WW1 Italian Submaines

Italy (1892-1918) - 80 submersibles

An introduction: Italian Submarines in WW1

Italy during WWI operated no less than 21 different types of submersibles, from midgets to 1200 tonnes cruisers. In addition to most being built in the peninsula, some were also purchased abroad, like the H class built in Canada. This lineage started with the 1892 Delfino, a pioneering experiment, and went on until 1919 for some models. On the technological plan, Italy made famous its Laurenti Double-hull construction scheme, which was copied abroad, to the point the Royal Navy did purchase Laurenti boats for evaluation. During the great war, no less than 68 submarines were operationally used, including the British/Canadian W, S and H types, as compared to the 22 that were operational in August 1914. Although it was less than the British or the US which had far superior industrial capabilities, or Germany, which bet its strategy on U-Boats past 1916, this force dwarfed the Austro-Hungarian navy and own submarine force, only 27 units strong. But this small force scared admiral Paolo Taon Di Revel enough to not risk his precious capital ships into the Adriatic, answering by mines, floatplanes, gunboats, MAS-boats and... submarines; They were thought of great value there, and spent indeed a large part of their operational service in this reduced theatre of operations of quiet and crystalline waters. This was a not so quite area of operations though, as the Regia Marina lost seven of them in operations. But their presence nevertheless confined the Austro Hungarian navy to a severely fortified and well-guarded Pola, which was thought impenetrable to submarines, but not to "special crafts" such as the Grillo. But that's another story.

Glauco class at Brindisi, 1918

A technical definition of Italian Submarines

Italy started early on with submarines, much earlier than the Austro-Hungarians, but not as early as pioneers such as the Spaniards, French and Germans which in the late-middle of the XIXth Century already experimented with primitive models. It all started with the Delfino, the result of naval engineer Giacinto Pullino's inspired researches. She had a petrol engine for the surface and electric motor for diving, and was completely rebuilt in 1904, and took her part in the great war. Ansaldo Sestri Ponente NyD
Ansaldo Sestri Ponente NyD

Naval Yards:
RN Delfino was built at La Spezia, which became the main naval yard for submarines. There, submarines were built at the main Royal naval yard and arsenal, or at the Fiat-San Giorgio facilities at Muggiano, Venice Naval Yard (a few ones), Ansado, Sestri Ponente (in Genoa) and Orlando Leghorn, Odero, Sestri and Vickers Terni (also at La Spezia). Odero, Fiat-St Giorgio and Orlando merged in 1927, giving the birth of OTO (Odero-Terni-Orlando), still a major European player in naval systems. A few submarines were also built at Tosi, in Taranto.

Contrary to the Royal Navy, the Japanese Navy, or Austro-Hungarians, Italy did not feel the need to purchase its first models abroad. The country had the engineers and know-how for a home-grown submarine technology. The only exceptions were a single model, RN Atropo, built in 1912 at Germaniawerft in Kiel when Italy was allied with the central Empires. She was ordered in 1911 with Italian specificities to test ideas as well as evaluating German technology at the time. The other exceptions were transfers from the entente power this time, of 'W', 'S' and 'H' types to bolster the submarine force during the war.

Fiat San Giorgio Yard in Muggiano, adverstising postcard showing Laurenti's Hvalen. Src cultureimpresa.it odf about the muggiano yard

The Italians were less inclined to research underwater performances, choosing the more conventional approach of the French and Germans related to submarine design, meaning designing a submersible torpedo boat. Performances when submerged were inferior to that in surface, in a ratio generally of 12/8 knots, while electric power was at least 50% inferior to diesel power for surface operations. In general, FIAT was trusted with the diesel engines, while Ansaldo provided electric motors (or rarely, Savigliano). They were exceptions of course, diesels were also swapped for petrol engines, generally FIAT, but Thornycroft models were used on some boats, Atropo having Krupp diesels and AEG electric motors, or Velella or the Medusa class, MAN diesels, the Nautilus class Sulzer diesels. Tosi yard also rarely delivered diesels, in the case of the "N" class. The "B" class midgets of 1916 had an Itala petrol engine (standard from a car manufacturer) which basically was an auxiliary power as most of the power came from electric motors on the three midget classes (see later).

