Cold War USN Missile Cruisers

US Navy Flag 41 missile cruisers 1955-1964

USN Missile cruisers developed in the 1950s testing brand new weapons systems on existing hulls. The Boston, Cleveland and Albany classes are forgotten today, but these eleven missile cruisers formed the base of a lineage that is still going on today. Howeve the most impressive of that era looked as a little sister of USS Enterprise: USS Long beach was the world's first nuclear powered missile cruiser. This single, but impressive vessel launched in 1959, was followed by series of conventionally powered (missile) cruisers -The Leahy and Belknap- and the semi-experimental Bainbridge and Truxtun, followed by two short series of nuclear cruisers, the California and Virginia.

USS Port Royal, the last USN missile cruiser, here in the south China sea, 2017

The last of the latter class was completed just when a derivative of the prolific Spruance class DDs appeared, classed as cruisers given their capabilities: The Ticonderoga. The last one, USS Port Royal was commissioned in 1994, four years after the end of the cold war. After that, nothing imposed the construction of such vessels and as of today in 2020, no cruiser is planned or projected. The capabilities of the Arleigh Burke class destroyers and more importantly of the three revolutionary Zumwalt class, only delayed (after the program was cancelled) the retirement of the cruisers they were supposed to replace. As of today, the last of the nuclear-powered cruisers were retired in 1999 and 1998, and part of the "Ticon" remains, while the future CG(X) is still a long way away.

Part I: The last conventional cruisers (1948)

When WW2 ended, there were still many USN cruisers in construction, which were completed postwar. Indeed, by September 1945, the Fargo class light cruisers (Cleveland) were not completed (between December 1945 and October 1946 while ten more were cancelled), and for heavy cruisers, the four Oregon City (Boston class) and USS Toledo were completed in 1946 (USS Northampton was even completed in 1953). More interesting were the next generation of conventional cruisers, the Worcester class light cruisers and Des Moines class heavy cruisers. The first three Worcester inaugurated a battery of six twin turret fully automated for D.P. 6"/47cal guns for an amazing rpm (see later) while the Des Moines were a logical evolution of the Boston wartime class, integrating all the lessons of the war and recognized as the last of the USN all-big guns heavy cruisers with a displacement twice as heavy as interwar Washington cruisers.

Worcester class (1948)

Worcester 1953

The Worcester class were the last light conventional cruisers. "Light" was only because their main artillery caliber, 6 inches, rather their tonnage, 17,997 long-tons fully loaded, three times the displacement of most 1930s cruisers. Peacetime limitations away, engineers could freely propose a ship marrying firepower with speed and protection in a satisfying package. The Worcester class comprised the lead ship CL-144 built in New York Shipbuilding Corp. (Camden) New Jersey, and she was started on 29 January 1945 as war was still raging. She was delayed in September as the war ended, and launched only on 4 February 1947, completed on 26 June 1948 after revisions. She would serve until 1972 (future standalone post).

USS Roanoke was her unique sister-ship (CL-145), laid down in May 1945, launched on 16 June 1947 and completed 4 April 1949.
USS Vallejo (CL-146) was to be the third of the class, laid down on 16 July 1945 but cancelled 8 December 1945 and scrapped, while the last of the class USS Gary was cancelled even being laid down. At no point it was envisioned to convert them as missile cruisers after their decommission in 1958, merely a ten year career, and they did not served in the Korean war. They stayed until 1970 into the reserve.

USS Worcester testing her anti-nuclear washdown system, 7 July 1954.

Des Moines class

The last heavy cruiser class in service with the USN, the trio comprised USS Des Moines (CA-134), built in Bethlehem Steel Corporation (Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Mass. laid down on 28 May 1945, launched on 27 September 1946 and completed on 16 November 1948 but decomm. 6 July 1961, but not stricken before 9 July 1991 (scrapped 2007), USS Salem (CA-139) launched 25 March 1947, comp. 14 May 1949 and decomm. 30 January 1959, since 1991 a museum ship at Quincy, Massachusetts, and USS Newport News (CA-148) from the same name shipyard of Virginia, launched 6 March 1948, comp. January 1949, decomm. in June 1975, struck July 1978, but sold for BU in 1993. USS Dallas (CA-141) and the unnamed CA-141, CA-142, CA-143, CA-149, CA-150, CA-151, CA-152 and CA-153 were all cancelled in 1945-46, as surplus.

These very large conventional heavy cruisers were the very last of "all-gun" but smaller than the "large cruisers" of the 30,000 long tons Alaska-class. They represented the pinnacle of the genre, reaching 20,933 long tons (21,269 t) fully loaded and able to reach 33 knots on 120,000 shp (89,000 kW). Contrary to the Alaska they stuck to their 8-in battery, in the classic arrangement of three triple turrets, unchanged since the Northampton class was designed in 1925. However these turrets housed the very best in gunnery at that time. They were the same 8"/55 caliber naval guns which equipped basically all previous cruisers since the Mark IX of the Pensacola, but this was the Mk 16 models, the last ones, housed in three 450-ton turrets, and were the first with auto-loading ever fielded by the US Navy. It allowed an unprecedented rate of fire (eight rpm per barrel) twice what Baltimore class vessels could for example. This auto-loading system also worked at any elevation, and so they could be deployed in the anti-aircraft role as well. The secondary battery of twin 5"/38 Mk12 DP guns was unchanged but this class also carried 12 twin 3-inch/50 Mk33 guns, considered superior to the classic quad 40mm Bofors, better suited for jets.

