Russian Navy (Russkiy Flot) 1914-18

Nomenclature

WW1 Russian Battleships
Petr Velikiy (1877)
Navarin (1893)
Tri Sviatitelia (1894)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Poltava class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky class (1896)
Rostislav (1896)
Tsesarevich (1901)
Borodino class (1901)
Potemkine (1903)
Persevet class (1903)
Pervozvanny class (1908)
Evstafi class (1910)
Gangut class (1911)
Imperatritsa Mariya class (1913)
Borodino class battlecruisers (1915)

WW1 Russian Cruisers
Minin (1866)
General Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Rurik (1892)
Rossiya class (1896)
Novik (1898)
Bayan class (1905)
Rurik (1906)

WW1 Russian Destroyers
WW1 Russian Submarines
WW1 Russian Minesweepers

An introduction: The Russian navy (1680-1917)

Before the Soviet Navy, there was the Russian Navy. The latter was of relatively recent composition (from the seventeenth century, Peter the Great). Governing a colossal continental power, the Tsar of all the Russias had little interest in maritime affairs. But long before this vast country secured outlets on the Black Sea or the Baltic, the Slavs possessed rudiments of long-sea maritime trade, carried out first and foremost by fluvial boats, and then Ships of Scandinavian nature, influenced by the Venetian construction (present-day Poland). In the Middle Ages, the Slavic navigators were equally bold as those of the Vikings on their Lodyas, a Russian replica of the Drakkars, but originally canoe derivatives. Some cities, such as Kiev and Novgorod, had enjoyed a certain radiance thanks to maritime trade on a network of routes from the Scandinavian and Hanseatic cities to Constantinople and Greece.

Rurik
The semi-legendary figure of Rurik, that funded Kiev. Scandinavian shipbuilding was locally adapted to produce the Lodya.

At that time there was an embryo of a naval force, for vast fleets were thrown against Constantinople by the princes. The Black Sea is certainly the cradle of the Russian fleet, and its academy. A trade also began in the Baltic with the Hanse, but the lack of large coastal ports prevented its development. Moreover, pirates began a real boom in the 15th century, to which the Tsars brought a solution by financing the protection of their ships by the Danes, bought at a gold price thanks to the benefits of this trade. The threat of the Tatars, the Mongols and the Teutonic Knights having passed, a new opponent in the Baltic presented himself: Sweden. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the house of the Romanov succeeded to the house of Rurik. Disturbances marked this interregnum, in the Sea of ​​Azov and the Black Sea, while Cossack expeditions defended the interests of the Tsar. But these operated more often on land, or in solid galleys, distant derivatives of the Lodyas.

Lodya
A Kievan Rus Lodya.

It was not until the reign of Peter the Great (1682) that Russia really took an interest in the possession of a military fleet. In 1693, he was very influential in his youth by everything that had to do with ships. He founded the port of Arkhangelsk in the White Sea. But the latter was a prisoner of the icy climate and seasonal passage in the ice. He thought of securing above all a durable outlet in the Black Sea, and this access was blocked only by the Turkish fortress of Azov. With his first few ships, built with the assistance of a Francophone Switzerland, Franz Lefort, future admiral, built the first force of ships and galleys, commanded by the Cossacks, and completed the siege of the fortress by his capture.

After this first victory, he officially created the Russian fleet in 1696. The latter did not have the opportunity to distinguish themselves, for although Kerch was taken without a fight, the Turks came to reconquer in 1711 the territories gained earlier, for lack of Russian reinforcements. More than ever determined to offer Russia another port, Petr Velikiy (Peter the Great) was looking in the Baltic. For many centuries, suede, strong in its fleet, the most powerful of this inland sea, was a serious obstacle to the safety of merchant traffic and of the Russian Interests in general.

Russian galley
A Russian galley

In 1701, a Swedish fleet attacked the Dvina estuary, with Arkhangelsk as its objective, saved by some Russian ships. The following year, a victory was won on Lake Ladoga. Finally, in 1703, the Tsar laid the first stone of the fortress of St. Petersburg, built in the midst of the sands and marshes, commanding the mouth of the Neva. In 1704 a new Swedish attack was broken on the fires of the Russian battle line supported by the large pieces of the batteries of the islands of Kotlin and Kronstadt. Finally, in 1709, it was Poltava's victory. In 1715, the Naval Academy of St. Petersburg was founded, while the Tsar ordered the construction of a vast fleet of galleys, the Skampayevas, destined to constitute the base of its fleet of the Baltic. That same year she engaged them in the great battle of Gangut, which she won. In 1721 the dominant position of Sweden belonged to the past, and Peter the Great had realized his dream.