Plan of the Medusa in 1911, showing the location of the Diesels
Plan of the Medusa in 1911, showing the location of the Diesels. Src

Cesare Laurenti, "father of Italian submarines"

cesare Laurenti Special mention should be given to the designs of engineer Lt. Cdr. Cesare Laurenti.
Major of the Naval Engineers, graduated in naval and mechanical engineering at the Royal Naval School of Genoa on 7 June 1892, Cesare Laurenti was assigned in 1903 to the Royal Arsenal of Venice. In 1892 he became the director of technical experiments for the first Italian submarine, Delfino, driven by a battery-powered electric motor, designed by Giacinto Pullino. His contribution to the design in 1902-1904 was to add a gasoline engine, allowing a large surface cruising range, recharging batteries while underway. A scheme which was novel at the time.

His first serial project was the Glauco class of 1903. His goal was to built the first Italian serie of operational submarines, although still semi-experimental in nature. They were not very successful, but this first step made Laurenti, which designed new submarines until well into the interwar a bit of the "Italian father of submarines". With time, his models emphasises hull's strength to dive deeper, which brought him to develop his trademark double hull design, now a staple of submarine construction for a century. Laurenti was frequently sent abroad to study hulls and engines for submarines and became a "dottore" on the subject, having great influence over the design of Italian submarines during this era.

The submarine Ballila in 1915
The submarine Ballila in 1915 Src

He had indeed dedicated himself with great passion to the studies of submarines since the 1890s. His lobbying for the construction of these models in the Regia Marina and frequent publications in naval reviews stimulated the officers of the Regia Marina into believing this new type of warfare and its promises. In 1905 he became the Technical Director at the Muggiano shipyard of La Spezia, designing the revolutionary Foca, the following Medusa class, the Argonauta and mass-built wartime F-class, well suited for the Adriatic. He also built some in UK, the latter taking the opportunity to test his designs (S class). Laurenti would also direct the construction of submarines sold to other navies, like the Japanese. Their main features were always a strong double hull, internal compartments and plenty of power. He for example designed in 1909-10 the USS G-4 for the US Navy.

Other engineers of the time were G. Pullino (Delfino's engines), Virginio Cavallini (the largest Italian submarines), Edgardo Ferrati (Italian midgets) and Curio Bernardis, probably the most famous Italian submarine designer after Laurenti. He created notably the first Italian minelayer submarines, the X2 class, and went on designing a large part of Italian interwar models.

Blueprint of Balilla

Armament of Italian submarines

Deck guns became a thing only from the Pullino class in 1913, the most common during the war being a 76 mm/30 AA, placed aft on the deck. Exception to this were larger submarines, which had two of them, or mixed caliber. For torpedo tubes, these were invariably the 450 mm model (17.7 in), since the refit of the Delfino in 1902. When Italy started to built submersibles again in 1925, they swapped to the international caliber of 533 mm (21 inches), and bow and stern tubes.

Submarine Zoea
Submarine Zoea

-3-inches/40 (76 mm)
-3-inches/30 AA (76 mm)
-57 mm (12 pdr)
-37 mm (6 pdr) both: Vickers Terni
-450 mm (17.7 in), standard for all Italian submarines
-356 mm (14 in) models (Delfino)

Read More/Src

Gardiner, Robert, Conway's all the world's fighting ship 1906-1921

Prewar Italian Submersibles

Delfino (1892)

submarine Delfino

The very first submersible of the Italian Navy. Dates are foggy about the laying down and launch. 1892 is the generally accepted date, or 1892-95, down to 1889-1890. Completion is certain, 1892. It was designed at first by Engineer Inspector Giacinto Pullino, the design was at first known as the "Delfino-Pullino". Her sea trials took place in La Spezia Naval Yard (if records are right) on 29 April 1892, with a commission on the 1st of April (1896).

