US Navy ww2 USA (1939)
USS Wasp (CV-7) was the seventh USN aircraft carrier, sole in her class. The main reason of this was pure, simple mathematics. She was there to "consume" the remaining tonnage of the Washington treaty concerning aircraft carriers. Coming after the excellent Yorktown class, this gave the engineers an occasion to shine by taking the best features of the CV-5 and 6 by then in construction since 1934, but constrained on a limited tonnage, 14,500 rather than 20,000 tonnes. They eventually came out with a mix between the Ranger (CV-4) and the Yorktown, a carrier which was still able to carry 74 aircraft rather than 96 or even 76 as in the Ranger. Since she was alone, like Ranger she served in the Atlantic, before being recalled in June 1942 to the Pacific to compensate for the losses at Coral Sea and Midway. She met her fate during the the invasion of Guadalcanal, torpedoed by a submarine.

USS_Wasp_CV-7_entering_Hampton_Roads_on_26_May_1942
USS Wasp entering Hampton Roads, 26 May 1942

Design development

The Washington treaty CV's displacement limits
After the tonnage dedicated to the two Lexingtons, this left room for three 23,000 long ton carriers, four 17,250 ton carriers, and five 13,800 ton carriers. Wargames showed severe attrition would favor larger designs, to accomodate as many aircraft as possible. After the Ranger, considered too small, the admiralty decided to "burn" their 23,000 tonnes slots by a remarkable class resulting of these tests: The Yorktown class, designed in 1933-34. By then the idea of a 13,800 tonnes carrier, at first thought like the standard, became an afterthought. There was just enough tonnage left for something in between the 17,250 and 13,800 tonnes range. But the ideas about cramming as many planes as possible in a hull became a challenge for the engineers, and discussions back and forth between BuShips and the admiralty.

Final Design

USS Wasp was the results of the hopes for the USN admiralty to squeeze a large air group onto a 25% lighter vessel than the Yorktown-class. Quite a serious challenge since it called for a reduction of many areas, notably protection, and range. To save weight, and space as well, engineers wanted to give her a low-power propulsion machinery, resulting in an output of 75,000 shp (56,000 kW) compared to Yorktown's 120,000 shp (or the Essex-class at 150,000 shp !). As a result, she was equipped with a compact British machinery, two Parsons geared steam turbines and six Yarrow boilers. As a result she could reach on paper 29,5 knots (like Ranger), still lass than the 32.5 knots of the Yorktown. The latter, with the Lexingtons, defined the proper speed of a carrier battle fleet and was one reason because both Ranger and Wasp stayed in the Atlantic fleet. The smaller hull meant the ship could carry only 1,600 tonnes of oil, versus at least 2,750 on the Yorktown and up to 4,360 tonnes in fact). But this still granted her a 12,500 nautical miles range, versus 12,000 for the Yorktown, a true tour de force.

USS Wasp
WoW's rendition of USS Wasp

Another obvious sacrifice was the absence of armor and no ASW bulges of in-depth underwater defence, making her vulnerable to torpedoes (which proved her downfall). Even the high octane, highly inflammable aviation gasoline tanks were not protected, nor the boiler rooms, or ammunitions stores, even by a stray of armour. These were seen as design flaws only after she was built, forced by the tonnage limit, but in the hope she would be unarmoured in wartime. Another point to explain USS Wasp loss was the relative lack of damage control experience of her team as well. USS Wasp innovated though, being the first USN (and aircraft carrier at large) ever fitted with a deck-edge elevator. It consisted of a platform for the front wheels and outrigger where its tail wheel went (plus careful handling !). The two sides hydraulic arms moved the platform in a half-circle up and down. This idea was another way to clear the hangar from the space taken by a lift, therefore allowing more planes to be stacked in place. Her crew ballooned from 1,800 when commissioned to 2,100 during wartime.


2 technical views of USS Wasp (the blueprints.com)

Dimensions:

As designed, USS Wasp displaced 14,700 long tons (14,900 t) standard, and up to 19,116 long tons (19,423 t) fully loaded. Her length was 688 ft (209.7 m) at the waterline and 741 ft 3 in (225.9 m) overall at flying deck level. Her beam was at 80 ft 9 in (24.6 m) at the waterline and 109 ft (33.2 m) overall at flying deck level. Her draught was 20 ft (6.1 m) deep. Her flight deck was basically a copy of the Yorktown's but of course shorter compared to the latter, 824 ft 9 in or 251.38 m, so 25 m shorter. Some space was spared by the placement of the lifts. One was aft, on the landing area, below the arrestor cables, of which two had to be let loose to not obstruct the platform. The other was at the foot of the bridge superstructure. The offset lift was located on starboard, facing the forward hangar opening and framed by the two hydraulic arms lifting it to the upper flying deck. It was used with caution, especially in bad weather, but the solution was still in use in the 1950s on Essex carriers. USS Wasp was also equipped with four hydraulic catapults: 2 on the flight deck, 2 on the hangar deck. In 1942 she was given her first and only radar, CXAM-1 for air warning.

