, like the Baltic.

Russian Seaplane Carriers


Imperator Nokilai I

Imperator Alexander I

One component of the Russian Naval Aviation was the capacity to project air power far from its bases. This was the role of seaplane carriers, something often forgotten, but which was as common were aircraft carriers during WW2. Russia never had the time to built dedicated vessels and converted about eight vessels, among which the Volodga, Orlitsa, the Imperator Pavel class "aviation cruisers", Regele Carol I and the two Romania class. They started operation for the latter in 1916.

Rebuilt as a seaplane tender in 1914, Almaz carried four seaplanes, she fought at the Battle of Cape Sarych on 5 November 1914. Captured by the "Whites" she ended in Bizerte as part of Wrangel's fleet. src and src

On 1 January 1917, Russian Naval Aviation reached 264 airplanes, included 152 land-based aircraft or the fighter, reconnaissance and bomber type, plus 4 small controlled balloons in the Black Sea Fleet alone. There were 88 aircraft in the Baltic, seaplanes included and 29 available in the Petrograd and Baku officer aviation schools.

From September 1916 to May 1917, no less than 61 Grigorovich M-11 and M-12 seaplanes were received. 26 were sent to the Black Sea, 20 the Baltic having respectively 115 and 96 officers, 1039 and 1339 pilots, non-commissioned officers and privates non counting dedicated personal. Missions were same as thos units in WWI generally: Reconnaissance mostly, patrols, and occasional attacks. Coastal bases fighters were used to intercept occasional German bomber raids in 1917 in the Baltic, but activity was more restrained to operations against the Turkish Navy.

Russian revolution and civil war

the first tussian aircraft carrier
The second Russian "aircraft carrier" (TAKR), the converted Barge "Death" src

The Imperial Russian Air Service was abolished after the Russian Revolution. It was reorganized and renamed The "Red" and later Soviet naval aviation units were created in 1918. They took part in the Russian Civil War in coordination with the ships operated and covering the army fighting in Petrograd, but also peratring against the "whites" in the Baltic and Black Sea. They also took a prominent part in land operations from the Volga, Kama River, Northern Dvina rivers, as well as Lake Onega. There were only around 76 obsolete hydroplanes of WWI types operated and support was halp-hazard. These seaplaned were mostly used for ship's supply and reconnaissance, as for the army.

One interesting development were the "red aircraft carriers". In 1918, the Red Army commissioned an interesting project for the Volga Flotilla, starting from an old oil-carrying barge.The idea was to convert her into a seaplane carrier. The Kommuna as renamed, was equipped with two cranes and a catapult to operate 9 aircraft: Six Grigorovitch M-9s and three French Nieuport 17 seaplanes. The 140 meters [450 feet] vessels by 19 meters was used to provide the army intelligence, and attacking the White Army fortifications and ships. Not self-propelled she was operated by tugboats along the Volga.

Common drawback was the absence of a roof (no hangar) and in 1919-1920 a new barge was converted, renamed мертвых ("Death"), 153.7 m by 23.5 m in the Sormovo plant. The upper deck was cleared of all superstructures and two wooden hangars were built to accommodate up to ten M-9 flying boats with a passage in between to deploy the aircraft. On both sides of the hull were arranged wooden slopes on wooden brackets to recuperate seaplanes. The barge was refurbished and took part in the last operations of the war, also on the Volga, and later converted to a river military transport barge.

In the early 1920s, the consolidated Soviet Power started to plan an improvement and reorganization of Naval Aviation. New reconnaissance hydroplanes, bombers, and fighters were acquired and gradually, until mid-1930s, a powerful Naval Air Force was created in support of the Baltic Fleet but also the Black Sea Fleet and, at last, for the Pacific Fleet. It grew up to 1,445 aircraft, but this chapter is covered in the generic naval aviation page, and will be in a dedicated article on the Aviatsiya Voenno-morskovo Flota during the great patriotic war.

