HMS Canada (1913)

HMS Canada (ex-Almirante Latorre) 1914

The Chilean take on the south American Naval arms race

Almirante Latorre

HMS Canada was a unique battleship in the Royal Navy, and just like the HMS Agincourt and Erin, one of those ordered abroad and requisitioned while on completion when the war broke out in August 1914. Explaining while she was a Chilean order, is to describe the naval arms race started by the Brazilians with the Minas Gerais, answered by Argentina with the Rivadavia but Chile, out of cashed, delayed their order. The closed ties bewteen the Chilean and British Royal Navy ensured they eventually ordered in 1911 two "super-dreadnoughts" in theory head and shoulders above those aforementioned. Eventually, while the international situation degraded following in particular the Balkans war that year, Almirante Latorre was launched in November 27, 1913, while her sister ship Cochrane was nowhere near that stage. By that time the new fast battleships of the Queen Elisabeth had the utmost priority, and her keel only had been laid down in February 1913.

brasseys canada

In August 1914, Churchill, then first lord of the admiralty ordered all ships in construction for export to be suspended or requisitioned according to the degree of their construction. The British Government requisitioned the Sultan Osman (Agincourt), pushing the Turkish Government into the arms of the triple entente, but took better care with Chile. The British government indeed needed badly sulfur and nitrates used in shells charges manufacturing and in general vital to its war industries. Churchill contacted the Chilean embassy and struck an agreement to complete the battleship at British expense, "loan" it for the duration of the conflict and return it to its original owners afterwards. It was formalized on 9 September 1914.

It took however one more year for HMS Canada to be completed, its crew trained, and be commissioned. She went to the 4th Wing of the Grand Fleet in Scapa flow, and spent a year between routine exercises at sea and sweeps to try to lure out the Hochseeflotte out at sea. She fought at Jutland and returned to her routine service until the end of the war, with an assignment until 1919 to the 1st squadron, a sweep in dry dock to clean her up and some modernisation, before official transfer in April 1920 to Chile. Almirante Latorre would remain active until 1959, far longer than other requisitioned ships such as Erin and Agincourt.

Genesis: The Latorre class

We will not dwelve in detail into this part, since it has been covered already in detail for the Latorre. It was originall ordered in the context of the second naval race, this time between Chile and Argentina over territorial disputes about Patagonia and Puna de Atacama and the Beagle Channel. The last 1902 race was settled by a British mediation. But Brazil, left out of it until the HMS Dreadnought was commissioned, in early 1907 changed its order for three pre-dreadnoughts for three dreadnoughts. The Minas Geraes class caused sensation at the time, not least for Argentina and Chile which were found in clear inferiority. Debates raged in Argentina about countering this but disputes on the River Plate decided the order of the Rivadavia-class, built by US Yard Fore River Shipbuilding. Chile asked for tenders in turn, both from the US and Europe, and the commission worked on a design that would outclass both.


HMS Canada in full regalia during a review in Scapa Flow, 1915 or 1916

On 6 July 1910, the National Congress of Chile allocated by law 400,000 pounds sterling each year necessary to purchase and maintain two 28,000 ton battleships. The admiralty and parliament agreed on their name quickly; They would be the Almirante Latorre and Almirante Cochrane. But the naval bill also consisted in an order for six destroyers and two submarines. Armstrong Whitworth submitted its proposal, based on the King George V, which was accepted, and awarded on 25 July 1911. Almirante Latorre was the first ordered, on 2 November 1911. It was laid down on 27 November. Armstrong Yard's visitors at the time were invited to see the start of the largest battleship ever built in UK at the time. The New York Tribune reported a purchase attempt by Greece on 2 November 1913 during the war scare with the Ottoman Empire. Chile in between had financial difficuties and some thought of the sell, but the Government eventually vetoes this and the purchase negotiations ended. Almirante Latorre was eventually launched on 27 November 1913. The elaborate ceremony attending comprised numerous dignitaries, including Chile's ambassador, Agustín Edwards Mac Clure. Latorre was christened by his wife, Olga Budge de Edwards. She was quite a fantastic sight, larger than other British dreadnoughts of the time, Minas Gerais or even Rivadvia for that matter. Their artillery was above average (still not equivalent to the future 15-in manufactured by Great Britain) and they were fast on paper, reaching and estimated 22.5 to 23 knots in trials. Protection was not outstanding though, but well thought out.

