Kresta I class cruisers - Project 1134 Berkut (1964)

Admiral Zozulya, Vladivostok, Vitse-Admiral Drozd, Sevastopol.

Though considerably larger, more effective and reliable than the previous Kynda class, the Kresta I carried half the number of antiship missiles, with just a quarter in reserve. SS-N-12 Sandbox (P-500 Bazalt) protracted development meant they went into service with the obsolete SS-N-3 instead, but it self-defence armament was considerably increased as well C&C and communications facilities. Completed in 1967-69 they served until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1990-95. The class was known by NATO "Kresta I" but it is known in Russia as Proyekt 1134 Berkut (golden eagle) in the navy listing and Admiral Zozulia class cruisers in the general public.

The first versatile Soviet missile cruisers

Development (Proyekt 934)

Project 1134 was in fact the remnant of the large program of large anti-ship rocket cruiser (RKR), stopped when priorities went to ASW warfare. Still armed with large P-35 antiship missiles, they were reduced in numbers and the vessels became "BKP" (large ASW ships). The initial program called for a brigade of seven heavy AsuW ships armed with long range missiles and two brigades of the same number (so 14 in all) of short-range missiles cruisers. Both were designated as Proyekt 934 and Project 934A respectively. A few command ships (934K) were also planned, but Nikita Khrushchev then in charge rejected these flagship vessels, preferring to stick to the original number, originally to be a lead ship and three pairs of "regular" vessels.
Their proposed main battery was to be replacement for the SS-N-3, the new Ramjet Bazalt (SS-N-12), considered four time as effective at the time. However, their development took time, with many twists and turn, so that when the 934 design was ready, they were still far from being ready for service, leading to a redesign.


A Krest I cruiser shadowing USS John F. Kennedy in the Mediterranean sea, 1969

Evolution to Project 1134

Estimations led the admiralty to renounce implementing them and instead choosing a modified and smaller class with older missiles, the P35 Termit (SS-N-3). The program evolved into Project 1134 Berkut, with emphasis on self-defense, with two SAM launchers (instead of one) and ASW helicopters (not on the previous Kynda). With a much larger hull, 6,000 tonnes rather than 4,000, there was enough room to fit also more extensive C&C and communication facilities as well, quintuple torpedo tubes, but smaller 57 mm AA turrets (rather of the now obsolete 75 mm twins on Kynda) and two more RBU ASW launchers. Powerplant wise, this was the same essentially, and both ships had the same speed, but better range. Better even, the Kresta were far less top-heavy, better balanced, and in the end way better seaworthy ships, with good handling characteristics.

Design of the Kresta I

The general design first called an emphasis in size. The displacement was to be 2,000 tonnes heavier so 1/3, than the previous Kynda. Ths meant an overall length of 155 m instead of 141.7 m, and 17 m instead of 15.8 m, and relatively similar draught, 5.5 vs 5.3 m fully loaded. They displaced 6,000 tonnes standard (nominal) versus 4,400 tonnes, and 7,500 tonnes fully loaded (versus 5,600). The hull design was completely different also: The forecastle extended for much of the length, stopping just abaft the hangar doors, with a redesigned poop large enough to accomodate an helicopter spot. On the Kyndas, there was a massive superstructure to reload the missiles fore and aft, while no such system existed on the Kresta.

Project 1134's two twin launcher tubes were placed on either side of the bridge instead, with its wings above. The superstructure was much elongated, lower, and instead of two masts and two funnels a single "mack" combining a large funnel and electronics above was mated to the mainmast, supporting the largest aerials in a single block amidship.
The superstructures fore and aft were elongated to support the reload systems of both SA-N-1 twin arms missile systems. Their fire control radars were placed on raised platforms for and aft, one over the main bridge forward and one 10 m aft of the mack and mainmast. Both twin 57 mm AA turrets were located abaft the aft SAM control radar. The torpedo tubes were placed on deck, broadsides, in between the aft control radar and mack. The RBU launchers were of two types; the larger (RBU-6000) were placed traditionally at the prow with a wide arc of fire, the smaller (RBU-3000) either side of the hangar aft.

Top view of Vitze admiral Drozd, 1985
Top view of Vitze admiral Drozd, 1985

Powerplant

The Kresta I and Kynda shared the same powerplant: Two shafts steam turbines and four pressure boilers for a total of 95 to 100,000 shp (68,000–75,000 kW), which allowed for a nominal top speed of 34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph). The change was the better radius of action, 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) rather than only 7,000 nmi at 14.5 knots. No change was made even during reconstruction o the powerplant in their later years, just maintenance.