CXAM-1 radar
CXAM-1 radar (here on USS Ranger in November 1942)

Propulsion:

A much scaled down version of the Yorktown class to two propeller shafts connected to geared Parsons steam turbines 70,000 shp (52,000 kW) fed by six oil-fired Yarrow water-tube boilers. Top speed as designed was 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph), and her range setup at 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph).

Protection:

As seen above it was limited, in the hope in case of war to mount a more substantial protection. The ship's conning tower had walls 1.5 in (38 mm), the belt was 3.5 in (89 mm) with a backing provision for more, and there was a stray of 1.25 in (32 mm) armored plates on the deck over the steering gear. The flight deck and hangar deck were left unprotected. More problematic that there was no provision made for ASW protection. It was hoped, again, in case of war, to fit bulges in drydock. None of this ever happened and this genera lack of protection directly participated in her fate.

Armament:

CV doctrine progressed much since the 1920s and it was decided to keep the onboard armament of USS Wasp minimal and centered on air threats. It was basically a repeat of the Yorktown's class armament, but with eight single mount 5 in/38 (127 mm) guns, sixteen 1.1 in (28 mm) AA guns in four quad mounts, the famous "Chicago Piano", like on USS Yorktown and Enterprise as completed, and twenty-four 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2HB heavy machine guns, under masks. These were in single mounts. USS Wasp armament stayed "in its juice" when she engaged operations at Guadalcanal. If she had survived, no doubt she would have received not only protection upgrades but a brand new AA comprising 40 mm Bofors and 20 mm Oerlikon guns. The current combination was unsatisfactory. The 5-in/38 were slow, long range weapons only suited to target high altitude bombers, the 1.1 inches (28 mm) lacked punch and were unreliable, and the M2HB too light to "catch" a low flying plane other than by luck. It was not unheard of, as at least one Zero at Pearl Harbor has been claimed shot down by a twin 0.5 cal. mount.

Air group

Vought SB2-U of VS-72 onboard USS Wasp upon completion in 1940
Vought SB2-U of VS-72 onboard USS Wasp upon completion in 1940

Douglas TBD Devastator onboard USS Wasp
Douglas TBD Devastator onboard USS Wasp in 1942

Grumman F3F-1 of VF-7, Neutrality Patrols, USS Wasp, late 1940
Grumman F3F-1 of VF-7, Neutrality Patrols, USS Wasp, late 1940

Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat of VF-7, USS Wasp, Late 1942
Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat of VF-7, USS Wasp, Late 1942

Although the carrier has been described as capable of carrying up to 100 aircraft, it was only considering her plane carrier role, with her flight deck full, and crated planes below decks. In normal operations, she carried 75 planes at best, and by 1942, more like 65-70 due to new, heavier planes received like the Grumman TBF Avenger. Her initial air group comprised in April 1940 F3F Wildcats fighters from Fighter Squadron 7 (VF-7/73), and scout bombers from Scouting Squadron 72 (VS-72). VF-72 was created as VF-7 on 1 July 1939, redesignated VF-72 on 19 November 1940, and operating Grumman F2F and Grumman F3F biplane fighters. She never obtained the Brewster F2A and instead went directly to the next Grumman in line, the F4F-3 Wildcat, in December 1940, so soon after entering service. These were deployed as part of Carrier Air Group 7 (CVG-7). Scout Bombers of VS-72 were presumably Douglas SBU-2 Vindicator. Later in 1941 she obtained a squadron of Douglas TBD Torpedo bombers, replaced in mid-1942 (before her deployment to Guadalcanal) by Grumman TBD Avengers.

Construction

USS Wasp's keel was laid down on 1 April 1936, at Fore River Shipyard (Quincy, Massachusetts). She was launched on 4 April 1939 at the time, sponsored by Carolyn Edison, wife of Assistant Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison. She was commissioned on 25 April 1940, so one year after, at the Army Quartermaster Base (South Boston, Massachusetts). Captain John W. Reeves, Jr. was her first commander, supervising completion and trials. She was fitted out completely at Boston in May 1940 before sailing on 5 June 1940 for her calibration tests for her radio direction finder. She also received her first air group for mater qualifications.

