Northrop BT (1935)

USN aviation USN Dive Bomber - 1935-42

Rough draft for the Dauntless

Northrop is rarely associated with US Naval aviation, albeit being one of the most famous and innovative aviation company in history. Innovation was its trademark, and its contribution to the Navy during WW2 has been tremendous for a single reason. In 1933, Jack Northrop's firm was a small subsidiary of Douglas aircraft corp with just a few prototypes and civilian planes to its credit. Its first solid contract for the Navy was indeed in 1935 the BT, a dive bomber characterized by... perforated air brakes. With them, controlled dive and accurate bombing was possible. Despite a small production (only 55), the Northrop BT was the direct inspiration by its mother company -Douglas- to develop the mass-produced SBD Dauntless that turned the tables at Midway and altered the course of the war in the pacific...


U.S. Navy dive bombers of NAS Miami, Florida n flight, October 1941.[/caption]

About Northrop

Jack Northrop's first company was called Avion Corporation in 1928. It was absorbed in 1929 by the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, as a subsidiary and renamed "Northrop Aircraft Corporation". It moved first to to Kansas in 1931, and later Jack and Donald Douglas created "Northrop Corporation" in El Segundo, California. With a blessed weather, the company soon launched a serie of innovative single-engine passenger planes, the Alpha, Beta and Gamma. Labor difficulties led to its dissolution by Douglas in 1937 and it became as simple division Douglas Aircraft.

Northrop_2B_Gamma_Polar_Star
Northrop 2B Gamma Polar Star

In between, Northrop started to compete in Army Air Force and Navy programs. Its first attempt was the Northrop YA-13, a prototype of attack aircraft derived from the Gamma, evaluated but rejected by the USAAF. Improved, it became the Northrop A-17, which this time met success from 1934 (first flight), with 411 produced, in large part for export. Douglas liked the design, which became its A-33. Later in 1940, it led to a short production of its only floatplane, the Northrop N-3PB. In parallel, the company competed for the Navy contract which searched for a modern monoplane dive bomber.

Development of the BT

XBT-1 in flight, 1935
Initial XBT-1 in test flight, 1935

At the end of 1934, the Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) of the US Navy, published a specification for a design called “scout bombers”. Its abbreviation was SB, and another torpedo bomber at the same time, monoplanes or biplanes as the Navy was not completely decided yet. Eight companies competed. A total of ten projects were examined divided equally between monoplanes and biplanes. Northrop answered with its XSB prototype, powered by a 14-cylinder Pratt & Whitney XR-1535-66 700 hp (520 kW). It was a double star engine. The prototype also had retractable landing gear, rearward in large prominent fairings under the wings. But as the model was supposed to dive bombing, Northrop engineers came up with an ace of their sleeves: Tad two-piece perforated flaps (opening up and down) better known as "nose-down brakes". These perforated flaps were invented to eliminate unstable oscillations (“buffeting”) of tail during these nose-down maneuvers. This really was a breakthrough as its ensured the best accuracy possible. The plane did not became erratic at the most critical moment. The Navy was much impressed, but found the bird underpowered.

Northrop XBT-1, December 1936
Northrop XBT-1, December 1936

Northrop therefore developed their next version called the XBT-1. It was fitted with a 750 hp (560 kW) R-1535 Pratt & Whitney double star engine. Again, it was tested and proved superior in many areas so the Navy was content with a few production and service modifications proper to navy use. Thanks to the new engine, the XBT had a reserve of power allowing some extra load. However in 1935-36, both a protective armor for the pilot's neck or self-obturating tanks were not asked for. In 1936 the XBT-1 was inspected a last time with the modification asked by the Navy and received the greenlight for production once procured the new Pratt & Whitney engine R-1535-94. It was capable of delivering 825 hp (615 kW). The other last requirement was a new tail wheel.

Meantime, Northrop tested a BT-1 modified with a fixed tricycle landing gear. It was tested by the navy and made the first tricycle landing on an aircraft carrier ever. however it was not accepted. By September 1936 at last, the pre-production BT-1 was inspected and followed by an order for 54 BT-1s. Despite its innovations and better engine, the BT-1 proved however disappointing in operations. The Navy nevertheless had supporters for Northrop's design and ordered modifications which ended with XBT-25.