Armament

SS-N-3 Shaddock (P-5 "Pyatyorka")

The Kynda operated a previous generation of the same turbojet-powered cruise missile designed by the Chelomey design bureau. It was first experimented on modified Whiskey class submarines and later equipped the Juliet and Echo class SSGN. The Kresta had just four of these in non-reloading tubes.
Dimensions(C): 11.75 x 0.98m x 5 m
Weight: 5000 kg
Propulsion: Turbojet with launch rocket boosters
Top speed: Mach 0.9
Range: 750 km
Guidance: Inertial guidance, mid-course data link updates, terminal active radar homing.
Warhead: 1000 kg conventional/200-350 kt nuclear

SA-N-1 Goa (M1 Volna)

This ubiquitous system also called S-125 Neva/Pechora was largely exported. It was short-range, weighting 953 kg, 6.09 m long with the booster for a 37,5 cm diameter, 2.2 m winsgpan, and carried a frag-HE 60 kg warhread with proximity fuse. It was propelled by a solid propellant rocket motor and reached 35 kilometres (22 mi); Guidance used the RF CLOS system.

Twin 57 mm AK-725

The 57 mm (2.2 in) were 70 caliber twin turreted guns (denomination AK-725), it was an evolution of the ZIF-31 L/70 57mm (Type 66/76) cannon. The ZIF-31/71/75 mountings were much improved with the AK-725 which became a standard. Mzv: 3,346 fps (1,020 mps), RPM: up to 150. Max Ballistic Range: 9,210 yards (8,420 m)

Quintuple 533 mm TTs

Standard antiship torpedo tubes. Likely the 53-51 non-homing model: Weight 4,134 lbs. (1,875 kg) for 299 in (7.600 m) long, carrying a 661 lbs. (300 kg) warhead at a setting of 4,400 yards (4,000 m)/51 knots or 8,750 yards (8,000 m)/39 knots. It was powered by a Kerosene-air wet heater. It was replaced by the 53-56V from 1966. The latter could reach 14,200 yards (13,000 m) at 40 knots.

On board aviation


The greatest change was of course the presence of a permanent helicopter. The cramped Kynda was able to host an helicopter in her aft spot, but there was no protection nor facilities for it. On the Kresta class, this was now allowed. A single Ka-25 Hormone B helicopter was carried for three purposes:
-Main: Targeting the cruise missile and mid-course corrections (data link)
-Secondary: ASW patrol and strike
-Tertiary: SAR -Search & Rescue)

Electronics

NATO designations are within brackets.
Radars:
-MR-500 Kliver air search (Big Net)
-MR-302 Rubka (Head net C)
-Two MR-310 Angara (Head Light)
-Two Don-Kay and a Don-2 navigation/SS radar
Sonars:
-MG-312 Titan (Blue Nose)/MG-26
Fire control Radars:
-4R90 Yatagan (Muff Cob) (SA-N-1)
-MR-103 FCS (Bass tilt) (AK-725)
-Binom P35 Progress FCS
Others:
-Khrom-2M IFF (Side Globe)

Two views of the Admiral Zozulia in 1979
Two views of Amiral Zozulia in 1979


Author's old rendition of the Kresta I

Specifications Kresta I as completed

Displacement: 6,000 tons standard, 7,500 tons full load
Dimensions:159 x 17 x 6 m (522 x 56 x 20 ft)
Crew340-360
Propulsion4 shafts steam turbines, 4 boilers, 91-100,000 shp
Speed34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph)
Range12,100 nmi at 14 knots
Armament2x2 SS-N-3, 2x2 SA-N-1, 2x2 57mm, 2x5 533mm TTs
ElectronicsRadars MR-500, 502, 506, 103, FCR Yatagan, Binom P35, Khrom 2M, Sonar MG-26/312
AviationKamov Ka-25 "Hormone" helicopter




Drozd in 1985

Further development of the Kresta I class

Proyekt 934:

"armed with eight short range anti ship missiles (SS-N-9) otherwise similar to the ships built. This design evolved into Project 1134A, better known as the Kresta II class (NATO designation).

Project 934K:


Impression of the Project 934K

This was a larger Kresta cruiser (Kommandatur) modified with much more extensive command facilities and larger hangar accepting 4-5 helicopters. It was cancelled. Project 934K would have received an elongated hull and enlarged helicopter deck aft, larger hangar as well. The five helicopters were to provided data link between the missiles waves launched by the several cruisers it lead.