Battle of Chesma
The battle of Chesma

After his reign, the Russian fleet was organized around this port, the pivot of the Baltic fleet. The navy was reorganized, codified. Beginning in 1730, several expeditions followed the cartography of the Kuriles and Kamchatka islands, not yet finding the route to the Indies and China. In 1736, the fortress of Azov was taken again, allowing again an outlet on the Black Sea. From 1762, Catherine II began to take up the dream of Peter I and launched the construction of a fleet in the Black Sea, the fleet of Azov, the Turks still threatening. This fleet was soon to be distinguished in the Mediterranean, repelling the Turks in the Aegean Sea in the battle of Chesma, and then consolidating its positions by the capture of Patras in 1772. In 1782 the Crimea was anchored to Russia and under the aegis of Potemkin , The fortress of Sevastopol was founded, the main base of the fleet of the Black Sea. It was to prove its effectiveness at the battle of Ochakov in 1788.

Russian embargo 1807
The Russian fleet of the line deployed against the Turks, Russian embargo on 1807.

Slowly but surely, the bases of the different fleets are in place, the organization becomes more complex, budgets are increasing. In 1791, peace was signed for a time with Turkey, which confirms the attachment of the Kuban and the Crimea to Russia. In 1798, a school of naval engineers and architects was formed in St. Petersburg. From now on, Russia must no longer be dependent on foreign assistance in the design of its ships. But in 1805, the war resumed once more with Turkey, it lasted until 1812, yielding only with the Napoleonic threat. After the French peril, Russia tried to steam, and it was Saint-Petersburg that had the first of the first ship so propelled in Russia, the Elisabeta, in 1815. In 1823, the first steam gunboat was accepted In service, it is the Meteor. However, like the other major naval powers, the Russian fleet has above all three-bridges, four-decks and wooden and sailing frigates.


The battle of Navarin, 1827

The Black Sea fleet will have the opportunity once again to distinguish itself with the French and British allies of Navarin in 1827, probably the last great battle in line of sailing ships, and defeating an Egyptian- Turkish. On the technological side, Russia took a certain lead in designing the first steel submersible in 1834. In 1866, engineer Aleksandrovsky was able to design the first submersible with a compressed air motor. But the Admiralty still paid little attention to it. In 1848, the Archimede became, like the ship of the same name in Britain, its first "screwless" (helix) ship. During the Crimean War, the battle of Sinope, on 30 November 1853, put an end to new Turkish reconquest vexations: It ended with a disaster for their squadron and the triumph of Admiral Nakhimov.

Sevastopol
Russian ironclad Sevastopol, 1861

The 1860s-70s were rich in upheavals in the naval technique: While the French launched the first battleship Gloire, followed by the British with the Warrior, Russia launched Sevastopol in 1864, followed by the Petropavlovsk and the three Pervenets. In 1867 she launched her first central battery battleship, Kniaz (Count) Pojarski, followed by her first turret battleship, the Minin, in 1869. She equipped herself with monitors in 1864 for her coastal defense and then developed projects Singular, like the armored batteries with concentric hull Popov and Novgorod, in 1872-75, the only ones of this type ever built in the world. But it still had its fleet of classic lines, all built or converted to steam: 4 three-bridges, 6 two-bridges, 9 frigates and 26 corvettes.

Russian Navy WW1

In 1877-78 a new Turco-Russian war broke out, and this time new weapons were used by Russia, including submersibles equipped with mines intended to operate from coastal fortresses. Developed by the talented Polish engineer Stefan Drzewiecki, they enter into service and its mass-produced especially during this conflict. Moreover, an ancestor of torpedo boats is experienced with success. Drzewiecki, who also created the first electric submersible in 1884, will greatly advance naval science in this field and give Russia some advance.

Drzewiecki submarine
Drzewiecki submarine, as built

1890 context to the Anglo-Russian rivalry

A bit forgotten today, this episode shows the growing extension of Imperial Russia to the east and in particular in the far east, was seen in a growingly suspicious ways by the British Empire at the end of the 1870s. Russia started to explore and tame Siberia in the 1860s, and went on, with help of railway, extending its reach eastwards, just as the US extended westwards a couple of decades before. After the humiliation of Crimea against France and Great Britain, some went to understand that competing openly with both navies or the Royal Navy alone were not a practical course of action.

Rurik as built

Regaining confidence in the West

The russo-turkish war of 1877-78, often overlooked in the west, was a massive clash in the Caucasus, started over the independence of Ottoman-ruled Bulgaria and tensions over the Balkans, and in the Caucasus. As a result, Russia claimed Kars and Batum, annexed the Budjak region while Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgarian state emerged with the full help and military intervention of Russia was followed by the Congress of Berlin in 1878 allowingd Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina, Great Britain to obtain the strategic island of Cyprus.