Whatever the case, she was given three propellers, one in the horizontal axis and two in the vertical. What is important is its design was completely modified by Cesare Laurenti in 1902. She was made shorter while a petrol engine was added for accelerate diving and surface navigation. Her kiosk was also enlarged, and she was rearmed, from two 14-in to the standard 17.7 in tube. Despite her experimental nature, she did served in WWI.

Delfino, after her refit in 1904.

-Displacement: 95/107 tons - Post-refit: 102/113 tons
-Dimensions: 24.6 x 2.8 x 2.7 m. - Post refit: 24 x 2.8 x 2.5 m.
-Machinery: One Electric motor. Post-refit: +1 shaft petrol motor. 130/65 bhp, 6/5 knots.
-Armament: 2x 14 in (356mm) TTs. Post-refit: 1x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT.
-Crew: 1 officer, 7 sailors. Post-refit: 2+8.

Glauco class (1905)

Glauco, Narvallo, Otria, Squalo, Tricheco
Small submarines designed by Cesare Laurenti, semi-experimental as some modifications were introduced along their construction. Notably their torpedo tubes: RN Glauco had three, the rest two. They were all built in Venice Navy Yard, launched between 1905 and 1909. They were given two shafts FIAT or Thornycroft for Otaria and Trichero. But in any case, these engines were not reliable and a source of danger. Emanations of petrol easy to ignite. For diving they had two Savigliano eletric motors combining 170 hp. They served for harbour defence at Brindisi and Venice and were discarded in 1916 (Glauco), and 1918 for the others.

Glauco class

-Displacement: 95/107 tons - Post-refit: 102/113 tons
-Dimensions: 24.6 x 2.8 x 2.7 m. - Post refit: 24 x 2.8 x 2.5 m.
-Machinery: One Electric motor. Post-refit: +1 shaft petrol motor. 130/65 bhp, 6/5 knots.
-Armament: 2x 14 in (356mm) TTs. Post-refit: 1x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT.
-Crew: 1 officer, 7 sailors. Post-refit: 2+8.

Foca (1908)


This unique submarine was designed by the FIAT-San Giorgio Yards, a development of the Glauco, and first submarine with three shafts and propellers and three sets of FIAT petrol engines for a total of 800 bhp, allowing a top speed of 16 knots, making her the fastest Italian submarine in service. She was launched on 8 September 1908. On 26 April 1909, she suffered an engine explosion which set fire on her fuel tank while testing its powerplant in Naples. The fire became so fierce she was deliberately sunk in the hope to recover her later. She was indeed refloated and towed to la Spezia she was repaired and the powerplant completely changed. The central shaft was eliminated and the new engines developed 600 hp for 160hp underwater, 12/6kts in surface/dive in 1910. This painful experience definitely ruled out pretol engines in the Regia Marina. Foca was in limited harbour service in WW1 and was discarded in 1918.

-Displacement: 185/280 tons - Post-refit: ?
-Dimensions: 42.5 x 4.2 x 2.6 m.
-Machinery: 3 shafts petrol 800 hp, 2 Siemens Electric motors 600/160 bhp, 16/6 knots.
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (457mm) TTs.
-Crew: 2 officers, 15 sailors

Medusa class (1911)

Argo, Fisalia, Jalea, Jantina, Medusa, Salpa, Velella, Zoea.

Designed by Eng. Lt. Cdr. Cesare Laurenti at FIAT-San Giorgio yards, they were the first Italian diesel submarines. They required long trials for design adjustments and were built in various yards: Argo, Jalea, Medusa, and vevella in Fiat-San Giorgio, Fisalia and Zoea in Orlando, Leghorn and Salpa, jantina in Riuniti Yards in Muggiano. They were launched between May 1911 (Velella) and August 1913 (Jalea) and therefore had only a few month of training before WWI broke out. The first, Velella, had a provisional machinery: MAN diesels and Siemens electric motors. Until 1915 they had some more time for adjustments and constituted a true success, widely used during the war. They were very good seaboats including underwater, agility and stability. Jalea was sunk by a mine in the gulf of Trieste on 17.8.1915, while Medusa was sunk off Porto di Piave Vecchia in northern Adriatic by the German UB15, maskeraded as the Austrian submarine U11. Zoea was beached on 26 November 1917 by storm at Rimini, she was salvaged by the Tug Ciclope to be repaired and assisted by Italian TBs. She was towed to Venice in 1st Dec. to be repaired, and resuled service until 1918. Argo at the same time was converted as an assault submarine to fice Pola by using forgmen to cut out the nets and barrages at the entrance. All remainder subs were stricken in 1918.