The Missile conversion project of Des Moines
This package explained why they became the only heavy USN conventional cruisers deployed for the next decades, whereas the Baltimore class vessels were discarded. They remained in commission until 1975 and fought in both the Korean and Vietnam wars. Of course, there has been consideration to convert them as missile cruisers hybrids: After decommission in 1961, Des Moines was mothballed in the South Boston Naval Annex, transferred to the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility at Philadelphia, in maintained reserve. In 1981 the Congress directed a Navy survey to determine a reactivation in lieu place of reactivating the two Iowa-class battleship in support of the Reagan Administration naval programme. The study concluded that there was not enough deck space on both ships to fit modern weapons systems like Tomahawk and Harpoon missiles, CIWS and modern radars and satcom. The per-ship costs were determined close to an Iowa class, for far less capabilities. The plan was then dropped.

wows depiction of the Des Moines
wow's depiction of the Des Moines class

Early missile cruisers conversions (1958-62)

The trauma of Kamikaze attacks at the end of WW2 conducted the navy to a trusted AA defense against hostile aircraft, with better chances of eliminating the target than peppering rounds around. There was already a solution, pioneered by the Germans in WW2, although they were intermediate between future antiship missiles and guided bombs. Operation Bumblebee launched by the Navy help testing US Navy ramjet missiles in 1945, and the Applied Physics Lab PTV-N-4 Cobra/BTV first flew in October 1945. The program went on and eventually reached its critical point, the RIM-8 Talos missile.

The "Three T" (Talos, Terrier, and Tartar) were really at the base of the US Navy missile program in the 1950s. They were working in conjunction with the Navy’s carrier-based fighters, and point-defense systems. The most impressive one was the Talos, the "big one", for long range interception, high altitude. This was the "soviet bomber killer". At some point in its development it was defined as a universal missile. Its operational requirements were daunting, ever higher, faster, to be effective against equally capable targets. It became larger with a booster, at four tons. Therefore to cover the less demanding medium range, the Navy developed the smaller Terrier and Tartar.

RIM-8 Talos
RIM-8 talos and launcher; This was the standard long range, high altitude missile, with a ramjet and a rod-based warhead.

RIM-8 Talos was first used on the freshly converted USS Galveston in 1958, operational in early 1959. The Talos homed in on the target semi-actively and as the development went one and upgrades allowed its final figures of 2.5 Mach, 100 nautical miles, 80,000 feet of ceiling. If fighters with long range air-to-air missiles failed, Talos was the last recourse. To eliminate its target, the Talos used a continuous-rod warhead: Rods were wrapped around an explosive charge, which forced them apart when detonating, forming an expanding metal circle that could cut through the airframe and fuselage at great velocity.

It was costly, but the most capable first-generation SAM in the navy, but required a large dedicated space to operate, so a heavy cruiser hull was ideal. However to make it more common, the Navy pressed the development of the cheaper Terrier and Tartar to be used on smaller cruisers and destroyers, and deployed missiles at a larger scale, and quicker. During the Vietnam war, Talos claimed three MiGs and it remained in the inventory for long, converted into supersonic Vandal target drones.

RIM-2 Terrier onboard USS Boston in 1966

The RIM-2 Terrier concept was initially close to the Talos, but diverged as development went on, focusing on smaller targets, closer. Talos evolved to shot down Soviet bombers armed with antiship missiles, while Terrier would eliminate the antiship missiles themselves after launch. The type of warhead needed changed, to a trusted blast-fragmentation system. Its development started with a wing-controlled and beam-riding missile capable of 1.8 Mach over 10 nautical miles. At the end of the process, it was tail-controlled, with semi-active radar homing and capable of mach 3.0 over 40 nautical miles and a 80,000 feet ceiling. It became so successful it became the standard on all USN ships, on destroyers and cruisers, and 8,000 were built in all, deployed on twin launchers, quick reload with often 80 vectors in stock inside the hull. It was replaced by the RIM-67 Standard Missile in the 1980s but equipped the Albany, California and Virginia-class cruisers as well as the Charles F. Adams, Mitscher, Forrest Sherman and Kidd-class destroyers and Brooke class frigates.

The small, short range Tartar was deployed on three cruisers classes, USN destroyers and frigates, but also Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Australian destroyers.

The RIM-24 Tartar was the small, short, to very close range vector in the family, and could be deployed against all sorts of missiles. It was used not only by destroyers, but also Frigates and came with a simpler and lighter single Mk.13/22 launcher, after the initial Mk 11 twin-arm launcher. It was capable of Mach 1.8, with a 18 miles range and ceiling of 65,000 feet. The ambition was to replace all twin 5-inch/38 in service in the USN by these launchers on destroyers. However the program had lower priority so at some point in June 1955, CNO Admiral Arleigh Burke pressed the case and urged development. It became basically a RIM-2C Terrier without the secondary booster, to ease production and was otherwise known as the Mk 15.

In the end, the legacy of three Ts and operational capabilities were not only to focus the U.S. Navy attention of a standard system, providing stability, but also revealed limits on improving constantly the missiles themselves, and the Navy came to recognize that further advances would necessarily involved the technical environment surrounding the missile, like the fire-control systems, computing, radars and target management as a whole. It became more logical to focus on the overall performance and this was the impulse and inspiration for the future Aegis system.

SAM-N-8 Typhon
The RIM-50 Typhon was an alternative "universal" SAM missile project developed in the late 1950s. The SAM-N-8 Typhon LR (RIM-50A), SAM-N-9 Typhon MR -(RIM-55A) by Bendix Corp. were paired with the AN/SPG-59 radar system. These were tested on the USS USS Norton Sound from 1962 but around 1966 the program was terminated. It was a superb example of faster, higher "super-Talos" which cost was deemed too high, and replaced by the better all-round standard system, wich started to focus on the missile environment instead.

The standard, was the original idea of a universal missile that could be tailored with some modularity for various tasks. The first model became operational in 1968. It replaced the Tartar, using the same launcher and Fire Control System. First combat was in the early 1970s, Vietnam war. By the late 1970s the second model development started, and it became operational with the Aegis Combat System in 1983 (so with the Ticonderoga class cruisers). Standard 1 and 2 were in effect SAM/SSM and first combat use was during Operation Praying Mantis, 3 July 1988. USS Vincennes (CG-49) shot down by error an Iran Air Flight 655 with two SM-2MR missiles.