Expansion to the east

After the black sea expansion in 1686-1783, the XIXth century was of Russia's eastern expansion. It was helped by a reform movement initiated after Crimea, and liberation from serfdom was saw decades experiencing a growth of prosperity and self-reliance. In 1877 4/5 of the land due to be transferred to the former serfs was however still “allotment land” 50 provinces of European Russia but 1/3 of arable land was still owned by the nobility. Still, Peasant land increased by more than 99 million acres between 1877 and 1905 via multiple loans. Russia was also in dire need of infrastructure and to create an industrial basis, which France had (see later), and this proceeded in the 1890s, notably through a massive popular loan campaign in France, the "Emprunts Russes", also helping to develop railways to the east.

Bismarck attempts to restore Russo-German friendship after 1887 did not survived his fall from power in 1890 and Russia was weary of apparent closer cooperation between the Triple Alliance and Britain, and also a pro-Polish attitude in Berlin, only reluctantly turning toward France.

Russia also established diplomatic and commercial relations with Japan by three treaties between 1855 and 1858 and the 1860 Treaty of Beijing, allowing Russia to acquire from China a long strip of Pacific coastline, south of Amur's mouth. It soon led to construct the naval base of Vladivostok. In 1867, Alaska was sold to the United States for added funds and the Treaty of St. Petersburg with Japan in 1875 gave Russia sole control over Sakhalin, in exchange of the Kuril Islands.

Meanwhile the conquest of Turkistan, allowed to bring Russian control south of the Kazakh steppes in the 1860s, watched with distrust by British authorities in India, fear of Russian interference in Afghanistan. This ultimately led to the Anglo-Afghan War of 1878–80. Extension soon reached Turkmen lands, the east coast of the Caspian Sea, and the fall of Merv in 1884 caused alarm in British Kolkata as well. By March 1885 a Russian and Afghan troops clashed erupted in a major diplomatic crisis between Britain and Russia. An agreement was reached in September 1885 and Anglo-Russian relations remained stable afterwards, although Russia and Britain competed for influence over Iran.

The situation in East Asia also started to change dramatically: In 1894–95 the Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea led to a fully-fledged war, won decisively by the Japanese. Russia wanted to continue collaborating with Japan, until then having fairly good relations at the expense of China. However the Tsar choose to be the protector of China against Japan, a policy largely under influence of Count Witte. The Russians demanded that the Japanese returned to China the Liaodong Peninsula, and concluded an alliance with China in 1896. This translated notably in the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway crossing northern Manchuria and linking Siberia with Vladivostok, administered by Russian personnel, with a Russian police force. This was the start of a rapid degradation of relations with Japan, aggravated by British alliance with the latter in 1902 to counter-balance Russian influence in the region. However british concerns started way before that, in the 1880s.

The Franco-Russian Alliance

Rapprochement with the West excluded France at first: Imperial Russia's foreign policy was hostile to republican France, being very pro-German. Austria and Russia in the 1880s instead had a stated purpose of preserving monarchical order in Europe, but after the defeat in the Franco-German war of 1870–71, French elites deduced the only way to defeat the Reich would be to ally with a great power that was also its neighbour. This was however prevented by Otto von Bismarck's fine tuning of diplomacy, to keep France isolated. By 1892, Russia was the only opportunity for France to break out of its isolation, but the latter obtained from Germany a Reinsurance Treaty that same year. Still, Russia was alone diplomatically and needed a military alliance, also desperately in need of capital for the completion of railways and ports. Sine Germany declined any loan, in 1891 the French expressed their interest in the Russian offers of an alliance and this went to the August 1891 "consultative pact", both nations having to cnsult each others on matters concerning the peace of Europe.

Negotiations were successful and in early 1894 France and Russia agreed on a fully-fledged Franco-Russian Alliance, a military pledge in case of an attack by Germany. The alliance however was kept secret until 1897, and only revealed after the humiliating Fashoda Incident of 1898, some Republicans, at first liong opposed to it, wanting it to become an anti-British alliance. In 1900, this alliance was amended to include Great Britain as a threat, even stipulating in case of war, Russia would invade British India. This was of course assorted with a sizeable loan to start construction of a railroad from Orenburg to Tashkent, later a base from which to invade Afghanistan, as possible prelude to invading India.

Russian Naval policy change

General Admiral, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich In the 1850s, General Admiral, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, a supporter of liberal (or even "enlightened") reforms accompanied Alexander II's own program and was instrumental in Russian expansion, notably as a chairman of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society founded in 1845 (Ministry of Internal Affairs) he in particular instituted reforms in the Imperial Russian Navy from 1854. From there, the Navy indeed embarked in a rapid expansion and modernization program. In the 1880s, with tensions at their height with Britain over the northern marches of India, notably Afghanistan, stirred the Navy into creating a fleet of commerce raiders in order to threatens British commerce, in the far east in particular.

These long-range, well armed and protected new ships were to prey on British commerce from Vladisvostock. At the time, The Royal Navy had a China station, further south around Hong Kong, but nothing to really counter that possible new threat. The Russian admiralty planned several of such cruisers, the first of which was the Pamiat Azova designed for the Baltic Fleet, but able to be redeployed in the far east if needed. Later, the massive Rurik followed, laid down in 1890, and Rossia in 1894, then its "near sister ship" Gromoboi in 1897. All there were specifically designed woth commerce raiding purposes in mind, in the far east.

