Hellenic Navy in WW2

The Greeks at sea in WW2

Birth of the Greek Navy

Ancient Greece has been the cradle of naval power in the Mediterranean, inventing most of warships types of the antiquity like the diere and famous triere and the first naval tactics were codified. The Hellenistic states founded by the Diadochi, successors of Alexander the Great would also built the largest galleys ever put at sea. However the country was subjected to Rome, before getting its revenge through the Byzantine Empire up to 1453. After the fall of Constantinople, Greece passed under Ottoman rule. An embryo of Greek Navy emerged from the Independence war of 1821-29, official in 1828.

This was a hotchpotch of converted ships, Xebec-like bricks and wooden gunboats, but nothing up to the scale of a Turkish 3-decker. Against ships of the line, Greek sailors used fire ships, with heroes like Andreas Miaoulis. However only the help from western powers and in particular Russia (and its traditional links to the Byzantines through Orthodox Christianity) turned the tables entirely at the Battle of Navarino in 1827, the last with massive numbers of sailing ships of the line and one of the most decisive.

Hellenic fleet list



Psara
Hellenic Battleship Psara (1888)

Growth until WW1

But the navy really began its buildup from 1850 onwards. Its flagship was for long a Frigate, the Hellas. A second phase of growth began under King George I of Greece, especially after the 1878 nearby Russo-Turkish war. A large naval base was established at Faneromeni of Salamis and a Naval Academy founded, soon under strong influence from the french doctrine. In 1889 indeed, Greece's first battleships Hydra, Spetsai, and Psara were ordered from France. This new fleet was seriously tested in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. It helped establishing its dominance in the Aegean Sea, despite the situation on land. In 1907, the Hellenic Navy General Staff (Γενικό Επιτελείο Ναυτικού) was founded. In response to the Ottoman Fleet own acquisitions and purchased, a new naval race began, Greece ordering from Italy the cruiser Georgios Averof, for long its most potent asset. By 1910, the English style of management, organization and training was adopted, under supervision of Admiral Tuffnel.

Elli
Elli (Hellas), a Cruiser built in the USA, initially for China. By 1941 she has been reclassified as a destroyer

The Greek Navy in the Balkan War

In 1912, conflict erupted again and Rear Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis conducted operations to secure at Mudros and Lemnos the Dardanelles straits. The the Aegean Sea followed soon. In 1913, the situation escalated so much that the Greek government ordered more ships, taking delivery of two pre-dreadnoughts, battleships Lemnos and Kilkis from the US Navy and the light cruiser Elli also built in the USA for China first, a 2,600 ton Greek protected cruiser later reclassified as a destroyer. But most importantly the government ordered its first two dreadnoughts, the Bretagne class Vasilefs Konstantinos and the German-built Salamis, conventional design from AG Vulcan, Hamburg. None of them were delivered because of the Great War.

Early_Salamis_design
Battleship_Salamis_finaldesign
First and second designs of the 20,000 tons Salamis, built in Germany, by Vulkan AG. The ship would eventually be launched in November 1914 but only partially completed when all construction stopped in December. She would never receive her US-built guns, and after a long postwar procedure because the Greek government refuse the incomplete ship, she was awarded to the Shipyard, which eventually have her broken up in 1932.

Battle_of-Elli
Battle of Elli, 16 December 1912, decisive Greek victory

The Greek Navy at the eve of WW1

In August 1914, Greece remains neutral, exhausted from the Balkan war and weary of a possible takeover of the central powers. At that time, the Hellenic Navy was strong enough to take on the Ottoman navy, by a margin, despite the not receiving its numerous orders.
The head of the British Naval Mission that became the Director of the Greek Naval Staff, Sir Mark Kerr, defined a new plan consisting of 3 light cruisers, 34 destroyers, 20 submersibles, 2 airships, 12 seaplanes and naval vessels. Turkish ambitions has been then clearly shown by the attempted purchase of the Rio de Janeiro for the Brazilians then under construction, and a new emergency plan on the eve of the war in this summer of 1914 included two 23,000-ton dreadnoughts, 1 cruiser, 4 destroyers and a submarine. By the time the two Kilkis class battleships bought in the USA arrived in June 1914, they gave Greece a complete naval superiority in the eastern Mediterranean. Here are the detail of this fleet:

RHS_Lemnos1919
RHS Lemnos in 1919, a 1914 acquisition for the US. Both ships would still be in service by 1941.