Boston class Fleet Escorts (Missile Conversion)

USS Boston, Camberra CAG1-CAG2

These two heavy cruisers were the first US anti-aircraft missile ships, rushed to completion to meet a very severe perceived threat. The first ship seriously considered for conversion was the older cruiser Wichita, which might have had three launchers, re-placing all her heavy gun turrets. The Terrier missile itself was rushed into production; it began as a test vehicle in the Talos programme, and the conversion of Boston and Canberra was conceived as a first phase, an austere effort which might be fol-lowed by the removal of the two for-ward turrets if it proved successful. The conversions were in fact successful, but instead of giving the ships further refits, extra ships were converted. By 1966 the radar fit was CXRX, SPS-37A, SPS-30, two SPQ-5 (CAG: 2). By the 1960s both were obsolete, and a project to modernise them was rejected as too ex-pensive. They were reclassified as cruisers (CA) in May 1968 and relegated to shore bombardment duties; before de-activation, the missile launchers were removed, leaving them with two 8th triple turrets forward. They were decommissioned in 1970.

Conway's profile of the Boston class


Displacement: 13,600t; 17,950t PC.
Dimensions: 205.3 x 21.25 x 7.6 m
Propulsion: 4 shaft geared turbines, 4 Babcock boilers, 120,000 hp 33 knots, 7300 nm/20 kts
Crew: 1544
Electronics: SPS-6, SPG-8, SPS-12, CXRX, Sonar SPQ-5.
Armament: 2x3 8-in, 5x2 5-in, 8x3 in, 1x2 Terrier SAM 144 missiles.

Cleveland class Fleet Escorts (Missile Conversion)

USS Galveston, Little Rock, Oklahoma City, Providence, Springfield, Topeka CLG-3-CLG-8.

No fewer than six hulls were called from the reserve of this famous light cruiser class, the most prolific in history. These six ships were converted to austere missile ships, keeping at least a part of their forward artillery. The missile installation was above the weather deck aft, either for a Terrier or Talos. They were all reclassified in May 1957 and recommissioned in 1958-60. In reality there were two subclasses, with the Galveston class CLG-3 to CLG-5 and Providence class CLG-6 to 8. They basically differed by the scale of their conversion: They were a solution to the problem of cost of new missile cruisers, and to deploy many in a short notice, whereas they had been originally intended as double-ended conversion. CLG-3 and 8 Galveston and Topeka retained most of their forward artillery: Their two forward triple turrets (2x 6-in) and three 5-in turrets. The others only retained only retained their forward "A" turret, while the "B" was disposed of, the barbette plated over and the whole superstructure rebuilt and moved forward, bringing the sole remaining 5-in turret in a raised structure behind the main turret.

Talos missile guidance radars USS Oklahoma City CLG-5 1963

Two new lattice masts were erected with the two funnels in between. The largest being aft with a three-dimensional electronically scanned radar and a fighter control height finder radar, and guidance radars, SPG-49 for Talos carriers and SPG-5 for Terrier. . The aft part was the least recognisable, with a deck-mounted twin missile launcher and reload behind. There was a magazine with a conveyor belt housing either a Talos system magazine (46 missiles) for CLG-3-5 or Galveston, Little Rock and Oklahoma city, and Terrier SAM (120 missiles) for the other ones, Providence, Springfield and Topeka. The three used as flagship had an helicopter pad aft but no hangar. In 1963, SPS-30 was replaced by SPS-8B and SPS-2 and later again by SPS-37A/43A rather than SPS-29. They also were refitted with a bow sonar SQS-23 and DASH drone control facilities for post-nuclear attack C&C and penetrate the outer ASW screen. After completion, these cruisers were considered top-heavy and had to be ballasted. They were decommissioned in 1969-79, stricken afterwards. USS Little Rock can be visited today as a memorial, Museum ship, at the Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, Buffalo, New York.

USS Little Rock firing its RIM-8 Talos on 4 May 1961

Conways profile of the Cleveland sub-classes
Conway's profile of the Cleveland sub-classes


Displacement: 11,006t; 15,152t PC.
Dimensions: 186 x 20 x 7.8 m
Propulsion: 4 shaft geared turbines, 4 Babcock boilers, 100,000 hp 32 knots, 800 nm/15 kts
Crew: 1382
Embedded Electronics: SPS-43, 48, 2 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-26, NTDS radars.
Armament: 1-2x3 6-in, 1-3x2 5in, 1x2 Terrier/Talos SAM 46/120 missiles.

Albany class Fleet Escorts (Missile Conversion)

USS Albany, Chicago, Columbus CG-10-12
uss albany

These three ships were the most elaborated of the postwar US missile conversions, as well as the most futuristic in appearance. They alone received the kind of Talos launching system originally envisaged, its magazine deep into their hull fore and aft, (with fifty-each end). Planned entirely without artillery, they only retained two single 5-in/38 either side of the aft funnel. They had two twin Tartar on their beams for close range defense, with eighty-four vectors, as well as ASROC coupled with the SQS-23 sonar system. In effect they were massive missile frigates. The high bridge was necessary to clear the paired SPG-49 missile controle radars forward of it, and the unusual 'Mack' arrangement was created to reduce radar interference of the funnels. In addition, early planning called for the Regulus II surface to surface missile, but it was still at the design stage. However, six future conversions (CG 13—CG 15) did integrated Polaris launchers amidships.