Russian air power in 1914

Development of planes in Western Europe was certainly not lost to some officers at the Tsar's court, neither some industrialists. So at the beginning of WW1 Russia aligned no less than 244 planes. Some were clearly obsolete, most had been exported or built under licence. Also there were 12 airships and 46 balloon in service with the Army. Comparatively with the Germans this was good (about 260 planes), but derisory compared to the immense scale of the continent-empire. On this total only 150 planes were immediately usable in first line, but only for 79-80 certified pilots. Also this industry lacked qualified workers and suffered a general backwardness in equipments and infrastructures in general. Below, left picture: Taran Aerial ramming attack by Pyotr Nesterov, against an early Albatros B.I. This kind of desperate tactic became a trademark of the spirit and aggressiveness of Russian aviators and even extended to tanks during WW2. This Austro-Hungarian Albatros became the world's first enemy aeroplane destroyed in flight, on 8 September 1914.

Russian plane ramming tactics This sorry state would not evolved much until October 1917. That was not by lack of interest. Sikorsky in particular was a pioneer quite in advance in heavy duty planes, making its four engine Ilya Mourometz fly in 1913 already; (Later on, the Tsar would order 32 of these). So in theory, Russia was able to mount long range bombing raids over Germany at the very beginning, which were performed despite all odds by Childovski. Despite some initial skepticism with the Nobility for these machines "only good enough to scare horse" from 1910 five military air service schools appeared in the largest cities, like Sevastopol and Moskow.

But the fact remains that Russian aviation was the world's second in size, after france, with 263 aeroplanes and 14 airships, but the aeroplanes in particular were mostly obsolete, being from 1911-1912 for most. Russian pilots flew with their personal weapons, the 7.63mm Mauser C96 preferred over the 7.62mm Nagant revolvers, and some carbines. Kazakov even tried hooks and dynamite. These planes performed reconnaissance and artillery fire coordination, and directed some ground attacks with steel flechettes, standard army grenades and later air-dropped bombs or petrol bombs. On 17 January 1915 The Ministry of War issued an order to arm aeroplanes with 7.62mm Madsen or 7.71mm Lewis light machine guns and the Russian Imperial naval aviation was officially created on March. The air service was transferred directly under command of the Stavka (General HQ) and by 1916, the black sea fleet saw its first two seaplane carriers, equipped with 14 M.9 seaplanes.

S16 replica

Russian aircraft manufacturers

Still, in 1914, Russian manufacturers were quite in touch with Western tech, from France, Germany, UK and USA. Officers were already familiarized with Douhet theories, of the first bombings in Libya, of Glen Curtiss naval trials... However despite the list below, the bulk of the production was still imported from the west, first among these being French planes, Farman, Nieuport, Morane were built by Dux and RBVZ, while the British BE2c and FB19, Sopwith Strutter (125) were purchased, imported or even captured.



Russian aviation in the Great War

Alexander Kazakov Right: Alexander Kazakov, the first Russian ace, started making a name for himself by using grappling hooks to off balance enemy planes. The Russian also inherited planes deemed dangerous and eliminated in the West like the SPADs A2 (57) and A4 (10), because of their observation post located right in front of the propeller; The Russian cocard which was applied had the same colors as France, UK, USA, therefore only the order of the concentric colors changed: White in the center, then blue and red. Therefore it was much easier for planes of both sides to distinguish friends from foes, central powers having crosses and their enemies, roundels whatever the colors and orders used. Also many Russian plans received skis in winter, replacing their wheeled train. One of the most prolific Russian plane became the Morane L, equipped with a 80 hp Gnome engine, 430 being turned by Dux and Lebedev. Morane-Saunier H and Morane-Saunier G were also used, parasol and mid-fuselage monoplanes, about 500 or more Farman F.30 (under licence) delivered, a more confidential Hackel 8, Nieuport 12, 16, Nieuport 21, or Rumpler C.1.