The Russian navy continued to grow exponentially, from 1886. The last of the Romanovs, Tsar Nicholas II, had accelerated the rate of construction from 1897 to such an extent that in 1904, on the eve of the Russo-Japanese war, it had reached the third tonnage in the world. But these impressive numbers were divided, as always between the Black Sea, the Baltic, the Pacific (Port Arthur), and the Northern Fleet (Arkhangelsk). In 1904, it lined up 28 battleships, 13 cruisers, 18 cruisers, about 30 gunboats, a hundred destroyers and three hundred torpedo boats, and, more rarely in 1904, an operational fleet of 8 submersibles. The following is known: The fleet of the Pacific was attacked by surprise at the anchorage in the harbor of Port Arthur by a raid of torpedo boats and destroyers, and became the Russian Pearl Harbor: All its fleet was annihilated. She then dispatched her entire Baltic fleet, which made a long 8-month journey. This allowed the Japanese time to disembark troops and put the siege at Port Arthur. The fate of the weapons will be sealed in 1905 at Tsushima, the most fatal date for the Russian fleet, which suddenly lost the whole of the Baltic fleet, 12 battleships, leaving almost unarmed with the only numbers in the Black Sea and Of the Arctic.

The consequences will be considerable. They are part of the discontent which culminated in 1917 in the revolution. Moreover, if the construction program resumed after 1905 (A new type of super-destroyer type, the Novik, 8 dreadnoughts and 4 battle cruisers), the Russian Imperial Navy participated in the operations of the War, especially in the Baltic. What remains will be swept away during the civil war. Almost three-quarters of the surviving units will end up being scrapped for lack of maintenance, a lot similar to that of the contemporary Soviet fleet...

The Russian Navy at the eve of 1905

In 1905, the Russian Fleet ranked third in world tonnage, ahead of the Hochseeflotte, just after the French Navy, and in competition with the US Navy. It was, however, divided between three fleets, three strategic areas and seas: the Baltic Sea Navy at Saint-Petersburg (and part of the Northern fleet at Polyarni), the Black Sea fleet at Odessa, and the Pacific in Port Arthur. The Japanese attack of this port in 1905 cost the Russian their entire fleet AND the Baltic fleet sent by the Cape of Good Hope (a seven month odyssey) as a reinforcement.

Port Arthur

The Baltic fleet arrived from its ling trip around the world, only to suffer the most severe and humiliating defeat of its history at Tsushima. The Russian people were struck by storm, and the resentment of this dramatic episode led to a veritable revolt, first drowned in blood according to the old feudal methods (like the bloody Sunday of St. Petersburg in 1905). There was also very serious crises in the military such as the attempted uprising of the Black Sea fleet as a result of the Potemkin mutiny.

Then the Tsar tried to coax the population by carrying out some reforms such as the creation of a democratic constitution and the founding of the elected Russian parliament, the Duma. This facilitated the creation of uncensored political leagues and trade unions. Nevertheless, there still remained a lot of autocracy in the behavior of the Tsar, a phenomenon inseparable from the powerful old bureaucracy still in place. From 1909, considerable efforts were made to move from a deeply agricultural country to an industrial power. Russia experienced an economic boom until 1913.

Railways were also developed considerably, while agricultural productivity also increased and an industrial network developed around large cities, well helped by Western companies. With 169 million inhabitants for an immense territory, the largest in the world, Russia was however a colossus with feet of clay. Only 15 per cent of this population was made up of workers and citizens in general, but the remainder was still backwards, composed by almost slave-like status serfs, the country being linked by bad pathways at the mercy of the weather.

Slava class battleships
Slava class battleships

The three fleets began to be painfully reconstituted after the disaster of 1905. Fallen to the sixth place in the world, the Russian fleet could only rely on the remains of the Baltic fleet and the Black Sea Fleet. In 1907 an ambitious program of rearmament was undertaken by the Tsar. Meanwhile the HMS Dreadnought had entered the scene and new concepts of naval warfare appeared. A Ministry of Marine was instituted for the occasion, and a new staff was established. Initially, the admirals demanded the re-establishment of a Pacific fleet for a new war against Japan, which seemed to them inevitable. Similarly, in the face of the Hochseflotte threat, a fleet of the Baltic was also indispensable. This plan referred to two squadrons for these two fleets, that of the Black Sea remained unchanged. (The obsolete and immobilized Turkish fleet no longer posed a threat).

Borodino class battlecruiser artist impression
Borodino class battlecruiser artist impression

This first naval plan naturally foresaw the integration of Dreadnoughts battleships, but also battle cruisers, which would make Russia the third country to dispose of it after the British and German fleets, and while Japan was preparing to make even. Each squadron had to count no fewer than eight dreadnoughts, four battle cruisers, nine cruisers and 36 destroyers, but the draft, which was submitted to the Duma vote, was nevertheless restricted to a single Baltic squadron which ultimately did not pass the law Subsequent funding.