USS Columbus firing a RIM-24 Tartar in 1965

CG-10-11 were modernised with SPS-48 it place of SPS-39, and one SPS-30 removed. The pair of 5-in/38 guns was installed at the insistence of John F. Kennedy, witnessing the failured in a demonstration of a Terrier shooting down a drone. The President may have been impressed by absence of the weapon suitable against TBs. Neither at which time she was also fitted with SPS-48 radar in place of her earlier SPS-39, one of her two SPS-30 fighter control radars being removed. ASROC nor the Mk 32 TT had reloads. Three further ships were to have been converted under the FY60 programme as CG 13—CG 15, with a new SPG-56 missile control radar (SCE-173A rather than SCB-173); they were cancelled in favour of the new Typhon missile system, itself abandoned a few years later because of excessive cost. Only the last ship, Chicago, was completed with (a primitive) NTDS. USS Albany received a full NTDS system as part of an AAW modernisation (SCB-002) under the FY68 programme (Boston Naval Shipyard, February 1967—June 1969) as weight compensation.

USS Chicago underway in the coral sea 1979

Her Talos missile system was modernised with digital fire control. She was refitted in 1974-75 to serve as flagship of the Second Fleet and her remaining SPS-30 replaced by a satellite communications antenna. USS Chicago was modernised in August 1972—August 1973, albeit not on the same scale as Albany. Her NTDS was brought up to date, and she was fitted with an SLQ-26 Threat Reactive Anti-Ship Missile Defence system. Albany had already had the SLQ-19A ASMD system fitted in 1970, after her SCB-002 modernisation. USS Columbus alone was not modernised, and she was, therefore, the first of the class to be laid up, in May 1975. She was stricken in 1976. Her two sisters were decommissioned in 1980, their Talos missile system having hem drawn from service to save money, even though initially they had been planned for retention through 1985. Normal practice would have been to strike them at this time, but in view of the international situation the Reagan Administration chose to retained them in reserve. With the Talos gone they were limited to the short range tartar missile battery. USS Chicago served as primary air protection ship during mining of the Haiphong Harbour in 1972. Other missile ships were covering the area, with carrier fighters acting only as backups. When MiGs were detected for the low-flying mining aircraft, USS Chicago shot one down one a range of 48nm, and the others fled.

Conway's profile of the USS Albany in 1970


Displacement: 14,400t; 18,777t PC.
Dimensions: 205.8 x 21.3 x 7.9 m
Propulsion: 4 shaft GE geared turbines, 4 Babcock boilers, 120,000 hp 32 knots, Range 7000 nm/15 kts
Crew: 1382
Electronics: SPS-29/43A, 2 SPS-30, 2 SPG-49/SPW-2,4 SPG-51, Sonar SQS-23.
Armament: 2x2 Talos SAM 4x52 missiles. 2x2 Tartar SAM (4x42 missiles), 2x 5-in/38, ASROC, 2x3 324mm ASW TTs

USN Missile cruisers (1965-90)

Belknap class Fleet Escorts (Missile) 1959

US Navy Flag 9 cruisers (1959-64)

An aerial port beam view of the guided missile cruiser USS BELKNAP (CG 26) underway.

USS Sterett, CG-31

These missile cruisers, defined as "fleet escorts", were originally intended to be cheaper versions of the Charles F. Adams destroyers. Their ASM means had to be improved and their range of action to 6000 nautical miles. But eventually the studies led to an even more expensive ship. It was decided to replace the Tartar missile with the less expensive Terrier system on the Leahy hull. Finalization of the design resulted in a combination of the ASROC system and the Terrier, and a 60 Terrier or 40 Terrier drum and 20 ASROC drums combined. The range of this missile was 32 km, its Mach speed 3 and its ceiling 24,000 meters.

She was carrying a classic fragmentation charge of 100 kgs. or a nuclear load of 1 Kt. It was under their name of "fleet escorts" ("cruisers" in 1970) that the ten Belknap were built, the first launched in 1963 and the last admitted on active service in 1967. The Class included the Belknap, J. Daniels, Wainwright, Jouett, Horne, Sterett, William Standley, Fox and Biddle. Another indication of their initial destroyer character was in the US Navy tradition of ship names, states for capital ships, cities for cruisers, and names of officers or various parliamentarians for the destroyers.

USS Josephus Daniels CG-27

These ships also embarked for a while ASM helicopter drones (DASH), and 4 TLT special ASM mk48 at the stern. They were also permanently equipped with the NTDS (Tactical Naval Data Integration System). These buildings knew their baptism of the fire with the viet-nâm: Thus on April 19, 1972 the USS Sterret destroyed a big anti-ship missile North-Vietnamese Styx with the help of one of its Terrier (a world first), and downed two Migs during a combined air/surface attack, demonstrating the effectiveness of NTDS. On 19 July, the USS Biddle dispersed a formation of Mig that attacked by night, destroying two aircraft. They were later modernized, the Wainwright testing the SM2 ER, the Fox testing Tomahawk in 1977, and from 1981 all received two quadruple ramps of Harpoon missiles. On this occasion, they received SPS48 and 49 radars. They were all active in 1990, but were removed from service in 1993-95. Some are still in reserve.

Belknap class illustration by the author


Displacement: 5400t; 7890t PC.
Dimensions: 166.8 x 16.7 x 5.5 m
Propulsion: 2 HP turbines, 4 Babcock boilers, 2 propellers, 85,000 hp. and 32 knots max. 7100 nautical
Crew: 388
Embedded Electronics: SPS-43, 48, 2 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-26, NTDS radars.
Armament: 1x2 MMA Terrier SMA-2 / ASROC ASM (60), 1x127 mm DP, 2x76 mm, 2x3 TLT ASM 324 mm.