Other Russian aces included Vasili Yanchenko (16), Pavel Argeyev which also fought on the Western front (15), Ivan Vasilyevich Smirnov (11), Grigory Eduardovich Suk, alias Grigory Suk (10 ), Ivan Loiko/Loyko (8), Donat Makijonek (8), Vladimir Strzhizhevsky (8), Yevgraph Kruten (7) which also served in the French Aéronautique Militaire, Alexander P. de Seversky (6), Konstantin Vakulovsky (6), Victor Fyodorov (5), and also at 5 victories, Juri Gilsher, Nikolay Kokorin, Ernst Leman, Ivan Alexandrovich Orlov, Alexander Pishvanov, Eduard Pulpe (served in the French Aéronautique Militaire), Mikhail Safonov and Viktor Utgof. Kazakov was educated in military schools and entered the army in 1908, served in the cavalry, and transferred to aviation in 1913. He flew with the 4th Corps Air Detachment in Poland on a Morane-Saulnier. When meeting enemy planes he try to launch explosives and grappling hooks but scored his first victory (spring 1915) by ramming his opponent. In September he was commander of the 19th Corps Air Detachment, then 1st Combat Air Group. Until he was wounded in action on 27 June 1917 he had scored eight victories, plus all those which preceded, on a Nieuport 11, then 17. With 20 victories, he resigned in January 1918 and joined the British Joint Military forces at Murmansk in June, and as a Major, commanded the Slavo-British air detachment at Benezniky. By March, still fighting the the Whites, and having recovered from wounds, he was very afflicted by the withdrawal of British forces by the summer of 1919. He flew and crashed to his death in August, apparently a suicide.

Ilya Murometz
The Ilya Murometz was the first four-engine heavy bomber of the war, and an entire unit of these, headed by Chidlovski, became the world's first strategic bomber squadron.

The first Russian fighter

The fact a coherent unit used about 30 Murometz quad-bombers at the beginning of 1915, which rapidly gained fame and recoignition, also pushed officers to ask for a fighter for close protection. The RBVZ would create based on these specifications, the Sikorski S.16, first Russian fighter of the war, designed by Igor Sikorsky. More precise specs were ordered specifically by Chidlovski, commander of the Murometz bomber unit. The S.16 was somewhat inspired by Farman, but had a rotative Le Rhône engine (and later Kalep), a synchronized Lewis MG on the left side of the engine hood. Both planes were of the same size. They first flew in February 1915. A small serie of 18 were deployed in 1916, but they were hopelessely outclassed by German fighters and of dubious use.

Russian fighters squadron

Other proper Russian planes

Russo-Baltic works or RBVZ would also produced other models, namely the Sikorski S-5, Sikorski S-7, Sikorski S-9, Sikorski S-10 (1913), Sikorski S-11, Sikorski S-12, Sikorski S-16 (1915), and S-20 (1916), Russky Vityaz (The Grand) (1913), and the famous bomber series named Il'ya Muromets. Other notable aircrafts of this era included the Lebed X, a 1916, 80 hp, 135 kph fighter, the Lebed/Deperdioussen-sport licence-built 1916 monoplane (63 built), the parasol Moska B-bis (50 built) with foldable wings, the prototype Lebed-grand or Lebed XIV bi-plane, bi-engines heavy fighter of 1917, the Grigoriev N°7, Proskhovchtchikov "Bi-kok" N°2, an experimental 2-seats pusher, Odessa's Olkhovskii "torpedo" parasol fighter, also abandoned as being underpowered, or the very innovative Kassyanenko N°5, a biplane pusher with its propeller at the tail, and engine behind the cockpit and airframe, which allowed an excellent visiblity. The prototype was lost in trials in july 1917. The most prolific and best floatplane was the Grigorovitch M.11 and its 1917 successor the M.12, or obscure prototypes like the Slousarenko "monocok" or Modrakh plane and the Villich VL-6.