USS Wasp Specifications as completed

Dimensions690 wl/720 ft oa (210,1/219,45 m) x 81 ft 7 in/100 ft (24.86/30.48 m) x 23 ft 3 in (7 m)
Displacement14,700 tonnes standard as designed, 18,450 fully loaded
Crew2,167
Propulsion2 shafts Parsons steam turbines, 6 Yarrow boilers, 70,000 shp
Speed29.5 knots (55 km/h; 34 mph)
Range12,500 nmi () at 15 knots
Armament8 × 5 in (127 mm)/38, 4x4 1.1 in, 24 x 0.5 in MGs
Aviation74 (maximum), 2 elevators, 2 catapults
ArmorBelt 0.625 in STS (backing for future increase), Armoured deck 1.25 in (45 cm)

USS Wasp in action

1940

Back for further fitting out in Boston harbor, USS Wasp sailed again for her first shakedown cruise at Hampton Roads, Virginia, arriving on 24 June. She sailed again on the 28th for the Caribbean, escorted by the destroyer USS Morris conducting her first carrier qualification tests. Lieutenant, junior grade David McCampbell was one of the first of these, later to become the Navy's top-scoring "ace" during the war (33 victories) compared to Richard Bong (USAFF) and his 40 victories. USS Wasp arrived at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and was decorated to celebrate Independence Day. A fatal incident however happened during this shakedown cruiser, on 9 July 1940: One of her Vought SB2U-2 Vindicator dive bombers crashed, some 2 nautical miles from her. She departed Guantanamo Bay on 11 July , back to Hampton Roads and embarked planes from the 1st Marine Air Group, proceeding to their qualification trials. This was done at the southern drill grounds, and it went of for a week before the Marines and their planes landed in Norfolk. USS Wasp by then moved north, to Boston, for her post-shakedown fixes. There, she fired a 21-gun salute to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, yachting onboard the Potomac at Boston Navy Yard, on 10 August.

The aircraft carrier departed on 21 August for steering drills, full-power trials heading for Norfolk in Virginia. Escorted by the destroyer USS Ellis acting as plane guard, she launched and recovered her aircraft from VF-7 fighter Sqn, VS-72 scout bombers (devastator). She was back in Norfolk Navy Yard on 28 August for repairing her troublesome turbines, staying in dockyard until September, and fully drydocked until September, before making her final sea trials in Hampton Roads, 26 September 1940. By that time she had been in commission already since April.

Now ready for fleet operations, she was assigned to Carrier Division 3 (Patrol Force) from Naval Operating Base, Norfolk. She arrived at Norfolk Navy Yard on 11 October to load 24 USAAC Curtis P-40 fighters (8th Pursuit Group) plus nine North American O-47A reconnaissance aircraft (2d Observation Squadron) spares, personel, and an utility unit with Grumman J2F Duck flying boats before Proceeding to sea, and at destination flew off these planes in a test to compare take-off runs. It was indeed the first time that Army planes flown from a Navy carrier, so to prove a carrier can be used as plane ferry during wartime. This was a role she performed time and again, despite her shorter flight deck compared to the yorktown's.

P-40Bs_aboard_USS_Wasp
P-40Bs aboard Wasp in October 1940

Wasp sailed for Cuba with her escorts, USS Plunkett and Niblack and during four days, made routine training flights wit her air group, notably dive-bombing. She made a gun salute at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base to Rear Admiral Hayne Elli (Atlantic Squadron Crd) on USS Texas, on 19 October 1940. She stays there until November, pilots earning carrier qualification, gunners practicing short-range fire on towed targets (by the fleet tug USS Seminole). She departed for Norfolk, arriving there on 26 November, and spending Christmas here and conducting degaussing experiments with the survey ship Hannibal.

Wasp on 27 December 1940
Wasp on 27 December 1940

1941

USS Wasp was back in Guantanamo Bay on 27 January 1941 for flight operations training into February, escorted by USS Walke, also her plane guard. She trained off Guantanamo and Culebra with USS Texas and the otger aicraft carrier USS Ranger plus the heavy cruisers Tuscaloosa, Wichita, and their destroyers. Training went on until March including on 4/5 March, night battle practice. She met heavy weather while underway to Norfolk on 7 March, steaming at 17 knots (20 mph; 31 km/h). She spotted Off Cape Hatteras about midnight, after flares were fired, the lumber schooner George E. Klinck in disarray. She manoeuvered in a state 7 sea cose to the steamer on 8 March, saving the crew of eight. She proceeded next to Norfolk Navy Yard for turbines fixes and and her third deck portholes were welded over for watertight integrity. She also received steel splinter shielding around her 5 in (130 mm) guns and quad "chicago piano" as well. batteries was added. Her first radar, the RCA CXAM-1 was installed as well. She departed for the Virgin Islands on 22 March, reached St. Thomas and next proceeded to Guantanamo Bay, loading maritime supplies bound to Norfolk. She arrived there on 30 March, and resumed routine flight operations off Hampton Roads.