-Displacement: 248-252 surf. 305 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 45.1 x 4.2 x 3 m.
-Machinery: 2 shafts FIAT diesels, 2 Savigliano electric motors. 650/300 bhp 12/8 kts
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 4 torpedoes
-Crew: 2-3 officers, 19 sailors.

Atropo (1912)

This single submarine was ordered in Germany, then an ally. German data was 237/318t, contractual speed was 12/7.3 kts and her pressure hull was very strongly built, making her the deepest-diving Italian submarine at that point. She also had a very good surface speed and a range to match. The Italians refined in particular her outer casing shape and lines very similar to a torpedo boat, as requested by the RN. Atropo was launched at Germaniawerft on 22.3.1912 and served actively during WW1, stricken in 1919.

-Displacement: 231 surf. 320 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 44.5 x 4.4 x 2.7 m
-Machinery: 2 Krupp diesels, 2 AEG Electric motors, 700/200 bhp, 14.75/8 kts, Range 1300 nm/12.5 kts or 40 underwater at 8 kts
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 4 torpedoes.
-Crew: 2 officer, 12 sailors.

Nautilus class (1913)

Nautilus, Nereide.

These were the first models designed by Engineer Lieutnant Commander Curio Bernardis, a well-known submarine designer in the interwar. He created torpedo-boats capable of diving under water basically, and originally they were to have three torpedo tubes, with one installed on the deck, but it was never mounted. Both were launched at Venice Naval yard in April and July 1913 and were in service when WWI broke out. Nereide service life was rather short: She was sunk on 7 August 1915 near Pelagosa island by the Austrian submarine U-5. Nautilus was discarded in 1919.

-Displacement: 225 surf. 320 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 40.9 x 4.3 x 2.7 m
-Machinery: 2 shafts Sulzer Diesels, 2 Ansaldo electric motor 13.2/8 kts
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 4 torpedoes.
-Crew: 2 officers, 17 sailors.

Pullino class (1913)

Giacinto Pullino, Galileo Ferraris.
These two boats built at La Spezia and launched in July and November 1913 were deigned by Eng. Lt. Cdr Virgilio Cavallini for deep-diving. They were able indeed to reach 50 m underwater and was strongly armed with six torpedo tubes and several guns. In fact they were the first Italian subs with deck guns. They were also the largest submarines, although still classed as "small submarines" (piccolo sottomarino). Giacinto Pullino was sunk on 1.8.1917. She ran aground during the night of 30 to 31 July 1916 at Gadiola island off Suarnaro, sabotaged by her crew as she was to be captured by the Austrians, she sank when in tow to Pola, and was raised on 28 February 1931 by the Italian Navy to be scrapped. Ferraris was beached during the night of 27-28 November 1917 at Magnavacca during a storm. She was salvaged in January 1918 but in such a poor state she was never repaired and stricken in 1919.

-Displacement: 345 surf. 405 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 42.2 x 4.1 x 3.7 m
-Machinery: 2 shafts FIAT diesel 2 Savigliano electric motors.
-Armament: 6 x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 2 bow, 2 stern, 2 external, 57 mm, 37 mm deck guns
-Crew: 2 officers, 19 sailors.