Anatra Anasal DS in the Prague National Technical Museum air Museum
Anatra Anasal DS in the Prague National Technical Museum air Museum

1917 Revolution and aftermath

However the Russian air service was reformed with the 1917 February revolution, but in October it was dissolved completely, with a "which hunt" against officers in various HQs and pilots, that were often former cavalrymen and therefore from aristocratic families. A completely new core was created, the Workers' and Peasants' Air Fleet, composed with about 1.300 planes in various conditions, many obsolete. Two-third were foreign-made, Nieuport, Voisin and Farman models demonating the charts. But of this lot, only 300-350 were operated, the other being grounded because of the lack of spare parts and cannibalized, and poor maintenance because of inexperienced crews. Meanwhile, Kolchak's white army received 65 aeroplanes and about 70 pilots, often trained in the West and well equipped and maintained, at least at the beginning. Denikin's army was the second "white" air force in Russia at that time in 1919. Russian white pilots also intervened in the North Russia Intervention. 219 pilots also fought in the Red Army during the civila war and the order of the red banner, newly created was awarded to 16 aces.

naval aviation Anatra

The Anatra saga

The company was funded in 1913 by Arthur Antonovitch Anatra, the factory being a creation by the local aero-club, using the same hangars used for repairs. The team came from Odessa naval batallion workshop, where, from 1909 to 1912 about twenty foreign planes under licence were assembled. In October 1912, Anatra sent a letter addressed to the general direction of aeronautics engineers to offer his services, quickly accepted and sanctioned by a general letter also sent to other manufacturers. In june 1913, Anatra workshops received an official order for 5 planes, Farman IV copies, delivered in September. Anatra would, until 1917 also produce under licence Nieuports, Farman, Voisin, and Morane. Only in 1915, after having studied these, Anatra would start his own designs, soon renown.


Anatra Anadis, the missed fighter

This experimental model was developed in 1916, this time as a single-seat fighter variant of the Anatra Anasal. There was no rear seat but a forward-firing gun was planned and a different engine was mounted, an Hispano-Suiza water-cooled V-8, 150hp (112kW). She flew for the first time on 23 October 1916. Anatra factory's chief engineer Frenchman Henri Descamps, designed a biplane in wood and canvas which was to be a single-seat but preparations were made to free the second seat and carry extra fuel tanks. Indeed Descamps and another Frenchman, test pilot Robinet, felt that important social change, in fact a revolution, was to be feared, and planned their escape with this improvised two-seats version. The second seat was condemned but their planes were discovered, and they were denounced by the pilot Kononenko, but the affair did not went further. Testing went on until 11 November 1916. None was ever ordered and the prototype was left under a tarpaulin until October 1917. The Anadis would jhave been potentially a formidable fighter, as it was able to reach 153 kph and was agile enough to face German planes of the time. However nothing really happened until that Autumn of 1917. N.A. Makarof once proposed a tour in the West through Bucarest to showcase Russian knowhow and trigger more aircraft deliveries, but it never took place, the plane having engine issues in Romania, and crash landed. There are no known photographs of it.
Anatra Anasal
Anatra Anasal. There are no known photo of the sole Anadis.
Specifications Anadis:
-Length: 7.75 x 11.40m (24ft 7in x 37ft 5in) Wing area: 37 m2
-Weight: Empty 665kg (1466 lb), Loaded 1165kg (2568 lb)
-Propulsion: Hispano-Suiza water-cooled V-8, 150hp (112kW) Top speed: 153 km/h (95 mph) climb rate 133.3 m/min (437 ft/min)
-Armament: 7.7 mm (.303) Vickers MG (with Des Camps synchronizer), 7.7 mm (.303) Lewis machine gun (observer), 50 kg of bombs (Payload: 500kg (1102lb))

Anatra D

The first model was called Anatra D, or Anade, a two-seats, two-bay biplane of conventional type, with a pilot and observer in tandem cockpit. The Anade first flew on december 1915, but later test flights revealed design flaws like a weak wing structure and poor stability. In fact the plane killed company test pilot Jean Robinet on 21 July. But this does not deter Anatra, and modifications to the center of gravity were made an an army order came rapidly. Deliveries commenced already in May 1916, and went on until the end of the year, with a total of 170 delivered. Many of these would end in Soviet hands and flew until 1919 as trainers;
Specifications D Anade:
-7.70 m x 11.50 m x 2.9 m (25 ft 3 in x 37 ft 9 in x 9 ft 6 in) Wing area: 35.0 m2 (377 ft2)
-Empty weight 515 kg (1,135 lb) Gross weight: 865 kg (1,907 lb)
-Gnôme Monosoupape, 74 kW (100 hp), 132 km/h (82 mph), range 350 km (220 miles), ceiling: 4,000 m (13,100 ft), climb: 2.4 m/s (470 ft/min)
-Armament: One .303 Vickers machine gun for observer, up to 30 kg (65 lb) of bombs