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Moreover, the second plan of 1908 reduced these forces to 4 dreadnoughts and 3 submersibles for the Baltic, and 14 destroyers and 3 submersibles for the Black Sea. This new project did not receive the approval of the Duma. The Bosnian crisis however allowed the Tsat to raise a budget of 12 million rubles for this program, but the strengthening of the weak squadron of the Pacific was forbidden to concentrate on the German threat and the central empires. A war against a Japanese fleet now almost twice as powerful as in 1905 would have been disastrous.

At the same time, a major public plan to build shipbuilding capacity was launched, particularly to deal with the construction of emergency dreadnoughts and battle cruisers, but the inertia of the bureaucracy led to the construction of Foreign aid in the reconstruction of the fleet was also important. In order to form a block of the Balkan countries turned against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia encountered the Ottoman Empire, which announced the considerable strengthening of its fleet, including the British battleship (former Rio de Janeiro). The Russian government negotiated for a time the purchase of its two dreadnoughts in Brazil, but at that time the plan for strengthening the Black Sea fleet was finally voted, and three dreadnoughts were laid down.

In 1911, in the face of cooling diplomatic relations with Germany, the Admiralty undertook a plan to reinforce the Baltic with three squadrons, but received from the Duma only permission to build four battle cruisers, 4 cruisers, 36 destroyers, 12 submersibles. The Pacific squadron would be reinforced by 2 cruisers and 6 submersibles. In the absence of a reinforced fleet, it was decided to lock the Reval-Porkkala line with coastal mines and batteries. In the end, four dreadnoughts were started in June 1909, three in October 1911, and one later in January 1915. Four ambitious battles were also ordered in December 1913 and eight cruisers, two of them in Germany. In the end, the battle cruisers of the Borodino class were never completed, as were the battleship Imperator Nikolai I and three cruisers, while two others of the Amurski class ordered in Germany were requisitioned in 1914 and integrated into the Hochseeflotte. On the other hand the new destroyer standard defined in 1911 with the launch of the Novik would make Russia the holder of the best ships of this type in the world.

colorized photo of the Imperatritza Mariya in WW1

In 1914 the fleet included:

-14 Battleships (no dreadnought will be completed until December 1914): 2 Battleships class Imperator Pavel I, 2 class Ioann Slaloust, Slava, Rostislav, Tsesarevich, Pantelimon (formerly Potemkin), Tri Svititelia, Dvienadsat Apostolov, Imperator Alexander II, Sinop and the Petr Veliky.
-19 Cruisers: The 2 cruisers-class Rossia, 3 class Bayan, Rurik, the two cruisers mining class General Admiral, Minin, cruiser-school Pamiat Azova, 2 cruisers class Pallada, 4 class Bogatyr, The Askold, the Almaz and the Zhemtchug.
-103 destroyers: This is first and foremost the top 10 Novik and Bespokoiny classics, first launched in 1911 and others built in 1912-14 and brand new at the beginning of the war. It was also Pruitki, Beztrashni, Boiki, Grozni, Zadorni, Tverdi, Lovki, Bditelni, Storozhevoi, 8 Ukraina, Bukharski, Gaidamak, Kondratenko, and Shestakov.
-23 Torpedo boats: In 1914, Russia had a handful of torpedo boats called the high seas, the others having been scrapped after 1905. There were in service the old ships No. 132, 260, 252, 253, 256, 104, 212, 213, 6 of the Pernov class, 9 of the Cyclone class, remaining of the immense fleet, the second fleet of torpedo boats in the world behind France, because they came from the same doctrine of the "young school".
-35 Submersibles: Russia was also a pioneer in this field, and in 1905 there was a large force of such ships. There were few casualties, so the number in 1914 remained high: 2 Karp class, 6 class Nalim, 7 class Beluga, Kefal and Delfin, to which were added the 4 newest Kaiman, Minoga, Akula, Pochtovy, Krab (first submersible minesweeper), 3 MS handheld Holland class, 3 Morzh, 3 Narval.
-30 gunboats: The most recent were the 2 Ardagan, and the 8 river monitors of the Shkval class, the 7 Kalmyk, the 2 Buryat. It also included the oldest Mandzuhr, Gorzyashchi, Khrabi, Khivinetz, the 3 Kubanetz and the 4 Gilyak.
-7 Miscellaneous: These were the 2 Amur, the Volga, the 2 Bug, the Volkhov rescue vessel, the 2 Dozorny class and the 2 Konvoir.