On 8 April with USS Sampson, she conducted a search for a downed patrol plan, later aborted and until the end of the month, she trained and cruised along the East Coast (Newport-Rhode Island-Norfolk), alternated with patrols with her air group. By May, 12th she dropped anchor at Grassy Bay, Bermuda. She then sailed with USS Quincy and USS Livermore and Kearny for some exercizes and on 3 June was in Grassy Bay before heding for Norfolk with USS Edison. She was back to Bermuda on 20 June, patrolling the area up to Hampton Roads. This went on until 5 July, with the Atlantic Fleet's neutrality patrol, later extended eastward. She was back in Norfolk on 13 July with USS Tuscaloosa and three destroyers, preparing for her first offensive mission, even if the US were not at war yet.

Occupation of Iceland

After a refresher training off the Virginia Capes, the USN grew more active in the Battle of the Atlantic, with more and more incidents with German U-Boats. To protect American security, and also to free British forces needed elsewhere, the president decided to send troops to occupy Iceland, already under British control. The task force was centered around USS Wasp. Late afternoon July 23th, 32 Army Air Forces (AAF) pilots reported on board "for temporary duty". The following day their planes were loaded on board: Thorty P-40Cs, three PT-17 trainers (AAF 33rd Pursuit Squadron, 8th Air Group from Mitchel Field, New York). Four newspaper correspondents also came on board to report on this operation. For a refresher, the invasion of Iceland, a territory in principle related to Norway's royalty (now under German control) could have been a precious advanced based both for the Luftwaffe and U-Boats, threatening the north atantic convoys. On 10 May 1940, the British landed 746 Royal Marines, carried and covered by 4 warships. Despite the government of Iceland issued a protest because of her neutrality but the occupation was swift and peaceful. Now these precious troops were badly needed elsewhere.

USS Wasp ferried these fighters to provide a cover for incoming long range Luftwaffe planes such as the Fw200 condor and German flying boats. They also could provide a cover to watch over the initial American occupying forces. The carrier departed on 28 July with USS O'Brien and Walke and the cruiser USS Vincennes later. They fusioned with Task Force 16 (USS Mississippi, Quincy, Wichita, five destroyers an the auxiliary vessel USS Semmes, attack transport USS American Legion, store ship USS Mizar, amphibious cargo ship USS Almaack). On 6 August, USS Wasp escorted by Vincennes, Walke, and O'Brien departed TF 16 and ionce in the wind, VC-7 started launching the 33rd Pursuit P-40s. They landed in Iceland and the aicraft carrier folded down for Norfolk, arriving on 14 August.

Neutrality Patrols (August-December 1941)

USS Wasp was at sea again on 22 August for more carrier qualifications and landings off the Virginia capes and two days later, Rear Admiral H. Kent Hewitt (Cruisers Sqn, Atlantic Fleet) carried his marke from the USS Savannah to Wasp while in Hampton Roads. She became flagship of the atlantic fleet cruisers and on the 25th with Savannah and the destroyers Monssen and Kearny, she conducted flight operations, notably later in search of the German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper recently reportedly. On the 30, HMS Rodney was sighted 20 nautical miles (37 km; 23 mi) away, presumably also in search of a German raider, but they did not make contact. Wasp dropped anchored later in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad, on 2 September. Admiral Hewitt tranferred his flag back to Savannah and CV-7 later resumed her patrol duties. She was signalled a German U-boat closed to the DD USS Greer. USS wasp air group helped patrolling beyond a point halfway across the Atlantic, "mid-ocean meeting point" (MOMP), where British escort took up.

USS Wasp was back to Bermuda on 18 September, and she sailed for the colder waters of Newfoundland, arriving in Placentia Bay on 22 September. After refulling from the oiler Salinas she sailed on 23 September for Iceland with USS Wichita, four destroyers and the repair ship Vulcan. She dropped anchor at Hvalfjörður (Iceland) on 28 September, given more offensive orders by Admiral Harold R. Stark, Chief of Naval Operations.