Footage of the Kresta I class

Career and modifications of the Kresta I

Front view of Murmansk in March 1970
Front view of Murmansk in March 1970

The initial plan was for a single squadron of seven ships armed with long range missiles and two squadrons of fourteen ships armed with shorter range missiles. In reality only four ships were built before production switched to the anti-submarine variant the Kresta II class. All the crusiers were built at the Zhdanov Shipyard in Leningrad: Admiral Zozulya was launched on 17 October 1965, Vladivostok on 1 August 1966, Vitse-Admiral Drozd on 18 November 1966, Sevastopol on 28 April 1967. They were commissioned in 1966-69, one year apart each.

Modernizations

In the early 1970s they received two twin P-35 SSM (4 4K44) missiles plus two twin launchers for the Progress SSM (4 4M44) missiles. Later, in the mid-1970s, they received the Don radar (2nd model). In 1974 Admiral Zozulia received a MR-212 Vaygach radar. In 1976, Vitse-admiral Drozd and in 1991 Admiral Zozulia received four extuple 30mm/54 AK-630 CIWS and two MR-123 Vympel-A radars.

Admiral Zozulya


Admiral Zozulya in the 1980s, credits http://www.ww2.dk

Built at A.A. Zhdanov yard (serial no. 791), she was laid down on 26.7.64, launched on 17.10.65 and on completed 8.10.67. Her sea trials started on 15.2.67. On 7.11.67 took part in the naval parade off the Neva estuary, 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. In Nov-Dec. 67 she cruised in the Baltic, from Baltiysk to Severomorsk. From 18.1.68 she was attached to the 120th Missile Ship Brigade. In the Summer 1968 she took part exercises "Sever-68" and "Arktika-68". In October, she made her first launch of the P-35 missile. The next year took part in the "Kolskiy Bereg" exercise.

From August to October, she took part in the endurance exercise "Zarya-2", from Severomorsk to Crete and back. Until July 1970 she was in operations in the Mediterranean, in support of Egypt. In April she took part in the "Okean-70" exercise in the Northeastern Atlantic, until July 1970 she was back in the Mediterranean again and in August 1970 return north, in the Barents and White Seas, launching her P-35 missile for tests. From November 1971 to June 1974 she was undergoing her major overhaul, repairs and modernization at the A.A. Zhdanov Yard in Leningrad.

The remainder of 1975 and 1975 were spent in post-refit trials and training of the crew. In December 1975 she was back in operations in the Mediterranean and Central Atlantic with "Admiral Isakov". In August 1975 she visited Annaba in Algeria and lost her Hormove helicopter in a crash on 11.9.75. Until November 1977 operations she operated in the Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean, alternating between the summer and winter. On 18.10.77 she visited Dubrovnik. By late 1977 she was reclassified as a Missile Cruiser (RKR) and in September 1978 she shadowed and tracked NATO exercise "Northern Wedding-78" together with Admiral Makarov and Smyshlenyy. From 31 march to 8 april 1984 she took part in the "Atlantika-84" exercise.

She underwent another long overhaul and modernization in drydock from 22.4.85 to 1992 at KMOLZ, Kronshtadt, by the 95th independent battalion. This saw the installation of four AK-630M 30mm CIWS guns and updated electronics and IFF. In 1986 she was officially transferred to the Baltic Fleet and by May 1992 she was attached to the 12th Missile Ship Division. Following a boiler accident, her powerplant was deactivated in the summer 95 and she remained in harbour, decommissioned in 24.9.94, and scrapped.

Vitse-Admiral Drozd


Drozd in 1986

Also from, A.A. Zhdanov (serial no. 793) laid down on 26.10.65, launched 18.11.66 and completed 27.12.68 in May 69 after sea trials and training, she was assigned to the 120th Missile Ship Brigade. Until 16 September 1969 she operated in the Northern Atlantic and in August took part in the "Kolskiy Bereg" exercise with Gremyashchiy and Smyshlennyy. In March-April 1970 she took part in the "Okean-70" exercise and until July 1970 operated in the Norwegian Sea, before a sweep in the Central Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. She visited Cienfuegos in Cuba (possibly Havana too) as the traditional reward for the crew after good service. In ealry 1971 Vitse-Admiral Drozd was in operations in the Northern Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and Mediterranean seas, making another Cuban stop but from 13 April 1971 she started to track a foreign submarine, northeast of Ireland with the destroyer Skromnyy. She also tracked the NATO task force off the Faroe Islands. later she took part in the exercise Orbita and by December was back to the Central Atlantic, until 1972.