Argonauta (1914)

A single, small submarine designed by Cesare Laurenti at the FIAT-San Giorgio Yards, la Spezia. She was basically an improved Medusa, with additions requested by the Russian Navy which ordered her in 1912 as Svyatoy Georgi. Among others, she had a second periscope, better motors, retractable horizontal rudders, and a signalling gear. However after WWI broke out, a young Lieutenant took possession of the boat, just launched since July. By then she was called N°43 in the yard. The officer with a small group of volunteer intention was to sail her in the Adriatic and sinking Austrian shipping, whereas Italy was still neutral, hoping to force the country to war. As the boat was near Corsica she was stopped by French Authorities and escorted back to Italy. When the country entered the war she was purchased from the Russian government and renamed Argonauta. She served until 1928, quite a long service for a submarine of this generation.

-Displacement: 255 surf. 306 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 45.1 x 4.2 x 3 m
-Machinery: 2 shafts FIAT diesels, 2 Savigliano Electric motors 700/450 hp, 13.5/8.8 kts, range 950 nm/12 kts
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 4 torpedoes.
-Crew: 2 officers, 22 sailors.

Wartime Italian submersibles

F class (1916)

F-1 - F21.

This was the largest class of Italian submarines of the Regia Marina during the war. Small, coastal subs well suited for the adriatic as they could patrol over 1600 nautical miles, they were designed by Laurenti, built in part in San Giorgio yards in La Spezia, Orlando Leghorn and Odero Sestri. F1 was launched on 2.4.1916, F21 in May 1918. The yard previously built for the Brazilian Navy the F1-F5 launched in 1913-15 and the Regia Marina was pleased by the design and ordered a serie of 24 boats. They dive faster, had two periscopes, a gyrocompass, a Fessenden submarine signal gear, and a deckgun, 3-in (76 mm) 30 caliber AA but only carried four torpedoes. They were agile, and designed to prey on opportunity targets in points of known Austrian sorties.

Of the original order, F19-21 were sold to Portugal* and F-22-24 to Spain** while the RN ordered three boats in replacement, F19, 10, 21(ii). F8 sank in trials at La Spezia on 14 February 1917, refloated and back in service by September. F14 which was sunk, rammed by accident by the destroyer Missori during an exercize off Pola in 1928. She was raised and BU. All boats were stricken in the 1920s up to 1935.
*Foca, Golfinho, Hidra
**A1-A3 or Monturiol and Garcia

F-class submersibles
-Displacement: 262 surf. 319 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 45.6 x 4.2 x 3.1 .
-Machinery: 2 shafts FIIAT diesels, 2 Savigliano Electric motors.
-Performances: 670/500 bhp, 12.5/8.2 kts, oil 12 tons, range 1600 nm at 8.5 kts or 80 nm submerged
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 4 torpedoes, 1 x 76 mm/30 AA gun.
-Crew: 2 officers, 24 sailors.

S class (1915)

S1, 2, 3.
The HMS S1

These were Italian-designed boats by Laurenti in San Giorgio Yds, built in UK. They were modified by Scott's Shipbuilding & Engineering co. of Greenock. S1 was launched on 19.5.1915, followed by S2 in September, 20 and S3 on the 26. They repeated the design of the Argonauta with modifications. They served for a year in the Royal Navy before transfer for evaluation and were all stricken in 1919. Specifications as the British S class.

W class (1916)

W1 - W4.
Four boats designed by Arsmtrong Withworth at Newcastle on Tyne, all launched in August 1916 and transferred to Italy. After they were received, a 3-in gun/30 DP was added on their deck. They had poor manoeuvrability and their diesels were unreliable in service. This was the first pair, but the second had not such problems and was quite active in the Adriatic, making numerous war cruisers and sinking Austrian ships. W4 was lost presumably to a mine off cape Rodoni, 4-6 August 1917 and the remainder were stricken in 1919.
Specifications: As British W class, see WWI British subs page

H class (1916)