USS Wasp was back at sea on 6 October with USS Vincennes and four destroyers to patrol the difficult North Atlantic where visibility was poor, the air group often grounded by the fog and heavy weather. She was back to Placentia Bay on 11 October just as a fierce gale erupted. On 17 October she sailed to Norfolk for a refit, and headed for for Bermuda, training en route. She arrived in Grassy Bay on 1 Novembe and patrolled the Bermuda area while the Atlantic saw the USN in practice at war wth Germany after the torpedoing of the USS Kearny and Reuben James and tension building also in the Pacific. CV-7 was back at sea on 3 December, meeting the DD USS Wilson acting as plane guard. Her air group performed night and day exercizes, and gunnery drills. On 7 December 1941 she was back in Grassy Bay when new of Pearl Harbor came.

Atlantic Fleet (Dec 41 - May 1942)


USS Wasp at anchor in Casco Bay, Maine, showing its SBU Vindicator on deck.

The USN admiralty was given a warning -long after the fall of France and Operation Catapult- that French warships refugees in the Caribbean and West Indies could make a breakout, attempting to get back to Vichy France. USS Wasp, escorted by USS Brooklyn, and destroyers Sterett and Wilson was ordered to head for Martinique (French Carribean) while a wrong intelligence report signalled the Vichy French APC Barfleur already at sea. And she was to be sunk or captured unless force to internment again. In reality she was still in harbor, and later the crisis abated as it was realized the interned ships were not a threat.

USS Wasp sailed to Hampton Roads just before Christmas with the escort carrier USS Long Island, and two DDs. She was in Norfolk Navy Yard two days later for a drydock maintenance, and crew leave. Out of it on 14 January 1942, she headed north, off Newfoundland and Casco Bay (Maine) and from 16 March joined Task Group 22.6 (TG 22.6), back south to Norfolk. During the morning watch on the next day, visibility fell to a very low degree and at 06:50 she rammed USS Stack on her starboard. The destroyer had her flak ripped deep, and her first boiler room flooded completely. She was nevertheless able to proceed to Philadelphia Navy Yard for repairs.


Wasp and the heavy cruiser Wichita in Scapa Flow, April 1942.

USS Wasp was back at Norfolk on January 21, to be back at Casco Bay three days later and then heading for British waters 26 March. She was part of Task Force 39 (Rear Admiral John W. Wilcox, Jr.) which raised his mark on USS Washington. The goal was to reinforce the Home Fleet for convoy escorts against an agressive and still string Kriegsmarine. Rear Admiral Wilcox however was swept overboard on the early morning of 27 March, drowned. Four SB2U Vindicators from USS Wasp took part in the search, one crashing while landing back. Wilcox body was eventually spotted one hour later in the raging seas but not recovered due to heavy weather.

Rear Admiral Robert C. Giffen, took command and raised his flag on USS Wichita. On 3 April they met a Brituish force led by HMS Edinburgh, which escorted them to Scapa Flow. This gave to occasion for Captain Henry Fancourt, Royal Navy, to make the first British landing on an American aircraft carrier with his Gloster Gladiator.

TF 39 integrated the Home Fleet and became TF 99, starting the dagnerous trips to North Russia (Musrmansk convoys). USS Wasp sailed out on 9 April, bound for the Clyde, and Greenock, Scotland. She passed the John Brown Clydebank shipyard, and was fested en route by workers there. USS Wasp indeed was to lead an equally dangerous mission, not to the cold waters of Russia but the warmer waters of Malta. She was to transport reinforcement planes there, to try to re-establish air superiority. This was "Operation Calendar".

Spitfires and Wildcats aboard Wasp on 19 April 1942
Spitfires and Wildcats aboard Wasp on 19 April 1942.

Fot this mission she landed her torpedo and dive bombers at Hatston (Orkney), to load in exchange 47 Supermarine Spitfire Mk. V fighters (No. 603 Sqn), at Glasgow on 13 April. She departed the following day, protected by Force "W" (battlecruiser HMS Renown, AA cruisers HMS Cairo and Charybdis) plus VC-7 own destroyers, USS Madison and Lang. They passe Gibraltar in darkness on 19 April and at 04:00, 20 April, she launched 11 Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters to form a combat air patrol (CAP), protecting Force "W". Spitfires were prepared soon, warming up their engines in the hangar below and brought up by elevator to the flight dekc, being given take off go-ahead. They flew towards Malta. Once done, USS Wasp and its escort went back to Gibraltar. The mission success was foiled however as soon as the axis knew about them. They launched a massive air raid and bombed the squadron, just arrived. This was much needed as only three Gladiators and a handful of Hurricanes defended the island.