In January, she veered south to visit Conakry in Guinea, passed the equator for the first time and took part in March in a large rescue operation for the missing "K-19" in the Bay of Biscay. In May she was visited by Soviet Navy commander Gorshkov. In Sept-October she operated in the Faroe Island and Iceland submarine barrier. From 1973 to February 1975 she underwent her first long overhaul, repairs and modernization in her former builder, A.A. Zhdanov Yard in Leningrad. In March 1975 she departed to Severomorsk to operate with Admiral Isachenkov and the destroyer Smyshlennyy. Until the summer 1976 she took part in several operations in the Central Atlantic and Mediterranean, always escorted with Smyshlennyy. In the black sea she took part in the "Krym-76" exercise and visited Annaba in Algeria twice in between. In October she shadowed and observed the NATO exercise "Strong Express".

By late 1977 she was reclassified as a Missile Cruiser but collided in June 1980 with the submarine K-508, slightly damaged on her keel, so she was repaired until 1984 repairs and modernized another time at KMOLZ in Kronshtadt, with the installation of four AK-630M 30mm CIWS. She was back in Severomorsk and in 1985 was in operations in the Mediterranean with Kiev, Sovremennyy and the destroyer Otlichnyy, Marshal Timoshenko and the Stroynyy. In May 1985 she visited Dubrovnik and until June 1986 was back in operations in the Mediterranean with the destroyers Otlichnyy and Smyshlennyy, and the cruiser Ognevoy. In April 1986 she visited Tripoli and Tobruk. Back to homeport she was immobilized in 1988 until decommission in July 1990, and sold for BU in 1992 to an Indian company but sank en route, in tow to India.

Vladivostok

Vladivostok in hawaiian waters, with the Foxtrot class submarine
Vladivostok in hawaiian waters, with the Foxtrot class submarine

Like her sister ship she was built in Zhdanov NyD (Leningrad) under the hull serial no. 792. She was laid down 24.12.64, launched 1.8.67 and completed 11.9.69. In August and until 1969 to February 1970 she made her training cruiser in the Baltic. She transited to Vladivostok via the Black Sea and Suez canal, escorted by the Strogiy ande landing ship BDK-66, making joined operations in the Indian Ocean on her way, and visited Lagos in Nigeria, Berbera, Mogadishu and Chisimayu, Aden, , being refuelled by the tanker "Egorlyk". From February 1970 she was attached to the 175th Missile Ship Brigade.

In October 1970 she made a missile firing exercise with the cruiser Varyag, oberved by the Strogiy. On 26 May 1970 she was visited by the Bulgarian General Secretary Zhivkov and at the end of this month, visited by a Polish delegation. In early August, she made other missile launches with the submarine K-23 notably to test the datalink. She also took part in an exercise with Admiral Fokin and the destroyer Strogiy, Odarennyy, Upornyy, Burlivyy and Bezboyaznennyy acting as the admiral and command ship, squadron leader. The mineweepers SKR-4, SKR-74, Sakhalinskiy Komsomolets, MT-59, MT-750 accompanied her until October 1971 for operations in the Central and Northwestern Pacific.

She was the center of another task force, with the destroyers Upornyy and Bezboyaznennyy, the submarines K-108, B-8 and B-135 and the landing ship Ivan Vakhrameev and tanker Zhitomir. This was a high mission profile, potentially hazardous as together they investigated USN training areas and tested US defences along the US west coast. Between December that year and March 1972 she was sent to the Indian Ocean as an observer during the Indian-Pakistan conflict, with the cruisers Dmitriy Pozharskiy and Varyag and the destroyers Strogiy and Veskiy. Their main task was to dissuade any intervention by the US and Royal Navies.

Vladivostok in Hawaiian waters, 1971
Vladivostok in Hawaiian waters, 1971

From there, she was assigned to the 201st Anti-Submarine Warfare Brigade, in Zolotaya Rog. in April she was anchored and open to the public in Vladivostok, until june, sailing with the minister of defence Grechko onboard, the Soviet Navy commander Gorshkov, and other high officials. Vitse-Admiral Drozd sailed from Vladivostok to Abraya Bay and back. In June 1973, while returning from a missile training mission, she collided with the science research ship Akademik Berg, sinking with 27 dead and leading to an investigation. She took part in the rescuing as well as the cruiser Vladivostok. By late 1977, she was reclassified as a Missile Cruiser (RKR) and until November 1977, her missile training has he moving in the Sea of Okhotsk.