H1 - H8.
In total contrast to the former W class, these eight boats were ordered by the Italian government to the Electric Boat company of Montreal, Canada and were excellent boats, handy and reliable. This class was also en export success, used by numerous navies. They had very poerful eletric motors allowing for an excellent speed and agility underwater, a characteristic typical of these types. They were also the deepest-diving boats in the RN, at 80 m. It was generally about 50 m for most Italian-built models. but this was of little use in the shallow waters of the Adriatic. They were also fast-firing, able to fire two and reload two other torpedoes in five seconds. No deck gun in WWI but one was installed after the war which service was long and extensive, including WW2. H5 was sunk in error by HMS H1 in southern Adriatic and identification became "HB" for all, in particular for the British and French operating there.
Specifications as British H class. This career in WW2 is out of this scope, just mention H6 sank in Corsica by the Germans after the armistice and H8 by the Luftwaffe in La Spezia.

N class (1917)

N1 - N6.
Small submarines designed by Curio Bernardis, they were improved Nautilus, with a greater displacement, better powerplant, and a deck gun, 3 in/30 DP as usual. Six were built, the first four at Ansaldo, Sesttri and the remaining pair at Tosi in Tarento, some missing the end of the war, launched between September 1917 and September 1918. The Tosi boats were different, faster at 13.56 knots on surface, 7.94 knits underwater, and had a better radius of 750 nm at 12.5 knots, or 1485 nm at 9.5 knots and 17 nm submerged at 7.5 knots, 120 at 2 knots. Construction was slow due to the lack of material available and even more after the end of the war as they were no longer needed. They served until 1928-35.

-Displacement: 277 surf. 363 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 45.8 x 4.2 x 3.1 m
-Machinery: 2 Shafts diesel Sulzer, 2 electric motor.
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 1x 3-in AA
-Crew: 2 officers, 21 sailors.

X2 class minelayer subs (1917)

X1, ex UC1, X-1 - X-2
X3 as completed
X3 as completed

The Italians operated an ex-German submarine during WWI: UC 12, a minelayer type from AG yard in Bremen, launched in December 1916, transferred to the Austrian navy as U24 with a German crew, ans sank on 16 march 1917 off Tarento, presumably hitting one of her own mines. She was raised by the Italian Navy and rebuilt/repaired in tarento Naval yard under the supervision of Bernardis, renamed X1. She was commissioned at the end of 1917 and served until the end of the war and was stricken in 1919.

Her particulars were: 171.2/184 tonnes, 33.6 x 3 x 2.7m, 1 shaft Sulzer diesel, Siemens-Schuckert eletric motor, 80-80/175 bhp, 6/4.5 knots, carryong 6 mine tubes for 12 mines and a 3-in deck gun. This model led curio Bernardis to propose to the Italian admiralty copies of the design to mine the entrance of Pola. They were named naturally X2 and X3, built in Ansaldo Sestri and launched in April and December 1917 on a larger scale. The "X" signified "minelayer" as a denomination. The mine laying system was copied but the rest of the boat was mostly of Italian design. The mine compartment was enlarged, so she carried nine tubes (three more) for a total of 18 mines of the Italian AE1916/125t type. They also had a deck gun of the standard type and in 1918 were fitted with external cage TTs mounted on the main flooded trunk. They were however slow and lacked agility but stayed in service until 1940. They were both laid up on 16 September 1940.

-Displacement: 403 surf. 467 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 42.6 x 5.5 x 3.1 m
-Machinery: 2 shafts Sulzer diesels, 2 Ansaldo Electric motors
-Performances: 650/325 bhp, 8.2/6.3 knots
-Armament: 9x mines tubes, 18 mines, 3-in deck gun
-Crew: 2 officers, 20-23 sailors.

Alfa class Midget subs (1913)

Alfa, Beta.
Alfa July 1913
Small boats built in secret in Venice to survey and guard the harbour entrance. They eventually never entered official service after passing their sea trials. Both were built and launche din venice NyD in 1912-13. They were stricken in 1945-16.