Leahy class Fleet Escorts (Missile) 1961

US Navy Flag 9 cruisers (1961-64)

These missile cruisers were the first designed in the USA. They were contemporary with the series of Farragut and Adams missile destroyers. To justify their rank of cruisers (their standard naming was "fleet escort"), they had two Terrier anti-aircraft launchers instead of one. However they eliminated in fact the only versatile gun of the edge, not having any armament said "classic". In itself, the Leahy were the first cruisers of this new generation dedicated to the guided missile, coexisting for a while with many "classic" cruisers, whose design dates back to the Second World War. However, in the long run, these ships were quickly rendered obsolete and modernized due to constant progress in guidance and sensors. Nine buildings were started between December 1959 and July 1960 and commissioned between August 1962 and May 1964. The class included the Leahy, Harry E Yarnell, Worden, Dale, Richmond K Turner, Gridley, England, Halsey and Reeves.

During the Vietnam conflict, these ships were recast to include the NTDS fire management system, the SPG-55B guidance radar coupled with the new SM-1 Standard Launchers, and two pairs of 76mm AA guns. were added. These were removed in the 1970s for the benefit of two quadruple Harpoon missile ramps, giving them the anti-ship capability they lacked. Finally, in the 80s, a second overhaul gave them the SPS49 radar, the CME SQL-32 system, and finally two Phalanx missile guns and two 12.7mm pieces. Arrived at the service limit, they began to be removed between 1993 and 1994. Most have been scrapped since.

Leahy Class
Leahy Class missile cruiser - Author's Illustration
Displacement: Standard 5150t, 7600t FL
Dimensions: 162.5 x 16.3 x 5.8m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers Babcock & Wilcox/Foster-Wheeler
85,000 hp. and 32 knots. Crew : 377 Sensors: Radar SPS37, SPS49, 4 lines of fire SPS55, Sonar SQS23
Weaponry: 2 x 2 MMA Terrier (80 v), 1 ASROC ASM (8v), 2 x 2 76 mm AA, 2 x 3 TLT 357 mm side, 12 torpedoes mk32.

USN Nuclear-powered missile cruisers (1960-78)

USS Long Beach, Fleet Escorts (Missile, nuclear) 1960

An aerial port bow view of the nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser USS LONG BEACH (CGN-9) underway.

Artist Impression in 1956

This great cruiser is probably as famous as the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. in fact, he was the first nuclear-powered ever built. He was also the first American cruiser built after the Second World War. It was studied as a missile frigate project in 1955 and the project evolved. He also shared with the USS Enterprise the radar mass of the SPS-23 radar which earned him his massive superstructure, and had a long-range sonar SQS-23 to the bow associated with the ASROC launcher. The massive weight of the superstructure forced the engineers to heal the stability and raise the bow. Very similar to those of the Enterprise, its C1W reactors were a more modest version, delivering a total of 80,000 hp, enough to give it a speed of 32 knots and more.

USS Long Beach launching a terrier missile in October 1961

The maintenance difficulties of their fixed antenna SPS-32/33 led to their addition in 1968 the SPS-12 of aerial detection. He served in Viet-Nam: In May and June 1968, in the Gulf of Tonkin, he recorded the first two victories of a cruiser of this type against North Vietnamese Migs. His major redesign took place in 1980 in Puget Sound, New York. In 1983 he left without his fixed antennas SPS-32/33, against SPS-48/49, two anti-missile guns installed in place of their Talos fire control radards, said dual carriage replaced by two quadruple ramps of Harpoon missiles . His adaptation to the AEGIS standard was abandoned, as was his conversion to a coastal strike cruiser with a very long 203 mm long gun. It was to be modernized again in 1993 but was set aside in 1994. It remained in its time the most powerful missile cruiser ever built, the only (poor) equivalent possible to the Soviet Kirov.

USS Long Beach
Author's illustration of the USS Long Beach


Displacement: 15110t standard, 16600t FL
Dimensions: 219.9 x 22.3 x 7.3 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 C1W reactors, 80,000 hp. and 32 knots.
Crew : 1107
Sensors: Radar SPS-32/33, SPG-49, 2 SPW-2 fire lines, 4 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-23
Armament: 1x2 Talos AN (52v), 2x2 Terrier AA (120v), 1 ASROC ASM (20v), 2 x 127mm AA, 2 x 3 TLT 357mm (12 mk32 ASM torpedoes).

Long Beach 1960

USS Bainbridge fleet escort (cruiser, nuclear) 1961

USS Bainbridge, called DLG-25 and CGN-25 from 1975 was a nuclear-powered Leahvy, and prototype for a cheaper fleet escort than the mighty Long Beach. She represented a minimal platform for two reactor plants, and was expected to reach destroyer speeds. A submarine plant used on USS Triton was rejected as it weighted too much. Destroyer nuclear propulsion was given high priority from 1956, for endurance, a limiting factor in carrier operations. AAW modernization at Puget Sound between 30 June 1974 and 24 Sept. 1976 wa completed at San Diego in April 1977: She had now a large deckhouse aft for NTDS, the 3-in replaced by 20 mm guns and two Phalanx CIWS were added in 1983-85. SPS-37 was repkaced by SPS-49, SQL-32(V)3 and RBOC installed, and later the Mark 14 weapons direction system. She had been decommissioned and stricken on 13 September 1996.

Conway's profile of USS Bainbridge in 1962


Displacement: 7250t standard, 7980t FL
Dimensions: 172.3 x 17 x 5.9 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft turbines, 2 D2G reactors, 60,000 hp and 30 knots.
Crew : 459
Sensors: Radar SPS-37, SPG-39, 4 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-23
Armament: 2x2 Terrier AA (4x40 missiles), ASROC, 2x3 TLT 357mm ASW (mk32), 4x 3-in/50 AA.