-5 Battleships: 2 class Kilkis (1905, purchased in the USA in June 1914), three armoured cruisers class Hydra (1889). Projects: Salamis (Germany, 1913, launched November 1914, construction stopped in December 1914), purchase aborted of a Provence class sistership.
-3 Cruisers: Armoured cruiser Giorgios Averof (1910), cruiser Helle (1913), and the old Nauarchos Miaoulis (1879).
-14 Destroyers: 4 class Niki (1906), 4 class Thyella (1906), 4 class Aetos (1911), 2 class Keravnos.
11 TBs: 6 Class Aigli, 5 class NF11 (1885).
20 Miscellaneous: 2 submersibles class Delfin (1911), Minelayers Tenedos (1906), 3 class Aigialeia (1881). 4 Gunboats class Achelaos (1884), 2 class Ambrakia (1881), 2 class Kissa (1884), 3 class Alfa (1880), 2 class Plixavra (1858), training ship Basilissa Olga.
Also planned later: dreadnought battleships Basileus Konstantinos, Katsonis class cruisers.

Naval operations

With the beginning of the war it became clear that the orders started in Germany and France would never see the light of day. Sir Mark Kerr, tried to get the British to finance a Valiant-type battleship and a Southampton cruiser, with a deferred payment at the end of the war, but without much success. Greece stayed neutral at the beginning of the Great War, but constantly solicited by Churchill to assist the Royal Navy and the French Navy at the Dardanelles, even while Bulgaria was on his side. But internal political turmoil between a pro-German faction in the court of Constantine I and sympathizers of the Allied caused eventually the French to seize the entirety of the Greek fleet on 19 October 1916 to guarantee this neutrality. Some units passed under the French flag and control but with limited crew for maintenance.

Giorgios-Averof
Armoured cruiser Giorgios Averoff, named after the Tycoon that financed her for the Greek Government.

After French troops landed at Salonica, a new provisional government hostile to the Monarchy was established, and Alexander I eventually abdicated in favor of his more liberal son Georges II. On July 2, 1917, Greece entered the war against the triple alliance, lending its ports to allied ships. With the surrender of Turkey in 1918, the Greek government saw the means of appropriating lands of the Ottoman Empire. On May 15, 1919, the fleet deployed and Greek troops landed in Asia Minor, seizing Western Anatolia and Izmir. The Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 confirmed the possession acquired in the Aegean Sea, but the Turkish counter-offensive finally forced the Greeks to leave Turkey at the end of 1922.

Averof_painting_1919_Bosporus
Averoff in the Bosporus, 1919

The Hellenic Navy in the interwar

Modernization was needed, but Greece went through a politically turbulent period, and was hit by the world financial crisis with an economy already in a bad state. The Navy had to make due with the adoption of only new submarines and new destroyers, with three main suppliers: France, Italy and UK. The motto eventually adopted would be Μέγα το της θαλάσσης κράτος - Méga to ti̱s thalássi̱s krátos "The rule of the sea is indeed a great matter" which relates to the famous words of Themistocles. Her flagship remains the Giorgios Averoff, last representation of an obsolete type, and the two pre-dreadnoughts of the Kilkis class reclassified as coastal battleships. Only in 1938 a radical step was taken, in an atmosphere of war weariness, with the adoption in UK of four destroyers of the Greyhound class (2 delivered). But there was nothing as ambitious as the 1913 naval plan. No major unit, cruiser or dreadnought was ordered because of a limited budget. Therefore neutrality was the only possible course.

The Hellenic Navy at the eve of WW2

Hellenic Navy 1941
Poster showing all the types in service with the Hellenic Navy in 1941.

The traditional enemy of Greece, Turkey ordered 4 submarines and 4 destroyers, which added to the existing formidable Yavuz, former German battlecruiser Goeben, last existing example of such type of ship. She completely outclassed the Averoff, but still the guns and armour of the Kilkis class were a match in case she approached the coast enough.