-Displacement: ? circa 10 tons
-Dimensions: 6 m long, 76 cm diameter
-Machinery: 1 electric motor, 8 knots surface
-Armament: Unknown
-Crew: Unknown

A class midget subs (1915)

A1 - A6.
Small boats designed by Eng. Vice admiral Edgardo Ferranti a La Spezia NyD. They were made for the defence of Adriatic harbours such as Venice, Ancona and Brindisi and modular enough to be dismounted and transported by rail. As submarines however they were disappointing, slw and with a poor endurance, and fixed periscope. The class comprised the A1 (launched 17.1.1915) to A6 (11.2.1916), and all were stricken in 1918.

-Displacement: 31.2 surf. 36.7 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 13.5 x 2.2 x 2.3 m.
-Machinery: 1 electric motor 40/60 hp, 6.8/5 kts
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT in external cradles
-Crew: 1 officer, 3 sailors.

B class midget subs (1916)

A1 - A6.
B class midget sub
This was an improvement of the A type, designed by Vice Admiral E. Ferrati and tesying two types of motors, one petrol and one electric in order to improve surface navigation and range. They were also given true hull-mounted tubes. Harbour defence types, with modular construction and rail-transportation capability. The class originally comprised B1 to B6 but the laest three were cancelled in 1917. B1 was launched in 8.7.1916 and B3 on 25.11.1916. They were discarded in 1919.

-Displacement: 40t surf. 45 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 15.1 x 2.3 x 2.5 m.
-Machinery: 1 Itala petrol engine, 1 Savigliano electric motor
-Performances: 85/40-60 hp, 6.9/5 kts range 28 nm 6.9 kts or 9 nm submerged.
-Armament: 2x 17.7 in (450 mm) TTs
-Crew: 1 officer, 4 sailors.

Micca class large subs (1917)

Pietro Micca, Angelo Emo, Luigi Galvani, Loerenzo Marcello, Lazzaro Mocenigo, Torricelli

At some point during the war, the Admiralty expressed the need for larger submarines, since fro the beginning focus has been on cheap, small and coastal models well suited for the Adriatic. But in late 1916 the need for Mediterranean, long range and better armed models began to surface. This led to ahe creation of a committee for new ships in cooperation with the Engineer Liuetennant Virginio Cavallini to relaunch the construction of a 1914 project of large submarines. They were authorized in mid-1917 for the first, Pietro Micca, and five other will follow. Completion took time and even Micca was not operational when the war ended. None took part in operations, and construction dragged on due to the lack of resources in 1917. Galvani and Laorenze were launched in 1918, Marcello, Mocenigo and Emo in 1919. They were originally laid down in venice NyD in June 1914 but their hulls were dismantled and three new hulls laid down at La Spezia under the same names.

They had six TTs, four in the bow, two in the stern, but two more were initially planned, placed on the deck on an external rotative mount like French TTs. They soon gained a poor reputation due to their unreliable FIAT diesels and lack of agility, but recoignised for their great endurance as planned. In 1923 they were partially rebuilt and modernized and stayed in service a few more years, between 1928 and 1937 (Mocenigo). Galvani still existed when WW2 broke out. She was mothballed at La Spezia, then towed to Leghorn to be dismantled in the summer of 1941.

Appearance of the Pietro Micca - from da "I sommergibili italiani" di Paolo M. Pollina - USMM - 1963, per g.c. Sergio Mariotti. SRC

-Displacement: 842 surf. 1244 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 63.2 x 6.2 x 4.2 m.
-Machinery: 2 shafs FIAT(Tsi for Torricelli) diesels, 2 Ansaldo(or Savigliano) Electric motors.
-Performances: 2600-2900 bhp/1300-1800 bhp for 11kts/10.9 kts, oil 60 tons
-Armament: 6x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 1x 3-in/30, 1x 3-in/40
-Crew: 4 officers, 36 sailors.

Balilla Medium sub (1916)

Ballila started as an order from the Germans before the war in 1913. The boat swould have been named U42 if delivered, but she was requisitioned during construction in June 1915 and launched in August at FIAT-San Giorgio Yard or La Spezia. She was given the powerplant later used for the larger Micca boats. Under her new name Balilla, she was one of the best design ever produced by the yard, ans also one which saw one of the most epic fighting action at sea during the war. RN ballila was sunk in the Adriatic, north west of the famous island of Lissa, during a surface artillery duel with the Austrian TBs 65F and 66F.