USS Truxtun fleet escort (cruiser, nuclear) 1964

USS Truxtun DLGN-35 underway off Point Loma, California 1970s

USS Truxtun called DLGN 35 was essentially a nuclear version of the Belknap class, enlarged and rearranged to accomodate the powerplant. The nuclear propulsion organisation had hoped at the beginning to duplicate the Bainbridge, but this was rejected as to test the new SQS-26 sonar. Her 3-in/50 guns were replaced by Harpoon missiles in 1980. She was modernizes and refitted in 1982-84: Two Phalanx CIWS were added and a new EW suite added with SQL-32 and SBROC. She also had a Mark 14 weapons direction system installed called NTU. She was decommissioned in 1993.

Conway's profile of USS Truxtun in 1980


Displacement: 8150t standard, 8970t FL
Dimensions: 172 x 17.6 x 6 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft turbines, 2 D2G reactors, 60,000 hp and 30 knots.
Crew : 490
Sensors: Radar SPS-40, SPG-48, 2 SPG-55, Sonar SQS-26
Armament: 1 Terrier/ASROC SAM/ASW (60 missiles), 1-5in/54, 2x 3-in/50 AA, 2x3 TLT 357mm ASW (mk32).

California class Fleet Escorts (Missile, nuclear) 1972

California, South Carolina (1972-74)

These missile cruisers defined as "fleet escorts" ("cruisers" in 1975) were defined from the experiments carried out on USS Truxtun and USS Bainbridge in nuclear propulsion. They were the first of this type in "serial" production. Extremely expensive they used a new generation of reactor, the D2G whose lifetime of the heart was three times longer. Their arrangements required the adoption of a long and massive hull without recess, returning to this standard defined in the thirties. Their armament was much larger than previous cruisers, including two of the new 127 mm Mk42 guns, two launchers of the new standard SAM, and one ASROC.

Cruiser USS California

Their 4 TLT ASMs of 324 mm were lateral and fixed, in the deckhouse. Paradoxically, their large stern did not house a hangar, because at the time of their design the ASM DASH drones were the preferred, although they were not adopted later. They did, however, have a spot hosting a LAMPS helicopter or later a Seahawk, or a Sea King. The California and South Carolina (launched in 1971 and 1972, admitted in 1974-75) were renamed battleships, reflecting their importance within the nomenclature of US navy. They quickly received two quadruple Harpoon missile ramps. Both are currently in reserve since 1998.

California class
California class cruisers - Author's illustration

Conway's profile


Displacement: 10 150t; FL.
Dimensions: 181.70 x 18.6 x 6.3 m
Propulsion: 2 HP turbines, 2 D2G reactors, 2 propellers, 60,000 hp. and 30 knots max.
Crew: 533
Embedded electronics: Radars SPS-40, 48, 2 SPG-51, SPG-60, SPQ-9, Sonar SQS-26.
Armament: 2x1 MA Standard SM1 (80), 1 ASROC ASM (24), 2x127 mm DP, 4 TLT ASM 324 mm.

Virginia class Fleet Escorts (Missile, nuclear) 1976

Virginia, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas (1971)
uss mississippi

These four ships qualified as wing escorts like the previous California and requalified cruisers en route. The first, USS Virginia, was started in August 1972 and commissioned in 1976, the others, Texas, Mississippi and Arkansas (CGN 39-41), between 1977 and 1980. They were designed as more economical than california, along with the new Spruance destroyers. They were however wider and heavier than the California. They also had two SAM / ASM standard/ASROC anti-melee launchers, with 24 AA missiles at the front and 44 ASROC ASMs at the rear. They had the same 76mm quick-firing skiffs, and returned to the ASM Triple Torpedoes System. They were carrying only one helicopter, and their ASW capabilities remained hampered by their noisy cooling pumps from their D2G reactors.


They were the first to use the new SQS-53A sonar and their associated Mk116 fire control system. Each stop of these buildings to recharge their uranium was to allow them a 10-year service. In the 1980s, they received the new SM-2 missiles, a Kevlar shield, eight Harpoon anti-ship missiles installed in ramps at the front end, and finally, eight Tomahawks installed on their aft deck when the helicopter was removed. In 1990-95, they moved to the NTU system, their abandoned ASROC missiles, the installed SPS-49 and 48A radars, and two Phalanx missile guns. Costly, they were all four disabled, the first in 1993-94 and the other two in 1996-97. They currently have "active reserves".

Virgina class cruisers
Illustration of the Virginia class cruisers


Displacement: 10 300t standard, 11 000t FL
Dimensions: 178.3 x 19.2 x 6.4 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 D2G reactors, 60,000 hp. and 32 knots
Crew: 519
Sensors: Radar SPS-40, SPS-55, SPG-51, 60, SPQ-9. Sonar SQS-53
Weaponry: 2 x 2 SM-1 standard / ASROC (68 v), 2 x 2 76 mm AA / AM, 2 x 3 TLT 357 mm side, 14 mk32 ASM torpedoes, 1 ASW helicopter

Ticonderoga class missile cruisers (1981)

28 Cruisers 1981-1992

An aerial port bow view of the Aegis guided missile cruiser USS TICONDEROGA (CG-47) underway during Standard II missile tests near the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico.

These missile destroyers, eventually renamed missile cruisers, derived from the previous large Spruance, but with a difference in size, since they had been fully designed to implement the AEGIS system, which made them the most modern times. In fact, they are also known as the "AEGIS cruisers". The latter system was originally designed for an anti-aircraft escort frigate, like the future California cruisers. Their design was the result of numerous studies and landmarks from the late 1970s, which resulted in the rejection of Typhoon frigate projects and heavy cruisers of the CSGN type.

Instead, a compromise solution based on the largest destroyer hulls of the time, Spruance, was preferred. The armament, cost, and effectiveness of the USS Ticonderoga, made the entire class redesigned as a class of cruisers (CGs) rather than destroyers. The AEGIS system is based on a highly efficient system of two SPY-1 solid fixed antennas installed in the front superstructure, and comprising 4080 separate phase transformers. The block is powered by its own radio frequency generator, several megawatts. This system is not for long range, but to handle a maximum of echoes and must be relayed by a SPS-49 type of airborne surveillance radar and two SPG-62 target illuminators.