Anatra DS

The Anatra DS or Anasal which followed was of classic construction, and propelled by an Hispano-Suiza of 150 hp (110 KW), as a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. It first flew on 16 July 1916 and trials took place from the 23 October to the 11 November 1916 with success.

Main difference from the previous plane were the replacement of their 100 hp rotary engine with a much more powerful 150 hp Salmson radial engine (Hence the "S"), for improved performances. This water-cooled radial engine license-built in Russia needed a water radiator in front of the upper wing and had a partial engine cowling open at the bottom. The DS was also larger and better armed. In fact this was the biggest addition: A synchronized forward-firing machine gun that allowed the same capacity as fighters, while the observer's own light machine-gun was kept. A late variant, propelled by a 160 hp Salmson engine was planned and a few of these Anatra DSS were built.

Anatra Anasal model J

First orders only came arrived in 1917. Se when the Soviet revolution erupted in November 1917 about 60 to 70 has been manufactured (but not all delivered), while the remainder was in various stages of completion. Afterwards, the complete decomposition of the country meant many parts has to be changed and so series differed greatly almost by individual plane. Things went downhill from there. In 1918 Odessa was occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Amazingly enough, the Austrians in May ordered 200 Anasals, and a complement of Anatra C.I for training and observation. 114 has been registered as obtained by the Austrians in September 1918 but by October the remainder of the order was cancelled. From there, Czechoslovakia obtained 23 former Austrian aircraft, 8 more were captured by revolutionary forces in Hungary, and 8 more were acquired in March 1919 by the Polish 4th Rifle Division in Odessa. They used these on the Russian White side. Four others were re-assembled in Poland and used during the Polish-Soviet war in 1919-20. Some were also captured at Odessa and reused by the Soviet air force until the end of the war.
Anatra Anasal DS in the Prague National Technical Museum air Museum
Specifications DS Anasal:
-8.10 x 11.40 x 3.2 m (26 ft 7 in x 37 ft 5 in x 10 ft 6), Wing area 37.0 m2 (398 ft2)
-Weight empty 814 kg (1,795 lb), fully loaded 1,164 kg (2,566 lb)
-Engine: Salmson 9R radial, 112 kW (150 hp) top speed 144 km/h (90 mph), 3 hours endurance, ceiling: 4,300 m (14,100 ft), climb 3.0 m/s
-Armament: 7.7 mm (.303) Vickers MG (with Des Camps synchronizer), 7.7 mm (.303) Lewis machine gun (observer), 50 kg of bombs

Russian Flotplanes/seaplanes

naval aviation Grigorovitch

From design bureau to manufacturer

Dimitri Pavlovitch Grigorovitch Born in 1883 Dimitri Pavlovitch Grigorovitch was one of the most prominent and prestigious aeronautical engineer in pre-revolutionary Russia. He studied in the reputed Kiev polytechnic institute, became engineer in 1910, and became a journalist specialized in aeroplanes, then organised the installation of Chtcherbakov and Chtchtetinine at Petrograd in 1913, the first two production complexes dedicated to aircrafts in Russia. He started creating his first seaplane in 1913 and designed several models right before the war, showcased to the Imperial Army. He would built his first official order flying boat in 1916, a fighter seaplane for the Navy...

The manufacturer was Shchetinin (Щетинин) or Pervoye Rossiyskoye Tovarishchestvo Vozdukhoplavaniya S. S. Shchetinin i Kowas no less than the first Russian aviation company founded in St. Petersburg in 1910 by the famous pilot S.S. Shchetinin and lead designer Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich. It focused on flying boats initially were modeled after the American aircraft Curtiss Model K. All models comprised the prefix "M" for "Marine". production models were the M-5, M-9, M-11/M-12, M-15, M-16 and M-24/M-24bis which were so prolific they served through the Russian civil war and the 1920s, with the new Soviet Air Force and Navy as well as the Finnish air force.