-Displacement: 728 surf. 875 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 65 x 6 x 4.1 m
-Machinery: As Micca, except 2600-1600/900 hp, 14/9 kts
-Armament: 4x 17.7 in TTs (2 bow, 2 stern, 7 torpedoes), 2x 3-in/30
-Crew: 4 officer, 34 sailors.

Pacinotti class submersibles (1916)

Pacinotti, Guglielmotti.
Launch of Pacinotti at the FIAT-San Giorgio Yard
Launch of Pacinotti at the FIAT-San Giorgio Yard.

The requested German design interested the admiralty which decided to modify it for its own service. And so was born the Pacinotti class at the same yard in La Spezia. They had only three bow TTs (and two stern) but were generally similar to th U42/Ballila design. Both were launched in 1916, March (Pacinotti) and June (Guglielmotti). The latter during her maiden voyage was spotted by HMS Cyclamen, an ASW sloop, which took her for an U-Boat (undertandably). She was gunned and sunk NW of Carpaia island on 10.3.1917, and finished off by ramming. This went far beyond the occasional "friendly fire" and the British ship persisted on the poor boat, which crew was unable to prove its identity.

The truth was discovered way later. Her sister ship Pacinotti did not stayed long in service, she was stricken in 1921, but considered overall a good boat. From 24 March to 4 September 1917 she operated in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, to defend trade links routes in that area and carried out a total of 13 missions between La Maddalena, Livorno and Portoferraio, spending 926 hours at sea. On 7 September 1917, she was deployed to Sicily under orders of the island's Marine Command. She was used for anti-submarine patrols, making ten missions along the coast of Lipari, Ustica, Palermo, Messina, Trapani and Favignana, operating together with the Malamocco, a large unarmed sail and steam boat of 300 GRT, acting as a bait for enemy subarines. On December 20, 1917 she returned to La Spezia, and undergone maintenance work lasting until February 1919. She was used for training at La Maddalena, from February to June 4, 1919.

See also (iT)

-Displacement: 710 surf. 869 tons sub.
-Dimensions: As Ballila
-Machinery: As Micca but 1100/900 bhp 14.6/10.24 kts, 3000 nm/12kts
-Armament: 5x 17.7 in (450 mm) TT, 2x 3-in/30.
-Crew: 4 officer, 35 sailors.

Provana class submersibles (1917)

Andrea Provana, Agostino Barbarigo, Giacomo nani, Sebastiano Veniero

This class of medium to large boats (their almost reached 1,000 tonnes submerged) was the fruit of the collaboration between the celebrated engineer Laurenti and Lt. cdr Cavallini. The four boats were laid down in October 1915 but construction dragged one due to the lack of resources. They were launched between November 1917 (Barabrigo) and September 1918 (Nani) and completed after the war has ended. For the first time, they experimented a new management of batteries, in four watertight compartments under the horizontal deck than ran all the lenght of the vessel. They had quite a powerful powerplant and were ver fast for their day, reaching 10 knots submerged. They could dive to 50 m, but dive fast, and were agile underwater. Nevertheless, the design was not repeated in the interwar. They were discarded in 1925 (Veniero, sunk off Cape Passero due to a collision with SS capena), 1928 or 1935 (Nani). The Provana was not entirely scrapped as her conning tower section was saved and exhibited at the 1928 Turin naval show.

The Conning tower of the Provana, still preserved in Turin
The Conning tower of the Provana, still preserved in Turin

Specifications: -Displacement: 762 surf. 924 tons sub.
-Dimensions: 67 x 5.9 x 3.8 m
-Machinery: 2 FIAT diesels, 2 Ansaldo electric motors.
-Performances: 2600/1400 bhp, 16/9 knots
-Armament: 6x 17.7 in (450 mm, 8 torpedoes) TT, 2x 3-in/40
-Crew: 4 officers, 36 sailors.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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