The combined capability of the SM-2 (anti-aircraft and anti-ship) combined with the ability to detect and track multiple all-round targets simultaneously, makes the protection provided by a Ticonderoga much more effective than that of a previous-generation building. Despite the cost of the system, the Ticonderoga class continued with 14 operational buildings in 1990 with famous names (Yorktown, Vincennes, Valley Forge, Thomas S Gates, Buker Hill, Mobile Bay, Antienam, Leyte Gulf, San Jacinto, Lake Champlain, Philippine Sea, Princeton, Normandy, Chancellorsville). Since 1990, 12 others have entered service, the last one, USS Port Royal, in April 1994. They are all currently in active service, forming the spearhead of US naval surface forces alongside class aircraft carriers Nimitz that they escort. They have been engaged in all recent conflicts.

Triplets at Philadelphia NyD - Credits
Triplets at Philadelphia NyD - from

These ships are waiting to be broken up and recycled, bearing specific markings.
These are the USS Thomas S. Gates (CG-51), USS Ticonderoga (CG-47), and USS Yorktown (CG-48), spotted at Philadelphia NyD.
The first ships in the US Navy to feature AEGIS, now adopted by a collection of destroyers in many navies, including Japan, Spain, South Korea, Australia, and Norway. Most of the time it was fitted on destroyers, since Frigates seems too small to house it, until recently. Recognisable by a massive structure on top of which was placed the bridge in general, it is only betrayed by a few internal antennae protections on the front and sides of the "box". AEGIS is, of course, one of the most famous late cold war American integrated naval weapons system, developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, now produced by Lockheed Martin.

It was capable of coordinating the detection of 200 targets simultaneously, including from other ships and either subs, aircraft, missiles or ships, and guiding the appropriate weaponry to targets, or activate ECM and counter-measures. Before that, it needs to be recalled that there was already a failed attempt in 1958, with the Typhon Combat System, but tracking was only possible at any given time by dedicated radars, so few targets. It was theorized in 1970 and the EDM-1 tested on the USS Norton Sound, in 1973.

In fact, after this system was adopted, Soviet saturation attacks planned on American task forces were no longer possible. This was not an acronym but referred as the name of the shield used by the god Zeus in Greek Mythology. It is difficult to believe this system is already 30+ years old: The Ticongeroga class cruisers, yet of the size of the Spruance class DDs of but higher tonnage, were 28 ships delivered from 1981 to 1992. Now superseded by the Arleigh Burke, they are prending disposal and to be broken up in the following years. "Aegis" became almost a brand, sometimes far away from the original concept, and local declinations. The Chinese for example designed a similar system sometimes called the "chinese aegis" by some authors, used by their Type 052C and Type 052D destroyers. Even the Admiral Gorshkov class frigates seems to use a Russian version of it, called the Poliment Redut. It is quite likely that the Russian gargantuan Lider-class project wil use a scaled-up and modernized version of it.

Conway's profile


Displacement: 6560t standard, 8910t FL
Dimensions: 171.6 x 16.8 x 9.5 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 4 LM2500 gas turbines, 80,000 hp. and 30 knots
Crew: 343
Sensors: SPY-1A Radar, SPS-49, 2 SPG-62 Firing Lines, Sonar SQS-53
Armament: 2x2 Standard SM-1 AA / AN / ASM (68 v and 20 ASROC), 2 x 127 mm AA, 2 x 3 TLT 357 mm (12 tons mk32 ASM), 8 Harpoon, 2 helicopters.

Characteristics of USN Missiles Cruisers

Tartar Mark 11 mod 2 missiles on board USS Chicago
Tartar Mark 11 mod 2 missiles on board USS Chicago


Although the development of missiles in the USN started right after WW2, with the help of some German engineers (which after all designed, deployed and had kills with the first anti-ship missiles). There were two distinct branches, before cruise missiles (Tomahawk) made their apparition:
The SAM family, comprising the RIM-50 Typhon, RIM-2 Terrier, RIM-8 Talos, RIM-24 Tartar and RIM-66 Standard, and the AGM-123 Skipper II, Harpoon and UGM-89 Perseus.
Efforts were directed first on surface-to-air missiles (SAM) and one model: The Terrier. It was deployed on the Boston and Cleveland classes, Leahy, Bainbridge, Belknap, Truxtun. It was soon followed by the Talos and Tartar (Cleveland and Albany, Long Beach). These were long-range to very long-range vectors made to intercept Soviet bombers at high altitude.
There will be a dedicated article on the main USN page.


AEGIS conversion project FY77/78/79 concept for the USS Long beach - Artist impression


Fire Control System
SPQ-5 (later Mark 25 Mod 7)

ASW warfare

Although it was a task more suited to destroyers, the idea of launching ASW torpedoes by using missiles, a logic development of the ASW rocket launchers of WW2 appeared with the ASROC, the great standard for such system in the USN fleet until today. At some point, the ASROC was also capable of launching the Terrier. These systems were used on the Albany class, Long Beach, Leahy, Belknap as well as the later nuclear-powered cruisers and the Ticonderoga class. The second system was the triple torpedo tube with ASW acoustic models. This had been already treated by the post on USN ASW Frigates, as the ASROC.

The Strike Cruiser (CSGN) project (1975)

Initial two islands artist impression of the project in 1974.
Initial "two islands" artist impression of the 10,000 tonnes project in 1973.