By Aril 1978 she took part in an exercise with her escort the cruiser Marshal Voroshilov, Admiral Oktyabrskiy and the destroyers Sposobnyy and Razyashschiy. This was a high-profile parade and exercise observed by General Secretary Brezhnev and the Minister of Defence Ustinov, both from the bridge of the cruiser Admiral Senyavin. Until August 1979, she was operations in the Indian and visited Port Louis (Mauritius) with the minesweeper SKR-133 and the tanker Akhtuba. The squadron also stopped at Victoria (Seychelles), Maputo (Mozambique), Cam Ranh Bay (Vietnam), Dakhlak (Eritrea), and Aden in South Yemen twice. In Aprilto December 1980 she was back for exercises in the Indian Ocean, stopping in Mauritius, and later visited Beira (Mozambique), Cochin in India, and operated with the destroyer Odarennyy and tanker Pechenga from there.

In April 1984 she tracked the aicraft carrier USS Kittyhawk, directing the submarine K-314 to it for a mock attack. By 1987n she was seen in operations in the South China Sea. From September 1988 up to 23 April 1990 she was in drydock for overhaul and modernization at Dalzavod (Vladivostok). But the latter was only 90% completed when stopped due to the lack of funds following the collapse of the Soviet Union. She was by then attached to the 173rd Missile Ship Brigade. The overaul was never completed and she was decommissioned on 19 April 1990.

Sevastopol

An unidentified Kresta I cruiser off Naples
An unidentified Kresta I cruiser off Naples

The cruiser Sevastopol was from the same Zhdanov yard (hull serial no. 794), laid down in June 1966, launched in April 1967 and completed in September 1969. She was accepted into the Northern Fleet on the 21 October 1969, assigned to the 120th Missile Ship Brigade. In March-April 1970 she took part in the "Okean-70" exercise. From July to December she operated in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, escorted by the destroyer Smyshlennyy, two submarines and a tanker. The squadron successful tracked an unknwon SSBN of the George Washington class in the Mediterranean. In October-November, Sevastopol visited Havana in Cuba, as a reward to the crew.

In October 1972 and until April 1973 she was operating in the Atlantic, taking part in two anti-submarine exercises ("Duet" and "Ladoga"), Northeastern Atlantic, Norwegian Sea with Admiral Nakhimov and the destroyer Byvalyy. Until February 1973 she took part in a large ASW operation, temporarily based at Cienfuegos in Cuba. In April she visited Algiers and made later missile launches with the submarine K-128, using her helicopter and testing datalink between missiles. In May, she made a submarine hunt in the Northern Atlantic with Admiral Isakov and Admiral Makarov.

She was overhauled in drydock and modernized from December 1975 to March 1980 at SRZ-35 in Rosta. By late 1977 she was reclassified as a Missile Cruiser. From 19 October 1980 she was transferred to the Pacific Fleet, with the 175th Missile Ship Brigade. She sailed in July 1981 from Murmansk to Vladivostok along the northern arctic route. She stopped at Provideniya Bay and Petropavlovsk in the Kamchatka peninsula. In 1981 she mostly operated in the Indian Ocean, visiting Victoria in the Seychelles and Bombay. Until June 1983 she was repaired at Dalzavod in Vladivostok.

In October she made a sortie to search for the remnants of the downed Korean Airlines Boeing 747 together with Petropavlovsk, amidst international uproar and tensions. In July 1984 she was attached to the 173rd Missile Ship Brigade (Kamchatka Flotilla), after another overhaul and maintenance in January 86 at Dalzavod in Vladivostok. Until 1989 she experiences numerous preobles shortening her career, being under repairs three times at the SRZ-49 yard in Vilyuchinsk. In 1988 heavy ice damaged her hull eneough that she was decommissioned on 15 December 1989 decomissioned. A fire broke out in mid-1990 while she was mothballed. She was sold to an Indian company for scrapping and towed there in 1991.

Read more

Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kresta_I-class_cruiser
https://www.navypedia.org/ships/russia/ru_cr_admiral_zozulia.htm
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/ss-n-3-specs.htm
http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Sov-ASuW.html
https://fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/theater/ss-n-3.htm
https://fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/airdef/s-125.htm
http://ship.bsu.by/ship/100600
http://www.ww2.dk/new/navy/kresta-1.htm
https://www.navypedia.org/ships/russia/ru_cr_admiral_zozulia.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20050117235507/http://missilethreat.com/systems/s-125.html

Naval History

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Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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