From Latorre to Canada

In August 1914, there were discussions about the purchase or requisition of the Almirante Latorre. While Erin (Reşad V or 'Reşadiye') and Agincourt (Sutlan Osman I) both had been forcibly requisitioned, jeopardizing relations with the Ottoman Empire, Churchill took extra care to spare the same humiliation to the Chileans. For one, due to the traditional links between the Royal Navy and Chilean Navy, and because UK depended heavily on some exports of Chile vital for its war industry. Behind this was even the whole Allies' reliance on Chilean Sodium nitrate for munitions, so that was a crucial case. In the end, the status of "friendly neutral" allowed to propose a Gentleman agreement of completing the ship's to the government expense in exchange for its use during the war. It was not a loan though, the ship was formally purchased by the United Kingdom on 9 September 1914 and renamed HMS Canada. The long delay before its commission was due to some factors, like for the Agincourt and Erin: She was slightly modified for British service: The original enclosed bridge was removed and two open platforms built instead. A mast was also added in between the two funnels, supporting a derrick to service launches. Also a new documentation was written and all instructions in Spanish throughout the ship removed and replaced. The fitting-out on was complete 20 September 1915, so one full year after her purchase, while crews had been constituted and trained. HMS Canada was officially commissioned on 15 October.

Design

HMS Canada displaced 28,600 long tons (29,059 t) loaded standard, and 32,120 long tons (32,635 t) fully loaded, so much more than the King Georges V they were inspired by (25,420 tons/28,000 tons). She measured 625 ft (191 m) overall by 92.5 ft (28.2 m) in beam and 33 ft (10 m) in draught, so much larger also (Ten meter longer, one beamier).

Powerplant

Since she was rather large, the room inside was use to use more boilers: four shafts, 21 Yarrow boilers, with low pressure Parsons turbines on the outer shafts and and High pressure Brown-Curtis steam turbines for the inner shafts, and a total output of 37,000 shp (27,591 kW). The boilers were all burning coal, but had fuel injectors. Top speed was 22.75 knots (42.13 km/h; 26.18 mph), so better again than the KGV (21 knots). Range was about 7,500 nm, versus 6,310 nmi for the KGV.

Armament

Main guns: 14-in/45 BL Mark 1

The main armament was copied on the KGV too, with five turrets, two superfiring pairs fore and aft and one amidship. But as the latter were 13.5 inches (343 mm) and it looked a bit too weak compared to the 12-in armed Minas Gerais ad Rivadvia which had two more guns (12). Instead, the yard proposed the Chileans to simply enlarged the standard 13.4 in bore, producing barrels reaching a caliber of 14-inches (356 mm). The shell was much heavier and harder-hitting than 12-in shells as a consequence, with larger range as well. Latorre as approved, ended armed with ten of such guns, the largest in inventory worldwide at the time. These were 45 caliber guns specially crafted for Chile as the admiralty preferred more standardized models, the 13.5 and the 15 in. If never ceded to Chile after the war, this oddball battleship would probably had a limited service like the Agincourt or Erin, expiring in 1922.

This 14-in Mark I designed by Elswick was of a classic wire-wound construction with a three-motion short-arm breech mechanism. Fourteen were manufactured plus four spares but only ten were used, the rest being scrapped after the war in 1922 as the second ship ended transformed as a CV, for which ten additional were ordered, but three were requisitioned and ended on railway mountings. The muzzle velocity and shell weight were essentially the same as for the Mark VII used by the second King George V class of 1940.

The total gun weight, with mount, was 84.75 tons (86.11 mt) and the barrel measured 648.4 in (16.469 m) for a bore Length of 630 in (16.002 m), a rifling Length of 529.8 in (13.457 m), 84 grooves 0.12 in deep x 0.394 in (3.05 mm x 8.86 mm) and an uniform twist RH 1 in 30. The chamber Volume was 23,500 in3 (385.1 dm3). These 14-in had a rate of fire of circa 2 rounds per minute in optimal circumstances, same as the 13.5 in.

They could fire four types of shells: The common APC Mark Ia - 1,586 lbs. (719 kg), the Mark IIIa (Greenboy) 1,595 lbs. (723.5 kg), a CPC round 1,586 lbs. (719 kg) and the classic HE round, 1,586 lbs. (719 kg). It used a bagged 344 lbs. (156 kg) MD45 Propellant Charge. Muzzle Velocity was 2,500 fps (762 mps) and calculated barrel life around 350 rounds. 100 rounds were stored per gun, so 500 total split between HE and AP. The range was 19.55 degrees at 24,000 yards (21,950 m) and at 1,336 fps (407 mps) at a 30° angle. On a vertical plate, they penetrated 53.2 in (135.1 cm). They were still a very serious proposition in WW2.