From the BT-1 to the Dauntless


Comparison between the XBT-1 and XBT-2

The XBT-25 was a modified BT-14 in 1937, and the 54th modified production BT-1. It incorporated a new landing gear, which retracted laterally inside wings recesses, a far more conventional solution. The elimination of the massive fairings supposed to improved a lot the aircraft's flight characteristics, speed and handling. But Northrop went further and gave it fixed-slot leading edge slats, a redesigned canopy (with straight framing, no longer oblique) and above all the 800 hp (600 kW) Wright XR-1820-32 star engine. It was renamed XBT-2, and the prototype first flew on April 25, 1938. Still, it had bad flight characteristics, beyond what was expected. Alas, the Navy ordered the XBT-2 to be tested at NACA's Langley Research Center in Virginia. A series of wind tunnel tests were performed, at the conclusion of which, it was sent back to Northrop with a set of recommendation, leading to a complete overhaul of the design.

NACA's tests of the XBT-2
NACA's tests of the XBT-2

In late 1938, the modified XBT-2 went through a new serie of company tests, and Navy tests, which were successful. The Navy placed a new order, this time for 144 BT-2s, now far away from the BT-15. In 1939 since Northrop was integrated into Douglas, the BT-2 became under the new navy nomenclature "Douglas SBD-1", while a host of modifications during production generated for the next batch of 87 aircraft, the SBD-2. Jack Northrop left his company and created a new one under his name, "Northrop Aircraft", while the facility responsible of the SBD was now simply called the El Segundo division of Douglas, in California. The name "Dauntless" was not official. Like many other names it was chosen after a vote in the Navy during the war as a better way to identify these, rather than more obscure acronym.

Design

The BT-1 looked modern in 1935, with its cantilever wing (not foldable), nice lines and dynamic windshield cockpit design. The very large, prominent wheeltrain fairings looked odd however, and that solution was never repeated. It had a crew of two, the pilot and gunner at the rear. The fuseage measured 31 ft 8 in (9.65 m) for a wingspan of 41 ft 6 in (12.65 m), a total height on the tarmac of 9 ft 11 in (3.02 m) and a total wing area of 319 sq ft (29.6 m2).

Its Empty weight was 4,606 lb (2,094 kg), and Maximal takeoff weight 7,197 lb (3,271 kg).
The BT-1 (production version), relied on the Pratt & Whitney R-1535-94 Twin Wasp Junior, double row (radial) and air-cooled. It developed 825 hp (615 kW), which at the time was respectable, but by 1942 standard, it was underpowered. Its Performances reflected this, with a top speed of 193 knots (as referred in the Navy) or 222 mph, 357 km/h, at 9,500 ft (2,900 m). Its cruise speed was 167 knots (192 mph, 309 km/h). Its range was rounded at 1,000 nmi (1,150 mi, 1,852 km) at this cruise speed of 300 kph. Its service ceiling was 25,300 ft (7,710 m), but reached with an anemic rate of climb of 1,270 ft/min (6.5 m/s).

Its armament comprised a single .50 in (12.7 mm) Browning M2HB heavy machine gun mounted in the nose, left side, and a single .30 in (7.62 mm) browning M1919A4 machine gun mounted on a railing aft of the cockpit for the gunner. It was folded down during flight and retracted to point the gun outwards as the aft glass tail was folded up and backwards. As a dive bomber, the BT-1 carried a 1,000 lb (454 kg) bomb under the fuselage's belly, mated on a launching fork, allowing it to clear the propeller. The BT-1 was seen also with standard underwing rack, probably for two 116 lb (52.6 kg) Mk IV bombs (one under each wing).

Variants

BT1S: After the XBT-1 and the 54 production BT-1s, the company tested the BT-1S. It was BuNo 0643 fitted with a fixed tricycle undercarriage. Unfortunately the prototype was badly damaged in a crash, on 6 February 1939, putting an end to the experimentation. It was returned to Douglas, repaired and converted to a standard BT-1.


BT-1S showing its tricycle undercarriage

XBT-2: This was a BT-1 receiving a fully retractable landing gear to reduced drag, followed by many other modifications. The landing gear folded laterally into recessed wheel wells. In addition, it had leading edge slots and a redesigned canopy. The biggest change was its better engine, the 800 hp (600 kW; 810 PS) Wright XR-1820-32 radial. This XBT-2 first flew on 25 April 1938. Testings were so successful that the Navy placed an order for 144 aircraft. But by that time, in 1937, Douglas had taken over northrop, which became its local division in California, not because Douglas had a greater manufacturing capacity. These were produced at Northrop, which plant underwent a radical upsizing. In 1939 indeed, its designation was changed to SBD-1, while the second half of the batch, 87 planes, were modified and completed as the SBD-2. But until the, what became the famous Dauntless was known as the Northrop BT-2.