Order of battle in 1941

On paper, the fleet consisted of 2 battleships, 1 armoured cruiser, 14 destroyers, and six submarines. In reality four of the oldest "destroyers" could have been re-classed as torpedo boats. The Helli (former protected cruiser, US-built, 1910) had been sunk indeed before the war on 15.8.1940.

-Armoured Cruiser Giorgios Averoff (1910) (default flagship)
-2 Battleships class Kilkis (Kilkis and Lemnos, 1905 American-built pre-dreadnoughts)
-14 Destroyers:
-6 Submarines: 4 Class Proteus, 2 class Katsonis, all French-built (1926-27).
-7 Torpedo-Boats: 5 class P/K (former Tb 82F Austro-Hungarian types), Aigi class (2, 1913).
-2 MTBs (Thornycroft CMB 1929 type, T1 class). T3-6 from Vosper were requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1940 and 1941.
-4 Minelayers (auxiliary ships 1906-1926): Tenedos, Korgialenos, Paralos, Pleias. (see detail below)

Hydra
Drawing of the Ydra (wikipedia)

Naval Operations in 1941

Neural, Greece was however soon at war with Italy, seeing an easy conquest in the winter of 1940. The offensive commenced on 28 October 1940 and looked promising on paper, but proved an humiliation for Mussolini: 140,000 troops launched in Albania being poorly led and equipped soon ran into troubles by the weather, mountainous terrain and expert Greek counter-attack and guerilla warfare. This became quickly the stuff of legend and pride for the Greeks. The Greeks completely reversed the table with the capture of Klisura Pass in January 1941, launching a reconquest offensive, which was only stopped by Italian reinforcements of 28 divisions, and Spring Offensive in 1941, which only led to a February stalemate. Not willing to see her ally in such position, and seeing strategic assets for the control of the Mediterranean, Hitler unleashed his Panzerdivisions in the Balkans in April, 6.

Kilkis_under_air_attack_in_April_1942
Greek battleship Kilkis under attack by German JU 87 dive bombers, at the Greek naval base at Salamis, 23 April 1941. In the lower left, in the floating drydock, is the destroyer Vasilefs Georgios. The floating dock and destroyer were also sunk, but Vasilefs Georgios was subsequently raised and placed in service by the German Navy as Hermes (ZG-3). Photograph and some caption information were provided by Franz Selinger. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Kilkis-Lemnos_after-Piraeus-Air-attack
Aftermath of the attack at Piraeus, Kilkis and Lemnos in the background.

On the naval side, this started badly for Greece, even before the war: On 15 August 1940, Greek destroyer Elli has been sunk by the Italian submarine Delfino in Tinos harbour. Mussolini and Domenico Cavagnari (Navy's Head) allowed indeed submarine attacks on neutral shipping prior to the attack. Another Greek ship was bombarded by Italian planes in Crete.

The Navy took over convoy escort missions in the Ionian Sea but conducted also conducted three raids against Italian supply convoys in the Strait of Otranto. Submarines became quickly the stars of the show, sink several Italian cargo ships in the Adriatic, without much response for the Italians, ill-prepared for ASW warfare.

Painting_the_Guns_on_Board_the_Greek_Submarine_Papamicolis
Greek Submarine Papamicolis, 30 Oct- Nov 1942 Beiruth, Syria.

The Royal Hellenic Navy (RHN) was totally outclassed by the more modern and larger Regia Marina. So the RHN avoided any direct naval confrontation. Patrol and convoy escort duties was the only possible course, displacing large quantities of matériel, and about 80,000 mobilized men, 100,000 mules moved by sea during in total. There were limited operations against Italian shipping, concentrated in the Strait of Otranto with submarines. Total: 23,000 long tons (23,000 t) of Italian shipping sunk (7 cargo ships, one escort vessel) for the loss of one submarine. However at no point the RHN was able to seriously hinder supply lines between Italy and Albania. Until 30 April 1941 Italian ships 3,305 voyages across the Otranto straits (487,089 personal or 22 field divisions, 584,392 tons of supplies). Destroyers also carried daring night raids on 14 November 1940, 15 December and 4 January 1941, but without much results.