Secondaries and lighter armament

Latorre/Canada also carried sixteen 6 in (152 mm) guns of the standard type, in casemates along the hull. Eight were in the forecastle behind a recess, three in the forward superstructure abaft the surperfiring B turret. The last two were in the aft island superstructure, behind the amidship turret. In addition, HMS Canada carried also two 3 in (76 mm) anti-aircraft guns installed on the front superstructure roof, and four 47 mm (1.9 in) guns used as saluting guns. Inside the hull were located four 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes in the broadside, individual and submerged.

Fire control systems

-1915: Two cam-type installed, tripod-mounted directors. In the armoured tower and light aloft tower and directing gun in "X" turret.
-1917: 6-in guns direction moved to the fore top, with combined range and deflection repeat receivers
-1918: Turret Elevation Receivers Mk.3 (15° elevation), Training Receivers of double dial type, Mk.12.
-1918: 6-in guns directed by two pedestal-mounted directors (February) port and starboard forward.
Elevation Receivers 6-in P.VII Type, with electrical tilt correctors Mk.22. 15° elevation. The Small Type Training Receivers Mk.18.
Torpedo Control installed and modified 1915: Plotting Instrument Mark II, in TCT.
-1917: Common Torpedo Control packages provided and Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T. and Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and receiver at the torpedo rangefinder T.C.T.
-Mid-1920, Renouf Torpedo Tactical Instrument Type B.
Transmitting Stations: Dreyer Table Mark IV* in 1915 and by 1916, range rate transmitter/receiver pair for the main armament.

Armour protection

The weakest point of the design, assuredly. To reach the desired speed, the armour plating was not on par with the artillery caliber, by quite a margin. The belt was protected by 9 in (230 mm) plating between barbettes, thinned down fore and aft. The main armoured deck was 1.5 in (38 mm) thick, Main gun barbette reached 10 in (254 mm) above the deck and 4 feets below, while the turret faces were also protected by 10 in (254 mm) plating, sides, and probably 8-in for the back and 6-in for the roof. The Conning tower had 11 in (280 mm) walls. This was less than the KGV class, which had a 12-in belt, 11-in turrets and CT, and up to 4 in for the armored deck. Despite of this, HMS Canada fare well and was not quite endangered at Jutand.
HMS Canada in 1916 or 1917
HMS Canada in 1916 or 1917 - Imperial War Museum src

The fate of Almirante Cochrane

The situation of Latorre's sister-ship, Cochrane, was more problematic as her completion was not possible on behalf of Chile in time. Too much work had to be done. And other priorities commanded a different course of action than for Latorre. Her construction was brought to full stop, and the government signified that any completion would be done after the war, which Chile understood. But plans changed in between, and with the need for large hulls for carriers, an agreement was struck with Chile, and the latter agreed to "redeem" the ship to allow the British admiralty to convert the unfinished hull into an aircraft carrier. And so she was launched in June 1918. Many of the design peculiarities of this conversion emerged in light of the difficulties encountered with the Furious. This time the admiralty wanted a fast flush-deck hull building with a large area, and this hull met such expectations, allowing a design to be formalized and approved in December 1918. of the course the war ended well before completion was done in April 1920. She was christened HMS Eagle and came to be the mainstay of British naval aviation while proving as disappointing as Hermes in operations during the war. See the career of HMS Eagle.

HMS Canada in action:

HMS Canada's first assignment was with the 4th Battle Squadron, Grand Fleet, in Scapa Flow. Her early service was largely uneventful between routine exercises and sorties in the north sea to try to lure out the Hochseeflotte in a decisive combat.

HMS Canada at Jutland: HMS Canada saw action at the Battle of Jutland, under orders of Captain William Nicholson. In total she fired 42 main guns rounds and 109 secondary guns rounds during it. She was not hit once, and sent two salvoes on SMS Wiesbaden, fired five more at an unknown target around 19:20 plus its 6-inch guns on German destroyers about that time.

From captain W. C. M. NICHOLSON journal, June 2, 1916:
On 31st May, 5.10 p.m., the Fleet was heading S.E. by S. in 5 columns to Starboard, and the signal was made for Light Cruisers to take up position. 6.10: signal to 3rd and 8th Flotillas was "Take up position for approach.", the battle line was formed at 6.15 S.E. by E. at 18 knots. HMS Canada started firing at 6.38 until .45, two salvoes on a cruiser which was badly battered, but stayed unidenfified due to the poor weather (it was the Wiesbaden) and also obscured by smoke splashes. At 7.15 she engaged destroyers and repelled them, the latter releasing a smoke screen.