HMS Eagle accompanies Wasp on her second voyage to Malta
HMS Eagle accompanies Wasp on her second voyage to Malta

Soon, the Admiralty decided for a second ferry run to Malta, under the insistence of Prime Minister Winston Churchill. He asked President Roosevelt to request Wasp again, and it was granted. She would load Spitfire Vs in Glasgow and was back to the Mediterranean on 3 May, accompanied by the carrier HMS Eagle, which also carried a load of Spitfires, loaded at Greenock. This was Operation Bowery. The two carriers, with the same escort, arrived at their launching points on Saturday 9 May at noon. USS Wasp was ahead of Eagle from around 1,000 yards (910 m) and start launching at 06:30 her VF-71 wildcats for the CAP and afterwards her 17 Spitfires, in two waves, and 47 more. The first however (Sergeant-Pilot Herrington) lost power and plunged under and later Pilot Officer Jerrold Alpine Smith relized his auxiliary tank did not worked and he had not enough gasoline to reach Malta. He chose to fly back and attempt a landing, which succeed at 07:43. VC-7 then headed back to the British waters, while her staff was astonished to hear a German radio station broadcast relating her loss. This led to a humorous anecdote, on 11 May when PM Churchill sent to Wasp the following: "Many thanks to you all for the timely help. Who said a wasp couldn't sting twice?"

Pacific


USS Wasp entering Hampton Roads, 26 May 1942, back from the med.

Early in May 1942, the Battle of the Coral Sea was succeeded soon by the decisive Battle of Midway, but these left the USN CV in the pacific down to three vessels, so admiral king decided to transfer USS Wasp. She hurried back to U.S. waters for maintenance, fixes and modifications at Norfolk NyD. Her Captain, Reeves was promoted to flag rank and relieved by Captain Forrest P. Sherman (yes, this one) in the meantime, on 31 May. On 6 June, USS Wasp left Norfolk and joined the center of TF 37, escorted by USS North Carolina, Quincy, San Juan and six destroyers. They transited via Panama on 10 June and the unit became TF 18, under command of Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes. This force arrived in San Diego on 19 June and USS Wasp embarked her last load of planes, the most welcomed Grumman TBF-1 Avengers, plus Douglas SBD-3 Dauntlesses replacing the Devastators and Vindicators respectively. On 1 July, this force sailed to the Tonga Islands, escorted troopships carrying the 2nd Marine Regiment. Preparations were made for the invasion of the Solomon Islands, the first major offensive of the pacific, and even first major amphibious operation of US Forces since the start of the war (next would be Operation Torch in North Africa, covered by USS Ranger).

On 4 July, Independence Day, USS Wasp received news that the Japanese just landed on Guadalcanal and prepared to operate land-based aircraft in the region. This was a threat for the New Hebrides and New Caledonia well. The goal was now to rush Marines to capture the airfield before it becomes operational. Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley took command of the operation, establishing his headquarters at Auckland, New Zealand. Preparations were made with secrecy and speed and Wasp joined USS Saratoga and Enterprise, making Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's Support Force, under tactical overall command of Rear Admiral Noyes, on Wasp.

Guadalcanal Campaign



USS Wasp and her air group trained intensively, including for night operations, Captain Sherman being confident his airmen would perform well. The Operation was to start on 1st August, the some of the troopships were late and it was pushed back to a full week, on 7 August. However in the meantime, again, USS Wasp experience turbines problems, reporting a casualty from a burst of her highly vibrating starboard high-pressure turbine. She was limited to 15 knots, uing only her port engine. The vice admiral now waited for a favorable wind. Meawnhile, her crew performed repairs, and for this lifted the entire turbine casing. The tubine rotor was removed and and deposed on the USS BLEACHER anchored in Tongatapu (Tonga)and destroyer tender USS Whitney. There, engineers estimated a four days work, starting on 18 July up to 21 July. USS Wasp made a trial run afterwards, reaching 27 knots. It was recommended to replace all three rows of blading from the rotor after the operation.

USS Wasp was escorted for the mission by heavy cruisers USS San Francisco and Salt Lake City plus four destroyers. They sailed on the evening of 6 August, changed course eastward for a launch position they reached 84 nm (97 mi; 156 km) from Tulagi, arriving just before dawn. Wasp's CAP was off at 05:57 and soon followed by Dauntlesses, assigned the islands of Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, Halavo, Port Purvis on Florida Island, Haleta, Bungana and its "Asses' Ears" radio station. Dauntlesses were escorted by the Wildcats led by Lt. Shands and his wingman S. W. Forrer. They patrolled noth of Gavatu, othered targeted the seaplane facilities at Tanambogo. Surprise was achieved, and the fighter strafed the base, damaging and set on fire patrol planes and fighter-seaplanes there, in total, 15 Kawanishi H8K "Emily" and 7 Nakajima A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane fighters. Shands himself claimed four "Rufes" and one "Emily". They also destroyed an aviation fuel truck and another with spare parts. Meawnhile, the Dauntless dive bombers suceeded in blating their objectives.