The Russian fleet at war (1914-17)

With the assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Russia was in a cruel dilemma: Either she "let go" her ally in the Balkans Serbia, but avoided war (and retrospectively an immense massacre in Europe) Or it entered into a conflict with Austria-Hungary (and necessarily Germany) for which it was not prepared. By remaining the ally of Serbia she kept the upper hand on the Balkans and remained a useful ally for France and Great Britain. The alliance with France had the merit of dissuading the Reich from undertaking a war on two fronts. We know what happened next.

By supporting Serbia and being mobilized against the central empires, the Russian army was unprepared. The navy, likewise, was in full plan of rearmament, and confronted in the Baltic with much superior forces. At least in the event of a war against the Hochseeflotte, the cordial entente between France and Great Britain guaranteed an intervention by the Royal Navy against the Hochseeflotte in the west. The construction plan for the fleets was established until 1917. All modern units - battleships, battle cruisers, cruisers and destroyers, were under construction. In an emergency the available Baltic forces had to confine themselves to a defense policy in order to prevent a landing on the flanks of the frontier armies.

The Black Sea fleet, on its side, was to defend the Bosphorus, and Sebastopol, with minefields.
In February 1915 the Ministry of the Navy unblocked a special bug for the emergency construction of 23 additional submarines for the Baltic, 22 for the Black Sea and 41 for the Pacific. With the needs of the men of the front, they began to cancel certain constructions and redefined as top priority the completion of a battle cruiser, 4 cruisers, 13 destroyers and 6 submersibles. Those planned for the Pacific fleet were canceled, Russia having received friendly assurances from the Japanese. A little later, during 1915, 50 barges of unloading for the Caucasian front were built.

In East Prussia, the Tsar's troops would soon yield and retreat, Russia losing the territories of Poland, despite the popular demands of the press and the Duma to constitute a war government similar to that of the Great Western Nations. As economic conditions deteriorated and inflation increased, the Tsar persisted in maintaining the supreme command and overseeing operations. A feat of arms, however, is to be credited to the Russian fleet, when in September 1914 the Russian cruisers Pallada and Bogatyr of the Baltic fleet defeated the cruiser Magdeburg, forcing him to run aground, Crew while retrieving a document of considerable value, the Signalbuch der Kaiserlichen Marine, which detailed the encodings and encryptions of messages from the high command to the fleet.

A key document that the two Russian officers Smirnoff and Kredoff were going to deliver to Churchill via Scapa Flow aboard the cruiser HMS Theseus. The Germans did not discover the possession that the English had possession of this document until mid-1918. The scenario will be repeated with the U-Boats and Enigma during the second world war.

Gangut class
Gangut class dreadnoughts
On the other hand, the Russian Fleet had a remarkable leadership both in the Baltic and its exits from anchorages of mines and light units prevented the Germans from an offensive on the coast as planned. An operation in coordination with the Royal Navy made it possible to neutralize metal convoys and food from suede, a German attempt to get around the blockade. Under the leadership of Admirals Eberhardt and Kolchak, the Russian fleet dominated the Turkish fleet largely and condemned it to inaction despite the presence since August of the powerful battlecruiser of Admiral Souchon, The Yavuz. The Caucasus supply convoys and the Russian offensive sorties threatened and inflicted severe defeats on the Turks as far as the Bosphorus itself, not to mention the destruction of the Turkish merchant fleet.

Bars class submarines
Bars class submarines

In addition, the Russian Fleet had a remarkable conduct in the Baltic, where its exits from anchorages of mines and light units prevented the Germans from an offensive on the coast as planned. An operation in coordination with the Royal Navy made it possible to neutralize metal convoys and food from suede, a German attempt to get around the blockade. In the Black Sea, under the leadership of Admirals Eberhardt and Kolchak, the Russian fleet dominated the Turkish fleet largely and condemned it to inaction despite the presence since August of the powerful battle cruiser of Admiral Souchon, The Yavuz. The Caucasus supply convoys and the Russian offensive sorties threatened and inflicted severe defeats on the Turks as far as the Bosphorus itself, not to mention the destruction of the Turkish merchant fleet. In May 1916, the construction sites were overflowing, and large units were completed or in the process of being completed. 298 million rubles were disbursed for the construction in 1917-18 of 55 submersibles. The betting of other dreadnoughts was abandoned.


Aurora, Russian cruiser of the Revolution, now preserved.

However, the internal situation had deteriorated considerably. Demonstrations of workers demanding bread were punished with cowardice by the Tsar's guard in Petrograd, and the first months of 1917 were very agitated. In March, the Tsar had to leave Petrograd while mutinies of soldiers were asked to open fire on the demonstrators, who degenerated into an insurrection. Finally the Tsar was forced to abdicate in favor of a provisional government whose first decision, in agreement with the allies, was to continue the war. A major offensive was planned for June, while the yards were ordered to abandon the construction of the less advanced ships and concentrate on the others. However, the offensive was quickly defeated and the German counter-attack forced the Russian armies back to retreat. Tensions and desertions multiplied in regiments that were undermined by Bolshevik activists.