RHN Vasilissa Olga
Destroyer RHN Vasilissa Olga

When the British entered the fray against the Strait of Otranto on 12 November, they played as a decoy force, driving attention westwards. Ultimately the Regia Marina would see half its capital ships out of action at Taranto (11–12 November). Nevertheless, Italian cruisers and destroyers went on in their escort missions with Albania. Corfu was bombarded by the Regia Aeronautica, and on 18 December and 4 March, Greek coastal positions were shelled and destroyed in Albania. From January 1941, the RHN was concentrating in escorting convoys for Operation Excess British reinforcements from Alexandria, in co-operation with the Royal Navy. The only Italian sortie against it degenerated in the Battle of Cape Matapan on 28 March and ending with the greatest Italian naval defeat at sea of the war.

Losses in operations included:
-Battleships of the Kilkis class: Both sunk in Piraeus harbor by the Luftwaffe 23.4.1941
-Destroyer Thyella: Sunk by Luftwaffe, April 1941
-Destroyer Leon (Aetos class) sunk Suda bay 22.4.1941
-Destroyers Psara (13.4.1941) and Ydra (22.4.1941)
-Submarine Proteus 19.12.1940
-TBs class P/K: Kios, Kyzikos, Pergamos, Kydonia, Proussa.
-All four Minelayers. Three later salvaged and reused by the Germans
-Both T1 MTBs sunk in 1941

The bulk of the fleet was sunk by April German air attacks. Stukas proved just as deadly as they were for the RN in this theater of operations, especially over Crete. Piraeus attack was like a mini pearl harbour.


Giorgio Averoff in the Indian Ocean, with its camouflage livery, 1942.

At war with the allies 1942-45

Despite the Axis occupation of Greece (Germany, Bulgaria and Italy), and growing partisan operations from 1942, reaching in peak in 1944, the Hellenic Royal Navy went on on the sides of the allies. Destroyers Aetos and Panther served as minelayers while together with the Lerax served under RN colors and control until the end of the war. Surviving ships, Georgios Averof, three destroyers and five submarines after 1941 joined the Mediterranean Royal Navy at Alexandria and went on soldiering until 1945 with further losses, but also many acquisitions that bolstered its forces.

HHMS Adrias in service (IWM FL192)
HHMS Adrias in service (IWM FL192)

New acquisitions :
As men were willing to fight and available, reaching the allies one way or another, the concession of several destroyers and submarines by the British Royal Navy to RHN could receive crews. The most notable Greek destroyer was the Vassilissa Olga, although sunk in Leros on September 23, 1943, was possibly one of the most successful Allied destroyer in the Mediterranean. Destroyer Adrias's prow was blown off Kalymnos in October 1943 by a mine, but she managed to return to Alexandria in a 400-mile (640 km) trip after summary repairs a feat performed by the captain and crew. Two Greek destroyers also participated in Operation Overlord.

-Destroyers Navarinon and Salamis transferred in 1944
-Escort destroyers Adrias, Krite, Miaoulis, Pindos, Kanaris, Themistocles
-Corvettes Apostolis, Kriezis, Sakhtouris, Tompazis
-Submarines Amfitriti, Xifias, Pipinos, Delfin
-12 BTMS (ASW crafts, US-built, ex-British), MMS Tinos.
-Sub-chaser Vasilefs Giorgios II (ex. PC622), LST Khios, Lemnos, Lesvos, and Samos (ex. LST-35-33, 36, 37), still extant in the 1980s (one purchased back by the US Navy for preservation).
It should be added that Greek crewmen also served in a large array of small British auxiliaries, drifters, trawlers and whalers converted as ASW and patrol vessels.

New losses :
-Destroyers Vasilefs Giorgios (scuttled 7.5.1943), Vassilissa Olga (sunk 26.9.43)
-Submarine Katsonis, Gavkos, Triton.
-Ex-British escort destroyer Adrias
-BYMS Kos (ex. 2191 mined off Piraeus 15.10.1944)

Links, sources, Read more

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenic_Navy
naval-encyclopedia.com/ww1/pages/various/greece/grece1914.htm
Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860-1905, 1906-1921, 1922-1947.
(Part II to follow: Detail of the ships, class by class and individual careers)

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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