The Japanese BT1: Last derivative, the Douglas DB-19 was former BuNo 0643 BT-1S that we saw above, which was modified as the DB-19. It was tested by... the Imperial Japanese Navy under the name of DXD1 (a designation meaning "Douglas Navy Experimental Type D Attack Aircraft"). No doubt it was fruitful for Japanese engineers at the time.

Operational History

Northrop_BT-1s_of_VB-5_lined_up
Northrop BT-1s of VB-5 lined up in 1939

The U.S. Navy 54 BT-1s entered service during 1938. They served on USS Yorktown and Enterprise. They were not popular, having poor handling characteristics notably at low speeds, making them unsuitable to land on an aircraft carrier. In flight also, it was also prone to unexpected rolls and a number of these crashed during regular flights, when pilots tried their luck in hazardous manoeuvers. The Vindicator was preferred, and from late 1940 it was phased out to the new SBD-1 and SBD-2, lightyears above in any directions. Despite being retired from frontline units, the Northrop BT-1s went to serve with the USMC and the remainder in various coastal Naval Air Bases. Among the last in service were planes from NAS Pensacola in 1942. The same year they were declared "limited standard" and retired due to the lack of spare parts until 1943. BT-1s nevertheless took part in their prewar livery in the Technicolor "Dive Bomber" (1941) starring Errol Flynn, together with Vindicators, Helldivers (biplanes) and Devastators.



Specifications BT-1

Dimensions*: 9.65 x 12.65 x 3.02m (32 x 41 x 9 ft)
Weight (Light): 2,094 kgs (4,606 lb)
Weight (Max take-off):3,271 kg (7,197 lb)
Propulsion: Pratt & Whitney R-1535-94 Twin Wasp Jr
Performances: 825 hp (615 kW), 357 km/h (222 mph)
Range: 1,000 nmi (1,150 mi, 1,852 km)
Armament - MGs: 1x 0.5 in, 1x 0.3 in
Armament - Bombs: 1,000 lb (454 kg) under fuselage, 2x 116 lb (52.6 kgs) under wings
*Length, Wingspan, Height

Read More/Src

//www.warbirdsresourcegroup.org/NARG/northropbt.html
//www.histomin.com/Aviation/Classic%20Aircraft%20Between%20the%20Wars/Northrop%20BT-1/gpclassics%20Northrop%20BT-1%20Bomber.htm
//www.aviastar.org/air/usa/northrop_bt.php
//www.flickr.com/photos/dougsheley/3627439969
//www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_BT-1.html
//www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WEfg9q-TYY
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_BT
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_Corporation
//www.airvectors.net/avsbd.html
Model kits: //www.scalemates.com/search.php?fkSECTION%5B%5D=All&q=northrop+BT*
Northrop BT-1, Phil H. Listemann 2008, Philedition
Bowers, Peter M. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1990
Brazelton, David. The Douglas SBD Dauntless, Aircraft in Profile 196. Leatherhead, Surrey Profile Publications Ltd., 1967
Drendel, Lou. U.S. Navy Carrier Bombers of World War II. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1987
Gunston, Bill. The Illustrated History of McDonnell Douglas Aircraft: From Cloudster to Boeing. London: Osprey Publishing, 1999.
Kinzey, Bert. SBD Dauntless in Detail & Scale, D&S Vol.48. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1996.
Listemann, Phil. Northrop BT-1 (Allied Wings No.3). France: www.raf-in-combat.com, 2008.
Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam, Second edition, 1976.

Illustrations:

BT-1 if VB-6 (USS Enterprise), 1938
BT-1 if VB-6 (USS Enterprise), 1938

BT-1 of VB-5 (USS Yorktown), 1938
BT-1 of VB-5 (USS Yorktown), 1938

BT-1 VB-6, CV6 (USS Enterprise) 1939
BT-1 VB-6, CV6 (USS Enterprise) 1939

BT-1, NAS Miami, in 1941
BT-1, NAS Miami, in 1941

BT-1 from VN-5, NAS Pensacola, 1942
BT-1 from VN-5, NAS Pensacola, 1942

Photos:








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Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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