Early prototypes: Grigorovitch M1-M4 (1913-1914)

A single-engine flying boat essentially similar to the French Donnet-Lévêcque (1912), a two-seater side by side of mixed construction, powered by a Gnome engine. Floats were fitted at the end of the lower wing and there were attachment points for a towing dolly to pull it out of the water when needed. The nose was shortened by about one meter, the Farman type wing profile altered, and the hull step reduced from 200mm to 80mm. fter it first flew in the autumn of 1913 and passed some tests, it was not retained for production, but future derivatives will. 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in) x 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in) (wingspan), empty weight 420 kg (926 lb). M2, M3 and M4 were variants of this first model.
Grigorovitch M5 (1915)
Grigorovitch M5

Also called Shchetinin M-5 since it was built in the very complex Grigorovitch helped to create, this design which first flew in the spring of 1915 was the first successful two-bay unequal-span biplane flying boat using the single step hull of Grigorovich and also first mass production flying boat in Russia. It came from gradually improved prototypes from the M-1 to M-4 the design, at least 100 were produced to replace foreign imported aircraft like Curtiss Model K/FBA series. Of wooden construction, the hull was covered in plywood, the wings and tail covered in fabric. The stepped the hull tapered into little a boom supporting a single fin and rudder tail unit braced by means of struts and wires. It was propelled by a single pusher mid-wing 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine. Later production models will use the 110 hp Le Rhône and 130 hp Clerget engines and the pilot and observer were seated side-by-side. The observer manned a single 7.62 mm Vickers machine gun on a pivot mount for defence.

In operation, the Grigorovitch M5 served with the Navy in the Black Sea or Baltic due to weather conditions, and were integrated into the brand new Imperial Russian naval air arm. Surviving lanes would make they way into the civil war flown by both camps, "Reds" and "Whites" some retained as trainer well into the late 1920s, also being still used for reconnaissance. One served with the Finns, captured at Kuokkala in 1918 and it flew until 1919. The Istanbul Aviation Museum now houses the only survivor, shown with Turkish Ottoman Air Force markings.
Post stamp of a Grigorovitch M5
Post stamp of a Grigorovitch M5

In addition to the M-6, an unsuccessful prototype variant fitted with 150 hp Sunbeam engine, the M-7 was tested with a rounded hull and larger keel but was dropped because of poor take off characteristics. The M-8 had an even further rounded hull but was even worse for take-off and never produced. The M-10 was another prototype, a smaller version powered by a Gnome Monosoupape engine in 1916. The M-20 finally was two-seat reconnaissance version powered by a Le Rhone 89 kW (120 hp) engine, which saw a small production in 1916. The Grigorovitch M5 also served with the postwar Soviet SFSR or red Army and Soviet Naval Aviation.
Dimensions: 8.6 x 13.62m (28 ft 3 in x 44 ft 8 in), wing area 37.9 m2 (408 sq ft)
Weight: 660 kg (1,455 lb) empty, 960 kg (2,116 lb) loaded at take-off
Engine: Gnome Monosoupape 9 Type B-2 9-cylinders, air-cooled rotary pistons, 75 kW (101 hp)
Performances: 105 km/h (65 mph; 57 kn), 4 hours endurance, 3,300 m (10,800 ft) ceiling, climb rate 1.85 m/s (364 ft/min)
Grigorovitch M9 (1916)
Grigorovitch M9