At 7.20 she fired four salvoes at an unidentified battleship or battle-cruiser spotted at starboard beam, and probably of the "Kaiser" class (or Derfflinger). Engaged at 13,000 yards, after the fourth salvo she disappeared a probable smoke screen. At 7.25, signalled to turn 2 points away from enemy and second 2 points after 2 more minutes. At the same time, engaged destroyers attacking abaft starboard (6-inch again). Broadside divided between leading boat and right-hand boat. 7.30: Fired three main guns salvoes on leading attacking destroyer, abaft starboard beam. Third salvo hit. Vanished in smoke, believed sunk. Right-hand destroyer straddled by secondaries, sight lost. Fire ceased at 7.35 and 5 min. later, signal given: "Single Line ahead, course S.W." The Battle ended for HMS Canada. She had no damage or casualties to report so she was extremely lucky given the other losses of the day, Warspite almost sank, three battlecruisers lost.

Canada Jutland
HMS Canada, probably in 1917: Her turret tops were painted in dark grey. Later she would receive additional AA and a take-off platform on her 'X' turret (pinterest). Post-jutland service HMS Canada was transferred to the 1st Battle Squadron (12 June 1916) and the next years, in 1917–18, she received better rangefinders and range dials. Two aft 6-inch secondary guns were removed after blast damage received from the amidshsip 14-inch turret. In 1918 a flying-off platform was added atop the first, and later, aft superfiring turrets. HMS Canada joined the reserve fleet in March 1919.

Sunday_morning_inspection_on_HMS_Canada_Feb_1917
group photo of the crew in 1916 or 1917
Life on board: Sunday morning inspection in February 1917 (top), group photo of the crew aft in 1916 or 1917 (cc)


HMS Canada in 1918, note the aft platform with a recce sopwith Pup

Post-war transfer back to Chile
After the war ended Chile still needed modern ships to bolster its fleet and the United Kingdom by then offered its surplus warships. It even included her two remaining Invincible-class battlecruisers. In Chile discussions about acquiring the latter caused an uproar in the country. Inside the naval staff, a faction of young naval officers publicly denounced this move in press and instead promoted submarines and aircraft, arguing of their lower costs and performance demonstrated during WW1. While it happened, Brazil and Argentina wonder what to do next if Chile acquired these battlecruisers, possibly starting another naval arms race in 1919. These debates through press and the parliament ended with a compromise. In April 1920, Chile re-ordered the destroyers which were already purchased before the war (and requisitioned) but for a total cost for five ships which only a third of what Chile still had to pay, and same for Almirante Latorre, the ex-Canada which was going to return to its original owner, as agreed between the two governments in September 1914. She was formally handed over to the Chilean government on 27 November 1920 and departed Plymouth with two destroyers, Riveros and Almirante Uribe, under overall command of Admiral Luis Gomez Carreño. They arrived in Chile on 20 February 1921, welcomed by Chile's president, Arturo Alessandri. The battleship became the flagship of the Chilean Navy for the next 40 years.

Read More: Battleship Almirante Latorre



Almirante Latorre in 1938
Almirante Latorre in 1938

Links

The Canada on wikipedia
Canada on the Dreadnought Project
//www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_14-45_mk1.php
//www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205127844
//www.jutlandcrewlists.org/canada
//www.iwm.org.uk/search/global?query=hms+canada&pageSize=

A.Preston, Robert Gardiner, Randal Gray Conway's all the world fighting ships 1921-1947.
Burt, R. A. British Battleships of World War One. Naval Institute Press
Campbell, John. Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting. New York: Lyons Press, 1998. ISBN 1-55821-759-2. OCLC 41176817.
Garrett, James L. "The Beagle Channel Dispute: Confrontation and Negotiation in the Southern Cone". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 27
Gill, C.C. "Professional Notes". Proceedings 40: no. 1 (1914)
Kaldis, William Peter. "Background for Conflict: Greece, Turkey, and the Aegean Islands, 1912–1914". Journal of Modern History 51
Livermore, Seward W. "Battleship Diplomacy in South America: 1905–1925". Journal of Modern History 16
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History 1810–1987. Naval Institute Press
Somervell, Philip. "Naval Affairs in Chilean Politics, 1910–1932".
Whitley, M.J. Battleships of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia.
Worth, Richard. Fleets of World War II. Cambridge
US National Archives at College Park, Maryland, declass. files on armament control.


Author's profile of HMS Canada in 1914.

Canada specifications

Dimensions191 x 28,2 x 10 m
Displacement28,600 t, 32,120 T FL
Crew834
Propulsion4 shaft Parsons/Brown-Curtis turbines, 21 Yarrow boilers, 37,000 hp.
Speed22.7 knots (44 km/h)
Range 6,680 nautical miles (12,370 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h)
Armament10 x 356 (5x2), 16 x 152, 2 x 76 AA, 4 x 47, 4 x 457mm (Sub, sides) TTs.
ArmorBelt 230, citadel 115, Barbettes 230, turrets 250, CT 280, deck 100 mm.

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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