Crab minelayer submarine
Crab minelayer submarine

A new stage was reached with mutinies against the orders of the Provisional Government and especially with Lenin's return from exile, facilitated by the Germans, who considered it an opportune opportunity to undermine the war effort of the Provisional Government. On November 7, 1917, it was the start of a series of seizures of local power by the communists, aided by the workers and especially the soldiers. The taking of the palace of Petrograd was facilitated greatly by the Baltic fleet whose sailors mutinied and played a major role in the course of the events, as later in Kronstadt.

In the south however, Ukraine was in the hands of nationalists who demanded autonomy and rejected communism. As expected by the Germans, the Bolshevik government quickly demanded peace, supported by the vast majority of the people. As the allies cried for treason, the central empires eagerly proposed negotiations at Brest-Litovsk. The first proposal, considered too hard, was rejected by Trotsky, but the ensuing German offensive soon reached the gates of Petrograd. The Soviets had to accept the German conditions, which amputated Russia from considerable territories including Ukraine, Poland, the Caucasus, the Baltic States, Finland...

Battleship Nikolai I
Battleship Imperator Nikolai I before the war (colorized photos)

Not having the means to refuse, the Soviets signed the act of capitulation, knowing that by preserving the territory of ancient Russia, they still had a considerable margin of evolution. In addition, the demands of the central empires on the Baltic and Black Sea fleets (disarmament under the control of Russian units in German or Turkish ports) were avoided, fearing that they might be seized by the Russian fleet, As for the French fleet in 1940, upset the maritime equilibrium on that date in the event of a change of flag. Indeed, the Baltic fleet, an armada of 211 ships, left Reval and Helsinki for Kronstadt in the middle of the ice with makeshift crews, a sea exploit in itself. In addition, the Black Sea fleet remained in Sevastopol, the threat of a seizure by the now independent Ukraine being countered by the establishment of a local puppet government (the "Tauridian Crimean Republic"), The advance of the German troops forced the Novorossiksk to join Sebastopol, and on the spot remained on the quayside in completion or in the holds of shipyards many ships including 6 battleships and battle cruisers, 2 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 14 submersible ferrets seized By the Germans before the capitulation of November 1918.

Novik
Novik, lead destroyer (1913). This was a breakthrough in destroyer design.

The fate of the Russian fleet was then cruel: With the civil war between white men (large landowners (Kulaks), former Tsarist nobility, Ukrainians and generally most senior officers loyal to the former government) and red (Soviets Of peasants and workers, with many soldiers), Russia would face a combined offensive of the countries of the West (Great Britain and Germany in particular), but also the threat of Japan and even of the USA in the peaceful sector.

Nearly all the fleet of the Black Sea was captured, and other ships scuttled at Novorossisk. With the German capitalism, the allies had their hands free for an offensive in various sectors of the front in support of the whites. A raid on Kronstadt in July 1919 ended the Royal Navy with the threat of the "Red" squadron established in the Baltic. Another squadron of captured vessels was operated by the whites and Admiral Wrangel in the Black Sea when the Crimea was taken over by the Reds.


Bedovyy
Bedovyy and Bravyy - BOYKIY torpedo boats (1902-1907)

However, the intransigence and the division of the whites, just as a commitment of allies all relative gradually made the reds take back lost ground. Wrangel's fleet was forced to withdraw to Constantinople, then Bizerta before being interned by the French, and whole armies dropped by the allies turned to the reds. At the end of 1920, the perilous counter-revolution came to its conclusion. In 1922, the Japanese withdrew from the Kamchatka and a "red" republic was created there. On the other hand, the hardening of the Soviets, which led to the single party and the creation of a political police, caused the separation of Kronstadt's sailors, who in 1921 mutinied against the new orientation of the Bolsheviks. In 1923, the situation in Russia was appalling, both from the point of view of food supplies and the devastated industries and transport routes...

Imperator Aleksander III
Imperator Aleksander III

-Line ships: first of all the commissioning in December 1914 of the four battleships of the Gangut class, then in 1915 and 1917 of the dreadnought battleships of the Imperatrista Mariya class. The Imperator Nikolai I was launched in 1916 but never completed. Finally, the Izmail, the most advanced of the battle cruisers of the Borodino class, launched like the others in 1915-16, was taken in hand for completion only very slowly, and was finally demolished belatedly.

In addition, 16 destroyers of the class Ilin, 3 Izyaslav and 3 kerch (out of 40 units built) were accepted in service. Similarly, 24 submersibles of the Bars class, and 17 of the AG class. (Units B, G, V and Z were planned for construction under the 1916 program and canceled). Finally, 2 Kopchik class guards, 5 Golub, 4 Filin, Voin mining anchor, 8 Demosfen class nets, 2 Berezina class, 4 Gruz minesweepers, 4 Patron, 3 Zashchnitnik, Many saw little service in the imperial fleet, captured by the whites or the reds.