Also called ShCh M-9 or Shchetinin M-9 this Russian ww1 biplane flying boat was a development of the M-5, ready in the fall of 1915, which first flew on January 9, 1916 at Baku. By September 17, 1916, Jan Nagórski, test pilot, became the first to make a loop with a flying boat, worldwide. A good indicator of its agility and handling characteristics. The Grigorovitch M9 became the best-seller of the company, being produced by the hundreds (an estimated 500+) by Shchetinin up to the civil war. This was reliable, sturdy aircraft, a two-seater 9.00 m (29 ft 6 in) long with a wingspan of 16.00 m (52 ft 6 in) and wing area of 54.8 m² (589.6 ft²). Its empty weight was 1060kg, 1540kg fully loaded, with a tested 1,610 kg (3,542 lb) maximal takeoff weight. it was propelled by a French Salmson 9 engine in pusher configuration, the engine rated at 111 kW (150 hp). Its top speed was 110 km/h (59 knots, 68 mph), with an operational ceiling of 3,000 m (9,840 ft) and a 3.5 hours flight endurance. So this was a bit lower than the previous M5, but it was compensated by a better armament, with comprised alternatively a 7.7 mm MG in the nose, or a 7.5 mm MG, a 20 mm cannon or even a 37 mm cannon, in addition to bombs (100 kgs+ or steel darts). This made it one of the most powerfully armed floatplane in service for this size.

The M9 produced served with the Navy until the fall of the regime, and fought actively on both sides due to their availability with the Reds and Whites alike, and Soviet forces after the war. Many distinguished themselves in the air defence of Baku, dropping 6,000 kg of bombs and 160 kg of steel darts or "arrows", but also carried out photo reconnaissance missions, artillery spotting and interception of enemy planes. Some also participated in sea shelve studies spotting new oil fields near Baku. Nine M-9s were captured by Finland (one evaluated and lost), eight more were sent at Åland and Turku for local defense and flew actively until 1922 with the Finnish Air Force.
9.00 x 16.00 m (29 ft 6 in x 52 ft 6 in), wing area: 54.8 m² (589.6 ft²)
Weight: 1060kg (lb) empty, 1540kg (lb) loaded up to 1,610 kg (3,542 lb)
Engine: Salmson 9 pusher radial engine, 111 kW (150 hp)
Performances: 110 km/h (59 knots, 68 mph) top speed, 3,000 m (9,840 ft) ceiling, 3.5 hours endurance
Armament: See notes. MG, Darts or bombs.

naval aviation Lebed

Moskow's Planes Manufacturer

This Russian military reconnaissance aircraft produced several models, and the company was funded by Vladimir Alexandrovitch Lebededev, a sport-pilot, which after trying foreing planes conceived his own glider, Ogognek, and went in France to study Farman's designs. Back home in 1912 he opened a workshop in St Petersburg, for reparing and making propellers of the integral Chauvières type. He was able soon to propose the assembly of Deperdussin planes, boat engines, and carriages for planes like the Nieuport IV. Unfortunately in 1913 the workshop burned.

Lebedev however purchased a terrain near Moskow's main airfield, funding the Aktionervoye Obtitsestvo Vozoukhoplaniya VV Lebedev. He first manufactured Deperdussin models, Voisin types, and then some floatplanes, but in 1915he was ordered to reverse-engineering and copy a captured Albatros ad then declined a few prototypes using different engines. He was also in charge of building the experimental VM-4 from Villich, Gurevitch's Lebed XVII, K1 and Lebed-Grand from Kopakov-Mirochnitchenko, Slesarev's Sviatogor and Sea parasol from Fride.

Until 1916 he woud create ten models, of which little is known. However after that time, he would design two models that competed with Sikorski: The Lebed VII, close to the Sopwith Tabloid, and propelled by a Gnome 80 hp, and the Lebed VIII (two prototypes), and eventually the Lebed X, in two versions, with a larger span, and specific cage, and a shorter-span version, repectively as an observation and fighter planes. Both had a Gnome 80 hp, with a 7.7 mm machine gun. But both are considered underpowered and were not ordered.