At 07:04, USS Wasp launched her 12 Avengers, loaded with bombs (Lieutenant H. A. Romberg). They targeted Japanese troop concentrations east of Hill 281 (Makambo-Sasapi sector) Tulagi Island prison, to try to free some prisoners. Soon 10,000 Marines landed, meeting only slight resistance. On Tulagi resistance was greaters and the island was still not in US hands at nightfall. USS Wasp, Saratoga, and Enterprise the retired southward at nightfall.

F4Fs launching off Guadalcanal, 7 August 1942
F4Fs launching off Guadalcanal, 7 August 1942.

USS Wasp's fighters (Lieutenant C. S. Moffett) created the usual CAP the following day when the task force was back to protect the transport area on 8 August. 12 SBD Dauntless (Lieutenant Commander E. M. Snowden) meanwhile took off to search on a 220 nautical miles (250 mi; 410 km) area up to the Santa Isabel Island and New Georgia to try to spot possible Japanese vessels. They patrolled for two hours and only sighted a "Rufe" 40 nm from Rekata Bay, shot down. Japanese planes approaching from Bougainville were signalled, bound to Lunga Point and Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner ordered the transports toto move out immediately. VS-71 Dauntless meanwhile where operating against Mbangi Island (Tulagi), and the formation was spotted by a rear gunner, which at first assumed they were friendly until starting firing. VS-71 leader, Lt. (junior) Robert L. Howard also attecked G4M "Betty" medium bombers also inbound, shot down an escorting Zero and chased off others. On 7-8 August in total, USS Wasp's air group had one missing in action (MiA), Ens. Thaddeus J. Capowski, One scout bomber shot down (Lt. Dudley H. Adams, Harry E. Elliott), One fighter crash-landed in the water (pilot recovered), one fighter crashed on deck (injured) and another int the barrier (repaired). Total losses, 3 Wildcat, 1 Dauntless, total claims: 15 flying boats, 8 floatplane fighters, 1 Zero.

On 8 August, Fletcher recommended that the air support was withdrawn, reporting on had 78 fighters left (out of 99) and fuel was running low. Ghormley approved and mission complete, the three CVs retired. Only Gavutu and Tanombogo resisted some more, but on 9 August the Battle of Savo Island saw the sinking of four Allied heavy cruisers, making the Solomons campaign bouncing on the other side. The rest of August was spent in convoys escorts and patrols, until USS Wasp was ordered south by Fletcher to refuel. So she missed the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August. Refuelled and resupplied on 24 August CV-7 was rushed to the battle zone, with onboard 26 F4Fs, 25 SBDs and 11 TBFs. On 25 August, a search mission started, by SBD Dauntlesses. One, (Lt. Chester V. Zalewski) shot down two Aichi E13A1 "Jake" from IJN Atago, Kondō's flagship. The Japanese fleet by now had withdrawn, and at 13:26 on 25 August, USS Wasp launched 24 SBD Dauntlesses plus 10 TBF Avengers to try to search and attack Rear Admiral Raizo Tanaka's convoy bound to Guadalcanal. Apart a flying boat shot down, no ship was spotted. Meawnhile USS Enterprise, damaged had to leave the area for repairs, and USS Saratoga was torpedoed a week later, leaving only two carriers in the southwest Pacific: USS Wasp and the still "green" USS Hornet.

The loss of USS Wasp (15 Sept. 1942)

This Tuesday, 15 September 1942, USS Wasp and Hornet were cruising together, protected by USS North Carolina and 10 other warships, escorting transports (7th Marine Regiment) bound to Guadalcanal. At this point underway, USS Wasp was was 150 nautical miles southeast of San Cristobal Island. Her aircraft were prepared for ASW patrol, whic took off at sunrise and were back at 10:00. A Japanese large flying boat was spotted and downed by one of Wasp's F4F Wildcats at 12:15. At aroundt 14:20, USS Wasp was turning into the wind for the launch of eight F4Fs and 18 SBDs and recover others from the previous patrol. The recovery of 11 aircraft was done and the ship now veered to starboard, heeling when at 14:44 a lookout reported three torpedoes of the starboard beam.

These were just half of a spread of six Type 95 torpedoes was fired at Wasp from the submarine I-19 (BI type). These torpedoes were an improvement of the already amzaing "long lance" type 93, shorter range (but still three times better thn US ones) and the fastest on record during WW2. Immediately, USS Wasp's captain ordered hard to starboard but it was too late, due to their speed of 51 knots (94 km/h, 59 mph). Three of them, hit in quick succession at 14:45. One left the water and struck just above the waterline, the other struck close to gasoline tanks and magazines. Two more were sighted ahead of Wasp, passing astern of Helena before striking USS O'Brien while maneuvering. The sixth narrowly missed USS Lansdowne and struck USS North Carolina at 14:52.