Then, the numerous light vessels were built locally or ordered abroad: These are the 10 armored boats of Nikolson type, 12 SKA, 18 SK (of US origin), 18 MN (idem), 31 boats of the type N ° 511 (idem), 12 class BK, but also 10 mechanical class Tepolokhod, 18 class MT, 35 type A, 10 flotation gunboats Pulya class, 9 other armored model 1916 of 24 tons and 28 of 15 tons, But especially 80 armored gunboats built in the USA and issued in 1917. Finally, 7 Barsuk-type escorts. It should be noted that many civilian ships were used as auxiliary escort: 67 light vessels distributed between the Baltic, the Black Sea, the Arctic and the Caspian.

Krasnaya Abkhaziya 1920
"ELPIDIFOR" type multipurpose ships (1918-1924)

Russia was one of the first countries to set up an amphibious naval force, with the construction of the 30 Elpidifor class vessels and above all the 50 Russcl class ships. Finally, cargo ships and other civilian ships were converted into a seaplane carrier: Orlitsa (1915), Imperator (Alexander I, Nikolai II converted in 1916), Regele Carol I (1916), and the three Rumania (1916). Moreover, the battleship Poltava captured by the Japanese at the end of the war of 1905 was returned to Russia in 1916, taking the name of Chesma and being stationed in Vladivistok. This was also the case with the Peresviet and Variag cruisers. Then, the Turkish cruiser Medjidieh, which jumped on mines, was bailed out by the Russians and renamed Prut. Finally, a large number of small civilian ships (coasters, trawlers, tugboats) were converted into minelayers or auxiliary ASW nets (15 for the Baltic, 16 for the Black Sea, 3 for the Pacific), and minesweepers (42 for the Baltic, 66 for the Black Sea, 46 for the North Sea).
Russia ww1 Russkiya Flota
Battleships:
  • Petr Veliki
  • Sinop class
  • Imperator Alexander II
  • Tri Svititelia
  • Rostislav
  • Pantelimon
  • Tsesarevitch
  • Slava
  • Slatoust class
  • Imperator Pavel I class
  • (wartime) Gangut class dreadnoughts
  • (wartime) Imperatritsa Mariya class dreadnoughts
  • (wartime) Borodino class battlecruisers
Cruisers:
  • Minin
  • General Admiral class
  • Pamiat Azova
  • Rossia class
  • Bayan class
  • Rurik
  • Pallada class
  • Askold
  • Bogatyr class
  • Almaz
  • Jemtchug
Destroyers
  • Puilki class
  • Beztrashni class
  • Boiki class
  • Vnimatelni class
  • Grozni class
  • Zadorni class
  • Tvedri class
  • Lovki class
  • Bditelni class
  • Storozhevoi class
  • Ukrainia class
  • Bukharski class
  • Gaidamak class
  • Kondratenko class
  • Shestakov class
  • (wartime) Ilin class
  • (wartime) Izyaslav class
  • (wartime) Kerch class
  • (wartime) Bezpokoiny
Submersibles:
  • Delfin
  • Kazatka class
  • Beluga class
  • Karp class
  • Kaiman class
  • Minoga
  • Akula
  • Crab
  • Pochtovy
  • Holland type
  • Narval class
  • (wartime) Bars class
  • (wartime) AG class
Miscellaneous types:
  • Anapa class TBs
  • 214 class TBs
  • Polangen class TBs
  • 212 class TBs
  • Misc. TBs
  • Gilyak class gunboats
  • Mandzhur, Grozyashchi, Khrabi, Khivinetz,
  • Kubanetz class gunboats
  • Ardagan class gunboats
  • Shkval class gunboats
  • Kalmyk class gunboats
  • Buryat class gunboats
  • Amur class minelayers
  • Volga class minelayers
  • Bug class minelayers
  • Albatros class minesweepers
  • (wartime) Kopchik, Golub, Filin class coastguards
  • (wartime) Voin class minelayers
  • (wartime) Demosfen, Berezina, Indigirka class netlayers
  • (wartime) Fugas, Gruz, Patron, Zashchitnik, T class minelayers
  • (wartime) Floatplanes tenders
  • (wartime) Volkhov
  • (wartime) Auxiliary cruisers
  • (wartime) Elpidifor, Russud class assault ships
  • (wartime) Nikolson class MBTs
  • (wartime) SKA, SK, MN, 511, BK class PTs
  • (wartime) Teplokhod, MT, A10 class minelayer MBTs
  • (wartime) Pulya, N, 1916 class River PTs

Sources/Read More

allworldwars.com/Navy-Paintings-by-Artist-Vladimir-Emyshev.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_destroyers_of_the_Imperial_Russian_Navy
Conways all the world's fighting ships 1860-1906 and 1906-1921
https://naval-encyclopedia.com/FR/1ere-guerre-mondiale/marine-russe1914.php#crois

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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