Lebed XII
Lebed XII, the manufacturer "best seller" with over 200 produced until the revolution.
Before 1914, the featured fighter/observation plane from Lebed was a copy of the Deperdussin model D, and 63 of these planes derived from these French monoplane were built under licence, used on the frontline until 1917. Lebedev would acquired one of the next "Deperdiussen-Sport", "monocok N°11", and it was built in early 1916 with a Gnome 100 hp (74 KW), with a wooden propeller. The fuselage was made of wooden frames and canvas, and plywood for the central, forward section, and Lebedev tried, but failed, to fit a synchonized machine-gun. This ended all prospects to sold this model to the authorities, despite its 180 kph top speed. However, Lebed found success with the Lebed XII, derived from the model X but with the right propulsion, and a small serie was derived in 1915. Better still, the next Lebed XII was a success, massed-produced until the end of the war.


In strong are the production models, followed with the estimated numbers, in brackets

naval aviation Sikorsky

The Russian Aircraft Genius

Igor Sikorsky as a pilot in 1914The name of Sikorsky is quite familiar to American ears today, but as an helicopter designer, his models spanned decades and flew everywhere in the world, both for civilian companies and the military, and proved indispensable, from tossed far north sea offshore stations to various naval air services, and this story is certainly not over yet. Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (И́горь Ива́нович Сико́рскийwas born May 25, 1889 in Kiev (died in Easton, Connecticut in 1972) was formed at the Maritime Cadet Corps, in 1903, learning fast he would choose an engineering career. But this changed when visiting Germany with his father in 1908, seeing the Wright Brother and a zeppelin airship. He immediately thought he will be an airman. He made a trip in Paris in 1909, perhaps by then the mecca of aviation, and immediately working upon his return to an helicopter. Unfortunately he also understood it will never fly. But soon, he became an aviation pioneer first with fixed-wing aircraft in Imperial Russia, frail pushers propelled by a 15 hp Anzani 3-cylinder fan engine. The S-2 was his second design, and knew success. His fifth S-5, won him national recognition as well and was also licensed. The S-6-A won the 1912 Moscow Aviation Exhibition and at the end of the year, earned his young designer, builder and pilot the first prize in the military competition at Saint Petersburg.

Sikorsky Bolshoi Baltisky of 1913
Sikorsky Bolshoi Baltisky of 1913, before receiving its pair of pusher engines

Sikorky S5 In early 1912, he became Chief Engineer of the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works aircraft branch in Saint Petersburg. Bold enough because of this backing, he attempted his first four-engine aircraft, the S-21 Russky Vityaz ("grand") later known Bolshoi Baltisky in 1913. This was the blueprint for future developments like the amazing S-22 Ilya Murometz airliner in 1914, by then the largest plane on record worldwide.

For such a young designer that was amazing, just after having graduated by the Saint Petersburg Polytechnical Institute in 1914. That shows the caliber of the man. He soon converted his giant plane into a bomber for which he was decorated with the Order of St. Vladimir. He also turned his attention to smaller planes. Outside the S-6, a 1912 three-passenger plane and the two twin and four engines planes, he also worked on two little-known fighter aircrafts, motivated by Lt.Col. Chidlovski, from the Russo-Balt front, to maintain a previously canceled order for 32 Murometz type bombers, and after experience on the front, ask for a complement of escort fighters.

Sikorsky rose to the challenge and went with a RBVZ design, the S.16. It was designed in a short time, it was influenced by Farman, but was a "faux" fighter with side-by-side pilot and gunner, for the sole Vickers off-axis MG synchronized by Lavrov system. But this system suffered many issues and a second 7.7mm Lewis light MG was mounted on the upper wing. The S.16 was to be propelled by a Le Rhone 90 or 100 hp but a 80 hpwas chosen at the end. Production started in February 1915 and went on with 18 more ordered, until March 1916 but Russo-Balt was criticized for the plane was obsolete then, despite of this, more S.16 were delivered until early 1917 with more improvements in turn.

Ultimately the S.2 was worked out as a successor in early 1916 as a true one-seat biplane, this time with a more potent Gnome 100 or 120 hp. It was really influenced by the Nieuport 17, but had some specifics and they revealed faster than their inspiration. However only five were built ultimately. With the revolution, Igo Sikorsky fled to the US, and from there a new story began... S12 monoplane


Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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