Wasp on fire shortly after being torpedoed.
Wasp on fire shortly after being torpedoed.

The forward section of USS Wasp was rocked by the three hits, Aircraft on the flight and hangar decks were thrown away on the other side so violently that their landing gears snapped. The spare aircraft suspended in the hangar overhead fell dow, crushing personal and planes on the deck. Also fuel lines were ruptured and fire broke out in the hangar and below decks. Heated by the furious gasoline fire, ready ammunition in the forward AA guns starboard blew up, shattering all the forward section while one 1.1 in (28 mm) mount was blown overboard in the process. Water lines needed to combat fire on the forward section had been torned off and rendered inoperable, and fires went on, set off ammunition, bombs, and gasoline in a deadly mix of herrific explosions. Since USS Wasp was listing 10–15° to starboard when manoeuvering, oil and gasoline poured in the water, catching fire, making survival for those jumping overboard more difficult.

Captain Sherman ordered to slow down to 10 knots and the rudder turned to port to get the wind, also to keep the fire forward. But soon after the central fire station was also unusable, communication broke internally, while a fierce gasoline fire continue to wreck the forward part of the ship for 24 minutes, added to three additional gasoline explosions. The captain decided eventually to Abandon ship as fire was out of control. Only those would remain behind to combat the fire as much as they could, while the crew was evacuated. The order was confirmed after consultation by Rear Admiral Noye, at 15:20. Badly injured men were given priority, escaping into rafts and rubber boats and the others simply jumped in the water but it still looks for the admiral "orderly", without panic. Ultimately all the wounded were taken off and the whole process of finding any survivor still inside took 40 minutes. Last to leave were the fire teams. At 16:00 Sherman left the board once communicated there was none left.

Accompanying destroyers supported USS wasp all along, other rushing to chase off the IJN submarine; USS Laffey, Lansdowne, Helena, and Salt Lake City all took onboard the crew, some 1,946 men in all. Given what USS Wasp went though, it was nothing short of remarkable. Still there was a tenuous hope to tow away the CV and save her for the south Pacific Fleet. But four more violent explosions followed at nightfall, and eventually it was estimated even towing the ship was fruitless. USS Lansdowne's captain was ordered to torpedo the carrier and see her going down. However the first two torpedoes were duds. The captain ordered the next three have their magnetic influence exploders disabled, depth set at 10 feet. They all detonated, but it took until 21:00 for the proud carrier to disappear. 193 men died in the explosions, 366 were wounded, but evacuated. Her 26 airborne aircraft at the time made landed on USS Hornet before she sank, the remainder 45 went down with the ship. IJN I-15 nearby reported the sinking of Wasp, but was soon chased off and depth charged, escaping nevertheless. And so ended the short career of USS Wasp, completed and in service before the third of the Yorktown class, USS Hornet (CV-8).

Between operations, she managed to win five awards and two battle stars: The American Defense Service Medal with "A" Device, the American Campaign Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, 1 star Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal and 1 star World War II Victory Medal.

Read More/Src

Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1922-1947
http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/07.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Wasp_(CV-7)
https://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/w/wasp-viii.html
https://www.militaryfactory.com/ships/detail.asp?ship_id=USS-Wasp-CV7
slideshare.net/WKMcIntoshIII/149864116-sternrc2007yorktownclassaircraftcarrierssquadronsignalwarshipsinactionno30?from_action=save
Chesneau, Roger (1998). Aircraft Carriers of the World, 1914 to the Present
Ford, Roger; Gibbons, Tony; Hewson, Rob; Jackson, Bob; Ross, David (2001). The Encyclopedia of Ships.
Friedman, Norman (1983). U.S. Aircraft Carriers: An Illustrated Design History.
Friedman, Norman (2017). Winning a Future War: War Gaming and Victory in the Pacific War.
More photos: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:USS_Wasp_(CV-7)

The modellers's corner:

USS Wasp CV-7 Resin Model Kit, Corsair Armada | No. CAP7011 | 1:700
USS Wasp CV-18 - Lindberg | No. 769M | 1:525
Aircraft Carrier USS Wasp CVS-18 Revell | No. 5009 | 1:530
US Navy Aircraft Carrier WASP Aoshima | No. 01034 | 1:700
Five Star 700117 1/700 WWII USS WASP CV-7 1942 Aircraft Carrier Upgrade Set for Aoshima kit

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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