An outgrow of the earlier Typhon Frigate project (DLGN), this replacement project for earlier ships, both cruisers and destroyers armed with the "three T" missiles. The CSGN was a larger nuclear-powered missile cruiser conceived as a follow-on of the Long Beach, closing decommission. The program started in 1973. The ship was tailored to house the new AEGIS system, developed at first for the DLGN 38 program. A substantial anti-ship role was envisioned, managing new generation SAMs as well as Harpoon and Tomahawk vectors. The first design was constrained in displacement, the hull was reduced, but to the cost of power, and it could only reach 30 knots, considered essential to be part of the fleet escort or any task force based on the super carriers they were supposed to protect.

Artist impression of the modified CSGN project in 1976

In 1975, a second design was proposed with a longer hull, reaching 700 feets. It used an improved, enlarged D2G powerplant made for the Frigate project, and reached the expected speed. This powerplant combined therefore the two pressurized water D2G General Electric nuclear reactors on two shafts, rated for 60,000 shp (45 MW), two 2,000 kW (2,700 hp) diesel generators and six ship service turbo generators.

What was remarkable also was the provision made in the design for a 8 inches (203 mm) gun battery, as well as armour, a first since WW2. Armour however was limited to modular boxes protecting only the ammunitions and computer rooms. The gun was a lightweight 8-in/55 in turret placed forward, automated and capable of an insane rate of fire for such caliber. The roomy hull allowed for accommodating vital safety spaces around and below the waterline, an there was a 2-4 separation with the machinery room hosing the nuclear reactors.

Model of the modified version by Reuven Leopold

Also, the aft space reserved for aviation had an hangar large enough to house two LAMPS III ASW and SAR helicopters, but VSTOL aircraft were considered (like the Harrier II). At some point, Reuven Leopold, senior ship designer of the program proposed a variant with a flight deck running all the length of the hull, making this very "Kiev"-like. In the end, two of the new CSGN were integrated in the 5-years program of the of the Ford administration, but it was abandoned when leaving office, and replaced by a simpler replacement for the California class (CGN 42) added in the Reagan administration's own 5-years plan. Both the strike cruiser concept and modernization of the USS Long Beach were cancelled by the Fort administration. The Ticonderoga was considered a much more economical approach to deploy the AEGIS system fast.

A last aspect which went out when the CSGN was abandoned, was its extensive flagship facilities. The role was performed by various auxiliaries until the, older vessels being discarded. The lack of this option was sorely missed in the 1960s, and pushed the Navy already to develop a missile cruiser project armed with the Tartar. So far, no missile cruiser of that scale and scope has been planned, the only ship vaguely suitable to such approach being the massive Zumwalt class (see later).

Profile of the 17,000 tonnes design
Profile of the 17,000 tonnes design (cc).

Specifications of the CSGN

Displacement: 15,900 standard, 17,700 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 216,30 m oa x 23.40 x 6.8 m (709 x 76 x 22 feets)
Powerplant: 2 shafts nuclear D2G reactors, 30 knots.
Armament: 2x2 Mk.26 mod2 for SM-2/ASROC SAM/ASW, 2x4 SSM Harpoon, 2x4 Tomahawk, single 8-in/55, 2x3 Mk.32 ASW TTs, see notes.
Sensors: SPS-49, SPY-1 AEGIS, sonar SQS-53 and projected towed sonar system.
Crew: Circa 450.

The return of cruisers ?

CGBL Guided Missile Cruiser Baseline 1980
CGBL Guided Missile Cruiser Baseline 1980

I would just take on an excellent article of Tyler Rogoway on war zone, published april, 16, 2018. As the article was written, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral John Richardson, just put forward his vision and strategy for a replacement for the "Tico", reaching half of their operational career, as well as some of the early Arleigh Burke ships (1991). As interviewed by Defense News' David Larter, his requirements were as follows: - A large and suitable hull. In this chapter, the FFG(X) is decidely too small, while the Burke block III DDs are already too cramped, using every bit of space available. This left the DDG-1000 Zumwalt and LPD San Antonio class. While the latter's powerplant in actual form would be insufficient for fleet use alongside carriers, It still brings 25,000 tonnes on the table for further enhancements.
-Large quantities of power output, needed to feed lasers, railguns, electronic warfare systems, and very powerful radars and sensors, the Zumwalt seems already well placed.
-Extreme modularity, with only a few critical basic system and all the rest "swappable". An issue given the mediocre performances of the Littoral Combat Ship in that area, as sold to the American taxpayer. In the end, the 'large surface combatant' as flagged would be best served by using the already existing, massive hull and systems of the advanced Zumwalt class. By eliminating the two forward turret, devoid of any ammunitions after so many budget cuts, replaced by standard cells. And also revising the original plough bow, perhaps not suited for heavy weather, replaced by a conventional one.
This brings the author in conclusion to draw prospective view of this cruiser FY 2030, based on the DDG-1000, a sensible choice to reduce costs. He is showing the CG(X) /CG-21 alternative design in 2000 with a classic prow (much longer than the Zumwalt, circa 220 m (), and CGN(X) in 2007, an alternative nuclear powered project, even larger, circa 260 m for probably 28-30,000 tonnes. It would appear as a perfect fit both to answer the Russian Kirov-class still in service and the future Lider class.

It should be useful to recall the Surface Combatant For The 21st Century (SC21) initiative worked out a common design for a cruiser and smaller version as a destroyer. DD-X was completed as the Zumwalt, but curtailed to just three on 28 planned, and the CG-X has not seen the light of day in any shape or form. The Zumwalt, at the end of the day and before being watered down, was cutting edge and could have been much cheaper with the double serie built as planned.
It is a perfect fit for a cruiser by its four innovation packs:
-The "smart" Integrated Power System, allowing to dispense energy where it is needed at a moment notice
-EM Railgun, high power, but amazing range as planned, 60 up to 150 miles, with conventional projectiles instead of costly missiles
-Open-architecture “electronic keel” to cut down the crew to 150
-Brand new central operation, clear and roomy.

Read More

Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1947-95 - Future Cruiser projects

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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